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National Drinking Water Database


National Drinking Water Database - Chemical Contaminants

Di-n-butylphthalate


Status: Unregulated - EPA has not established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

Di-n-butylphthalate is an industrial solvent or additive used in many consumer products such as nail polish, cosmetics, some printing inks, pharmaceutical coatings, cleaning products and insecticides. [read more]

 
Detected
Found above
health guidelines
Found above
legal limit
States
15
-
-
Water utilities
187
-
-
People Served
4,646,990
-
-

Health Concerns for Di-n-butylphthalate:


Di-n-butylphthalate Exposure by State

Water utilities in 15 states have reported detecting Di-n-butylphthalate in treated tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies.

StateWater Suppliers with Di-n-butylphthalate contamination
SystemsPopulation
New Jersey203,169,609
Arkansas64559,074
California5266,378
Delaware11228,546
Maine13146,948
Florida158,000
New Mexico151,983
Missouri1549,827
Rhode Island438,050
Iowa1732,990
Washington727,753
New Hampshire189,260
Texas85,377
Nevada23,070
Wisconsin1125
Total1874,646,990

The Most Polluted Communities

187 water utilities reported detecting Di-n-butylphthalate in tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies

Ranked by highest average Di-n-butylphthalate level

RankSystem Population Served Positive test results of total reported tests Average Level
(Range)
1Wellman Municipal Waterworks
Wellman, IA
1,3931 of 1120 ppb
(120 ppb)
2Muscatine Power & Water
Muscatine, IA
23,1021 of 165 ppb
(65 ppb)
3Prairie View Estates Hoa
Iowa City, IA
1551 of 163 ppb
(63 ppb)
4Hadleys Lake Apartments
Portland, ME
451 of 132 ppb
(32 ppb)
5Stoney Creek North
Davenport, IA
504 of 412.18 ppb
(7.1 to 21 ppb)
6Loring Utilities
Limestone, ME
1,4091 of 19.7 ppb
(9.7 ppb)
7Sandy Ridge Estates
Ossipee, NH
1251 of 18.8 ppb
(8.8 ppb)
8Searsport Water District
Searsport, ME
2,4501 of 18.1 ppb
(8.1 ppb)
9Bastrop County Wcid 1
Mc Dade, TX
6361 of 17.8 ppb
(7.8 ppb)
10Tuckerman Waterworks
Tuckerman, AR
1,9441 of 16.86 ppb
(6.86 ppb)

Health Based Limits for Di-n-butylphthalate

StandardDescriptionLevel
Health-Based Screening LevelA benchmark concentration of contaminants in water that may be of potential concern for human health, if exceeded. For noncarcinogens, the HBSL represents the contaminant concentration in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse effects over a lifetime of exposure. For carcinogens, the HBSL range represents the contaminant concentration in drinking water that corresponds to an excess estimated lifetime cancer risk of 1 chance in 1 million to 1 chance in 10 thousand. Source: U.S. Geological Survey.700 ppb
EPA Human Health Water Quality CriteriaWater quality criteria set by the US EPA provide guidance for states and tribes authorized to establish water quality standards under the Clean Water Act (CWA) to protect human health. These are non-enforceable standards based upon exposure by both drinking water and the contribution of water contamination to other consumed foods. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.2000 ppb
Drinking Water Equivalent LevelA lifetime exposure concentration protective of adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects, that assumes all of the exposure to a contaminant is from drinking water. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.4000 ppb

Testing Summary for Di-n-butylphthalate

Are tests routinely required for Di-n-butylphthalate by federal law?No
Water suppliers reporting tests for Di-n-butylphthalate (2004-2009):2,662 of 47,576
Average testing rate for water supplier reporting tests (2004-2009):0.4 per year

Endocrine disruption

Type of concern: Reference:
Human endocrine disruptor - strong evidence European Commission on Endocrine Disruption
Limited evidence of endocrine disruption BKH/European Commission, 2000
One or more animal studies show endocrine system disruption at high doses RTECS®- Gigiena i Sanitariya 1968
One or more animal studies show endocrine system disruption at high doses RTECS®- National Technical Information Service 0401
One or more animal studies show endocrine system disruption at high doses RTECS®- Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 1977
endocrine - weight of evidence unknown/unassessed/unreview: published lit review or major tox study Illinois EPA Chemicals Associated with Endocrine System
endocrine - weight of evidence unknown/unassessed/unreview: published lit review or major tox study Our Stolen Future Endocrine Disruptors

Developmental/reproductive toxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
Possible human developmental toxicant California EPA Proposition 65
Limited evidence of reproductive toxicity European Union - Classification & Labelling
Limited evidence of reproductive toxicity National Library of Medicine HazMap
Limited evidence of developmental toxicity Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2004
Limited evidence of reproductive toxicity US EPA, 9204
One or more animal studies show reproductive effects at high doses RTECS®- Weisheng Dulixue Zazhi 1989
One or more animal studies show reproductive effects at high doses RTECS®- Congenital Anomalies 1999
One or more animal studies show reproductive effects at high doses RTECS®- Toxicology 1994
One or more animal studies show developmental effects at high doses RTECS®- Toxicology 1994
One or more animal studies show reproductive effects at high doses RTECS®- Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 1973
One or more animal studies show reproductive effects at high doses RTECS®- Toxicology Letters 1993
One or more animal studies show developmental effects at high doses RTECS®- Toxicology Letters 1993
One or more animal studies show reproductive effects at high doses RTECS®- Toxicological Sciences (Oxford University Press, 6277 Sea Harbor Drive, Orlando, FL 32887 ) V 1998
One or more animal studies show developmental effects at high doses RTECS®- Toxicological Sciences (Oxford University Press, 6277 Sea Harbor Drive, Orlando, FL 32887 ) V 1998
One or more animal studies show reproductive effects at high doses RTECS®- JAT, Journal of Applied Toxicology 1997
One or more animal studies show developmental effects at high doses RTECS®- JAT, Journal of Applied Toxicology 1997
One or more animal studies show reproductive effects at high doses RTECS®- Reproductive Toxicology 2000
One or more animal studies show reproductive effects at high doses RTECS®- Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 1972
One or more animal studies show reproductive effects at high doses RTECS®- EHP, Environmental Health Perspectives 1973
One or more animal studies show reproductive effects at high doses RTECS®- Osaka-furitsu Koshu Eisei Kenkyusho Kenkyu Hokoku, Shokuhin Eisei Hen 1977
One or more animal studies show reproductive effects at high doses RTECS®- EHP, Environmental Health Perspectives 1982
One or more animal studies show reproductive effects at high doses RTECS®- Teratogenesis, Carcinogenesis, and Mutagenesis 1987
One or more animal studies show reproductive effects at high doses RTECS®- Toxicology Letters 1980
One or more animal studies show reproductive effects at high doses RTECS®- Toxicology Letters 1982
One or more animal studies show reproductive effects at high doses RTECS®- Toxicologist 1998
One or more animal studies show reproductive effects at high doses RTECS®- Environmental Research 1980
One or more animal studies show reproductive effects at high doses RTECS®- Pharmacology and Toxicology (Copenhagen) 2001

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

Type of concern: Reference:
Known human respiratory toxicant EPA Hazardous Air Pollutants
One or more animal studies show effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) EPA Categorized List of Inert Pesticide Ingredients
One or more animal studies show classified as toxic effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs
One or more animal studies show gastrointestinal effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) RTECS®- Schweizerische Medizinische Wochenschrift 1954
One or more animal studies show kidney or renal system effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) RTECS®- Schweizerische Medizinische Wochenschrift 1954
One or more animal studies show broad systemic effects at high doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) RTECS®- Weisheng Dulixue Zazhi 1991
One or more animal studies show metabolic effects at high doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) RTECS®- Gigiena i Sanitariya 1968
One or more animal studies show liver effects at high doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) RTECS®- National Technical Information Service 0401
One or more animal studies show metabolic effects at high doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) RTECS®- National Technical Information Service 0401
One or more animal studies show liver effects at high doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) RTECS®- National Toxicology Program Technical Report Series 3353
One or more animal studies show kidney or renal system effects at high doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) RTECS®- National Toxicology Program Technical Report Series 3353
One or more animal studies show blood effects at high doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) RTECS®- National Toxicology Program Technical Report Series 3353
reproductive - weight of evidence unknown/unassessed/unreview: published lit review or major tox study National Library of Medicine HazMap
Classified as not expected to be potentially toxic or harmful Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
Classified as a low human health priority Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Persistence and bioaccumulation

Type of concern: Reference:
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife OSPAR PBTs - Substances of Possible Concern
Not suspected to be persistent Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
Not suspected to be bioaccumulative Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Allergies/immunotoxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
Limited evidence of immune system toxicity or allergies National Library of Medicine HazMap

Occupational hazards

Type of concern: Reference:
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to moderate doses RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2005
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to moderate doses RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2006
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to moderate doses RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007

Cancer

Type of concern: Reference:
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 2000
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1977
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 2000
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Teratogenesis, Carcinogenesis, and Mutagenesis 2001
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 1985
Cancer - not classifiable/not likely to be human carcinogen EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

Neurotoxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
One or more animal studies show brain, nervous system, or behavioral effect effects at moderate doses RTECS®- Schweizerische Medizinische Wochenschrift 1954
One or more animal studies show brain, nervous system, or behavioral effect effects at high doses RTECS®- Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 1973

Biochemical or cellular level changes

Type of concern: Reference:
One or more animal studies show biochemical changes at high doses where the human health implications are not yet well understood RTECS®- Gigiena i Sanitariya 1968

Ecotoxicology

Type of concern: Reference:
Wildlife and environmental toxicity European Union - Classification & Labelling
Wildlife and environmental toxicity EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants
Wildlife and environmental toxicity Illinois EPA Chemicals Associated with Endocrine System
Suspected to be an environmental toxin Environment Canada Domestic Substance List



Government, industry, academic studies and classifications

government/industry list/academic study appears on list as classification(s)
European Union - Classification & LabellingDIBUTYL PHTHALATE•May be toxic to the reproductive system
•May cause harm to the unborn child
•Limited evidence of reproductive toxicity
•Possible risk of impaired fertility
•Dangerous for the environment
•Very toxic to aquatic organisms
Cosmetic Ingredient Review AssessmentsDIBUTYL PHTHALATE•Safe as used in cosmetics according to industry panel (Cosmetic Ingredient Review, CIR)
•Maximum reported "as used" concentration is basis of safety assessment by industry safety panel (Cosmetic Ingredient Review, CIR) - implicit safe concentration limit in product
EPA Clean Water Act - Priority PollutantsDIBUTYL PHTHALATE•Priority water pollutant under the Clean Water Act
Environment Canada Domestic Substance List1,2-BENZENEDICARBOXYLIC ACID, DIBUTYL ESTER•This chemical was NOT flagged by CEPA for further attention. The chemical was flagged as a low human health priority and for suspected aquatic toxicity.
Illinois EPA Chemicals Associated with Endocrine SystemDI-N-BUTYL PHTHALATE•EPA: suspected endocrine disruptor
EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)DIBUTYL PHTHALATE•Group D: Not classifiable as to human carcinogenicity (EPA classification)
European Commission on Endocrine DisruptionDI-N-BUTYLPHTHALATE (DBP)HH-CAT1;WF-CAT3
European Union - Banned or Restricted in CosmeticsDIBUTYL PHTHALATE•Prohibited in EU cosmetics: must not form part of the composition of cosmetic products
IFRA Fragrance Ingredient ListDIBUTYL PHTHALATE•The chemical has been reported as used in fragrance compounds by IFRA affiliated member companies in 2008.
EPA Hazardous Air PollutantsDIBUTYLPHTHALATE•Hazardous air pollutant under Clean Air Act
National Library of Medicine HazMapDIBUTYL PHTHALATE•Skin Sensitizer - An agent that can induce an allergic reaction in the skin or lungs: Yes;
•Reproductive Toxin - A chemical that is toxic to the reproductive system, including defects in the progeny and injury to male and female reproductive function: Yes;
•PEL (OSHA) - Permissible exposure limit (OSHA): 0.43 ppm;
•LC50 - Lethal concentration in 50% of animals tested: 40000 ppm;
•TLV (ACGIH) - Threshold limit value (ACGIH): 0.43 ppm;
•Flammability (NFPA) - NFPA flammability code: 0 = will not burn; 1 = must be preheated; 2 = high ambient temp required; 3 = may ignite at ambient temp; 4 = burn readily: 1: must be preheated;
•IDLH (NIOSH) - Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health: 345 ppm;
EPA Categorized List of Inert Pesticide IngredientsDIBUTYL PHTHALATE•Pesticide inerts: potentially toxic, testing priority, according to EPA (Environmental Protection Agency)
NTP - Risks to Human ReproductionDI-N-BUTYL PHTHALATEREPRO: Men: negligible concern; Women: negligible concern. || DEVELOPMENT: Minimal concern for male reproductive tract when pregnant women are exposed to 2-10 ug/kg bw/day. Some concern for higher exposures.
Our Stolen Future Endocrine DisruptorsDI-N-BUTYL PHTHALATE (DBP)
OSPAR PBTs - Substances of Possible ConcernDIBUTYL ESTER1,2-BENZENEDICARBOXYLIC ACID•Persistent, bioaccumulative toxicant - Oslo-Paris (OSPAR) Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic, chemical of concern
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTsDIBUTYL ESTER1,2-BENZENEDICARBOXYLIC ACID•Toxic, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Toxics Release Inventory programs
California EPA Proposition 65DI-N-BUTYL PHTHALATE (DBP)•Developmental toxin: California Proposition 65
•Reproductive toxin, female: California Proposition 65
•Reproductive toxin, male: California Proposition 65
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2004DIBUTYL PHTHALATE•Developmental toxicity hazards: suspected
BKH/European Commission, 2000DIBUTYL PHTHALATE•Endocrine toxicity hazards: suspected
US EPA, 9204DIBUTYL PHTHALATE•Reproductive toxicity hazards: suspected
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2005DIBUTYL PHTHALATE• occupationally related - ACGIH TLV (human TWA)
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2006DIBUTYL PHTHALATE• occupationally related - ACGIH TLV (human TWA)
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007DIBUTYL PHTHALATE• occupationally related - ACGIH TLV (human TWA)
RTECS®- Congenital Anomalies 1999DIBUTYL PHTHALATE• reproductive - Post-implantation mortality (rat TDLo)
• reproductive - Uterus, cervix, vagina (rat TDLo)
RTECS®- EHP, Environmental Health Perspectives 1973DIBUTYL PHTHALATE• reproductive - Weaning or lactation index (rat TDLo)
RTECS®- EHP, Environmental Health Perspectives 1982DIBUTYL PHTHALATE• reproductive - Fetotoxicity (mouse TDLo)
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 2000DIBUTYL PHTHALATE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage ( human oth)
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 2000DIBUTYL PHTHALATE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage ( human oth)
RTECS®- Environmental Research 1980DIBUTYL PHTHALATE• reproductive - Fetotoxicity (mouse TDLo)
RTECS®- Gigiena i Sanitariya 1968DIBUTYL PHTHALATE• biochemical - True cholinesterase (rat TDLo)
• metabolic - Weight loss or decreased weight gain (rat TDLo)
• endocrine system - Other changes (rat TDLo)
RTECS®- JAT, Journal of Applied Toxicology 1997DIBUTYL PHTHALATE• reproductive - Fetotoxicity (rat TDLo)
• developmental - Musculoskeletal system (rat TDLo)
RTECS®- Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 1972DIBUTYL PHTHALATE• reproductive - Fetotoxicity (rat TDLo)
• reproductive - Post-implantation mortality (rat TDLo)
RTECS®- Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 1985DIBUTYL PHTHALATE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (Salmonella typhimurium )
RTECS®- Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 1985DIBUTYL PHTHALATE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (Salmonella typhimurium )
RTECS®- Mutation Research 2000DIBUTYL PHTHALATE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage ( human oth)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1977DIBUTYL PHTHALATE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis (hamster fbr)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 2000DIBUTYL PHTHALATE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage ( human lym)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1977DIBUTYL PHTHALATE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis (hamster fbr)
RTECS®- National Technical Information Service 0401DIBUTYL PHTHALATE• metabolic - Weight loss or decreased weight gain (rat TDLo)
• liver - Changes in liver weight (rat TDLo)
• endocrine system - Changes in testicular weight (rat TDLo)
RTECS®- National Toxicology Program Technical Report Series 3353DIBUTYL PHTHALATE• kidney or renal system - Changes in bladder weight (rat TDLo)
• liver - Changes in liver weight (rat TDLo)
• blood - Normocytic anemia (rat TDLo)
RTECS®- Osaka-furitsu Koshu Eisei Kenkyusho Kenkyu Hokoku, Shokuhin Eisei Hen 1977DIBUTYL PHTHALATE• reproductive - Central nervous system (mouse TDLo)
• reproductive - Litter size (mouse TDLo)
• reproductive - Pre-implantation mortality (mouse TDLo)
RTECS®- Pharmacology and Toxicology (Copenhagen) 2001DIBUTYL PHTHALATE• reproductive - Other effects on embryo (rat TDLo)
RTECS®- Reproductive Toxicology 2000DIBUTYL PHTHALATE• reproductive - Litter size (rat TDLo)
• reproductive - Other effects (rat TDLo)
• reproductive - Post-implantation mortality (rat TDLo)
RTECS®- Schweizerische Medizinische Wochenschrift 1954DIBUTYL PHTHALATE• brain, nervous system, or behavioral effect - Hallucinations, distorted perceptions ( human TDLo)
• gastrointestinal - Nausea or vomiting ( human TDLo)
• kidney or renal system - Other changes ( human TDLo)
RTECS®- Teratogenesis, Carcinogenesis, and Mutagenesis 2001DIBUTYL PHTHALATE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage ( human lym)
RTECS®- Teratogenesis, Carcinogenesis, and Mutagenesis 1987DIBUTYL PHTHALATE• reproductive - Litter size (mouse TDLo)
RTECS®- Teratogenesis, Carcinogenesis, and Mutagenesis 2001DIBUTYL PHTHALATE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage ( human lym)
RTECS®- Toxicological Sciences (Oxford University Press, 6277 Sea Harbor Drive, Orlando, FL 32887 ) V 1998DIBUTYL PHTHALATE• developmental - Delayed effects (rat TDLo)
• reproductive - Uterus, cervix, vagina (rat TDLo)
RTECS®- Toxicological Sciences (Oxford University Press, 6277 Sea Harbor Drive, Orlando, FL 32887 ) V 1998DIBUTYL PHTHALATE• reproductive - Post-implantation mortality (rat TDLo)
• reproductive - Urogenital system (rat TDLo)
RTECS®- Toxicologist 1998DIBUTYL PHTHALATE• reproductive - Urogenital system (rat TDLo)
RTECS®- Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 1973DIBUTYL PHTHALATE• reproductive - Extra-embryonic structures (rat TDLo)
• brain, nervous system, or behavioral effect - Food intake (animal) (rat TDLo)
RTECS®- Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 1977DIBUTYL PHTHALATE• endocrine system - Changes in testicular weight (rat TDLo)
RTECS®- Toxicology Letters 1982DIBUTYL PHTHALATE• reproductive - Testes, epididymis, sperm duct (guinea pig TDLo)
RTECS®- Toxicology Letters 1980DIBUTYL PHTHALATE• reproductive - Other effects in male (mouse TDLo)
• reproductive - Testes, epididymis, sperm duct (mouse TDLo)
RTECS®- Toxicology Letters 1993DIBUTYL PHTHALATE• developmental - Fetal death (rat TDLo)
• reproductive - Post-implantation mortality (rat TDLo)
RTECS®- Toxicology 1994DIBUTYL PHTHALATE• developmental - Craniofacial (rat TDLo)
• reproductive - Post-implantation mortality (rat TDLo)
RTECS®- Weisheng Dulixue Zazhi 1989DIBUTYL PHTHALATE• reproductive - Spermatogenesis (rat TDLo)
• reproductive - Testes, epididymis, sperm duct (rat TDLo)
RTECS®- Weisheng Dulixue Zazhi 1991DIBUTYL PHTHALATE• broad systemic - Broad systemic toxicity (rat LD50)



references

government/industry list/academic study reference
European Union - Classification & LabellingCPS&Q (Consumer Products Safety & Quality) formely known as ECB (European Chemicals Bureau). 2008. Classification and Labelling: Chemicals: Annex VI of Directive 67/548/EEC through the 31st ATP.
Cosmetic Ingredient Review AssessmentsCIR (Cosmetic Ingredient Review). 2006. CIR Compendium, containing abstracts, discussions, and conclusions of CIR cosmetic ingredient safety assessments. Washington DC.
EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListEC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
Illinois EPA Chemicals Associated with Endocrine SystemIllinois EPA (Illinois Environmental Protection Agency). 2000. Preliminary list of chemicals associated with endocrine system effects in animals and humans (*) or in vitro (+). In EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) 2000. Handbook for Non-Cancer Health Effects Valuation, Appendix C.
EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2008. Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Evidence for human carcinogenicity based on 1986-2005 guidelines.
European Commission on Endocrine DisruptionEU (European Union)- Strategy for Endocrine Disrupters 2007. Commision on endocrin disruption requested by the European Parliament in 1998.
European Union - Banned or Restricted in CosmeticsEC (European Commission of the European Union). 1999-2006. Enterprise Directorate-General Pharmaceuticals and Cosmetics. The rules governing cosmetic products in the European Union, Volume 1, "Cosmetics legislation."
IFRA Fragrance Ingredient ListIFRA (International Fragrance Assocication). 2010. IFRA Fragrance Ingredient List based on 2008 Use Survey. Accessed online 01/04/2010: http://www.ifraorg.org/Home/News/Latest-News/page.aspx/66?xf_itemId=43&xf_selectionDatapartId=25
EPA Hazardous Air PollutantsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2005. Office of Air. The 112(b)1 Hazardous Air Pollutants List (as modified). Last modified: 12 Dec 2005.
National Library of Medicine HazMapNLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
EPA Categorized List of Inert Pesticide IngredientsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1987 & 2005. Office of Pesticide Programs. Inert (other) Pesticide Ingredients in Pesticide Products - Categorized List of Inert (other) Pesticide Ingredients.
NTP - Risks to Human ReproductionNTP (National Toxicology Program). 2006. NTP Center for the Evaluation fo Risks to Human Reproduction (CERHR). NTP-CERHR Reports and Monographs.
Our Stolen Future Endocrine DisruptorsColborn T, D Dumanoski, JP Myers. 2006. Widespread Pollutants with Endocrine-disrupting Effects. Updated from original listing in "Our Stolen Future" (1996).
OSPAR PBTs - Substances of Possible ConcernOSPAR (Oslo-Paris). 2002. OSPAR List of Substances of Possible Concern. Secondary OSPAR List of Substances of Possible Concern. Secondary OSPAR. Place Published, OSPAR Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environement of North-East Atlanic.
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1999. Toxics Release Inventory Program. PBT Chemical Rule.
California EPA Proposition 65California EPA (California Environmental Protection Agency). 9/2008. Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act of 1986. Chemicals known to the State to cause cancer or reproductive toxicity.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationAgency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Minimal risk Levels for Hazardous Substances. January 2004. http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/mrls.html, National Toxicology Program Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction. National Toxicology Program. 10th Report on Carcinogens (2002). http://ehis.niehs.nih.gov/roc/toc10.htmlERHR Briefs and Expert Panel Reports. http://cerhr.niehs.nih.gov/, US EPA. Roadmaps to Sources of Information on Chemicals Listed in the Emergency Planning Community and Community Right-to-Know Act (Also Known as SARA Title 3), Section 313 Toxic Release Inventory (for Microcomputers). (Report Number EPADFDK92040). 1991. Data file distributed in 2 diskettes by Office of Pollution, Prevention, and Toxics, Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. NOTE: Datasource no longer being maintained by EPA; not currently available online., Jankovic, J. A Screening Method for Occupational Reproductive Health Risk. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal. 57: 641-649. 1996., Chapin, R.E. and R.A. Sloane. NIEHS/NTP Reproductive Assessment by Continuous Breeding: Evolving Study Design and Summaries of Ninety Studies. Environmental Health Perspectives 105, Supplement 1: 199-394. 1997. http://ehpnet1.niehs.nih.gov/docs/1997/Suppl-1/chapin.html, Proposition 65 List of Carcinogens (July 2004) can be obtained from http://www.oehha.ca.gov/prop65/prop65_list/Newlist.html.-CAND
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationBKH/European Commission. Towards the establishment of a priority list of substances for further evaluation of their role in endocrine disruption: - preparation of a candidate list of substances as a basis for priority setting. Final report-November 2000. http://europa.eu.int/comm/environment/docum/01262_en.htm#bkh. Category 1 chemicals from Annex 1: Candidate list of 553 substances. http://europa.eu.int/comm/environment/docum/bkh_annex_01.pdf, Japanese National Institute of Health Sciences. Lists of Paradigmatic Chemicals. http://www.nihs.go.jp/hse/endocrine-e/paradigm/paradigm.html, Keith, L.H. (ed.). Environmental Endocrine Disruptors. John Wiley & Sons, NY. 1997. http://www.wileyeurope.com/cda/product/0,,0471191450%7Cdesc%7C3037,00.html, World Wildlife Fund. Our Stolen Future. Widespread Pollutants with Endocrine-disrupting Effects. http://www.ourstolenfuture.org/Basics/chemlist.htm. The WWF list is derived from references detailed at http://www.ourstolenfuture.org/Sources/chemsources.htm and was originally published in: Colborn, T., F.S. vom Saal, and A.M. Soto. Developmental Effects of Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals In Wildlife and Humans. Environmental Health Perspectives 101(5): 378-384. 1993.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationUS EPA. Roadmaps to Sources of Information on Chemicals Listed in the Emergency Planning Community and Community Right-to-Know Act (Also Known as SARA Title 3), Section 313 Toxic Release Inventory (for Microcomputers). (Report Number EPADFDK92040). 1991. Data file distributed in 2 diskettes by Office of Pollution, Prevention, and Toxics, Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. NOTE: Datasource no longer being maintained by EPA; not currently available online., Chapin, R.E. and R.A. Sloane. NIEHS/NTP Reproductive Assessment by Continuous Breeding: Evolving Study Design and Summaries of Ninety Studies. Environmental Health Perspectives 105, Supplement 1: 199-394. 1997. http://ehpnet1.niehs.nih.gov/docs/1997/Suppl-1/chapin.html, Proposition 65 List of Carcinogens (July 2004) can be obtained from http://www.oehha.ca.gov/prop65/prop65_list/Newlist.html.-CAND
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2005RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2005
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2006RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2006
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007
RTECS®- Congenital Anomalies 1999RTECS®- Congenital Anomalies. (Nippon Senten Ijo Gakkai, 377-2 Ono-higashi, Osakasayama, Osaka-Fu 589 Japan) V.27- 1987- 39,189,1999
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