The Power of Information

National Drinking Water Database


National Drinking Water Database - Chemical Contaminants

Dicamba


Status: Unregulated - EPA has not established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

Dicamba is an herbicide applied in agriculture, rangeland, pasture and industry; it is used for corn, wheat and other crops. [read more]

 
Detected
Found above
health guidelines
Found above
legal limit
States
11
-
-
Water utilities
34
-
-
People Served
892,935
-
-

Health Concerns for Dicamba:


Dicamba Exposure by State

Water utilities in 11 states have reported detecting Dicamba in treated tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies.

StateWater Suppliers with Dicamba contamination
SystemsPopulation
Nebraska5271,422
New Jersey1217,230
Delaware1201,000
Illinois584,156
Maryland1170,407
California217,110
Wisconsin315,025
Massachusetts311,150
North Carolina12,500
Maine12,135
New York1800
Total34892,935

The Most Polluted Communities

34 water utilities reported detecting Dicamba in tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies

Ranked by highest average Dicamba level

RankSystem Population Served Positive test results of total reported tests Average Level
(Range)
1City of North Bend
North Bend, NE
1,2971 of 24.75 ppb
(0 to 9.5 ppb)
2Mci Shirley Prerelease Center
Shirley, MA
3,5002 of 53.86 ppb
(0 to 18.5 ppb)
3Cedar-Knox Rwd
Hartington, NE
2,2001 of 22.35 ppb
(0 to 4.7 ppb)
4Country Acres Mhp (La Salle County)
Des Plaines, IL
2951 of 21.65 ppb
(0 to 3.3 ppb)
5Shirley Water District
Shirley, MA
3,8501 of 21.11 ppb
(0 to 2.23 ppb)
6Rutland Water Department
Rutland, MA
3,8001 of 40.78 ppb
(0 to 3.1 ppb)
7Decatur
Decatur, IL
81,8601 of 10.71 ppb
(0.71 ppb)
8City of Lincoln
Lincoln, NE
203,0001 of 50.6 ppb
(0 to 3 ppb)
9City of Grand Island
Grand Island, NE
40,0361 of 60.27 ppb
(0 to 1.6 ppb)
10Town of White Lake
White Lake, NC
2,5001 of 50.26 ppb
(0 to 1.3 ppb)

Health Based Limits for Dicamba

StandardDescriptionLevel
Health-Based Screening LevelA benchmark concentration of contaminants in water that may be of potential concern for human health, if exceeded. For noncarcinogens, the HBSL represents the contaminant concentration in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse effects over a lifetime of exposure. For carcinogens, the HBSL range represents the contaminant concentration in drinking water that corresponds to an excess estimated lifetime cancer risk of 1 chance in 1 million to 1 chance in 10 thousand. Source: U.S. Geological Survey.3000 ppb
Lifetime health-based limit, non-cancer riskConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects for a lifetime of exposure. The Lifetime health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is based on exposure for a a 70-kg adult consuming 2 liters of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.4000 ppb
Drinking Water Equivalent LevelA lifetime exposure concentration protective of adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects, that assumes all of the exposure to a contaminant is from drinking water. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.18000 ppb

Testing Summary for Dicamba

Are tests routinely required for Dicamba by federal law?No
Water suppliers reporting tests for Dicamba (2004-2009):12,692 of 47,576
Average testing rate for water supplier reporting tests (2004-2009):0.4 per year

Endocrine disruption

Type of concern: Reference:
Possible human disruptor FDA Food Additive Status

Cancer

Type of concern: Reference:
Cancer - moderate evidence - immune system CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 1990
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Tsitologiya i Genetika 1982
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 2007
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- National Technical Information Service 3226

Occupational hazards

Type of concern: Reference:
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to low doses European Union - Classification & Labelling

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

Type of concern: Reference:
Limited evidence of eye toxicity European Union - Classification & Labelling
Classified as toxic or harmful European Union - Classification & Labelling
One or more animal studies show classified as toxic effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs

Developmental/reproductive toxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
Limited evidence of developmental toxicity US EPA, 1788
Limited evidence of reproductive toxicity Frazier , L, 1998

Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)

Type of concern: Reference:
Classified as irritant European Union - Classification & Labelling

Ecotoxicology

Type of concern: Reference:
Wildlife and environmental toxicity European Union - Classification & Labelling

Multiple, additive exposure sources

Type of concern: Reference:
Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in food FDA Food Additive Status



Government, industry, academic studies and classifications

government/industry list/academic study appears on list as classification(s)
European Union - Classification & LabellingDICAMBA•Harmful
•Harmful if swallowed
•Irritant (eyes, skin, or lungs)
•Risk of serious damage to eyes
•Harmful to aquatic organisms
FDA Food Additive StatusDICAMBA• Food additive: herbicide
• Food additive: food additive for which a petition has been filed and a regulation issued
• Tolerances for Residues - 40 Code of Federal Regulations 180.227
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs3,6-DICHLORO-2-METHYOXYBENZOIC ACID•Toxic, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Toxics Release Inventory programs
US EPA, 1788DICAMBA•Developmental toxicity hazards: suspected
Frazier , L, 1998DICAMBA•Reproductive toxicity hazards: suspected
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 1990DICAMBA• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage (rat ipr)
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Unscheduled DNA Synthesis (rat lym)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 2007DICAMBA• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage (hamster ovr)
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Sister Chromatid Exchange (hamster ovr)
RTECS®- National Technical Information Service 3226DICAMBA• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA repair (Escherichia coli )
RTECS®- Tsitologiya i Genetika 1982DICAMBA• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis (mouse unr)



references

government/industry list/academic study reference
European Union - Classification & LabellingCPS&Q (Consumer Products Safety & Quality) formely known as ECB (European Chemicals Bureau). 2008. Classification and Labelling: Chemicals: Annex VI of Directive 67/548/EEC through the 31st ATP.
FDA Food Additive StatusFDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration) 2006. Food Additive Status List. Downloaded from http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/%7Edms/opa-appa.html, Oct 16, 2006.
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1999. Toxics Release Inventory Program. PBT Chemical Rule.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationUS EPA. Addition of Certain Chemicals; Toxic Chemical Release Reporting; Community Right to Know. Proposed and Final Rules. 59 Federal Register 1788 (Jan 12, 1994); 59 Federal Register 61432 (November 30, 1994). Summarized in Hazard Information on Toxic Chemicals Added to EPCRA Section 313 Under Chemical Expansion. http://www.epa.gov/tri/chemical/hazard_cx.htm
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationFrazier , L. and M. L. Hage (eds.). Reproductive Hazards of the Workplace, Wiley Europe, 1998. Table 10 (Partial List of Reproductive Toxicants) available at http://www.pharmacy.ohio-state.edu/homepage/safety/chemhygiene_table_repro.pdf.
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 1990RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.10- 15,131,1990
RTECS®- Mutation Research 2007RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 634,60,2007
RTECS®- National Technical Information Service 3226RTECS®- National Technical Information Service. (Springfield, VA 22161) Formerly U.S. Clearinghouse for Scientific & Technical Information. PB80-133226
RTECS®- Tsitologiya i Genetika 1982RTECS®- Tsitologiya i Genetika. Cytology and Genetics. For English translation, see CYGEDX. (V/O Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, 113095 Moscow, USSR) V.1- 16(1),45,1982

"RTECS®" is a United States trademark owned and licensed under authority of the U.S. Government, by and through MDL Information Systems, Inc.