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National Drinking Water Database


National Drinking Water Database - Chemical Contaminants

2,4,5-T


Status: Unregulated - EPA has not established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

2,4,5-T is an herbicide banned in 1985; it was formerly used in homes and on recreational areas, industrial sites, lumber yards, vacant lots, lawns and turf, and crops including rice.

 
Detected
Found above
health guidelines
Found above
legal limit
States
3
-
-
Water utilities
5
-
-
People Served
17,996
-
-

Health Concerns for 2,4,5-T:


2,4,5-T Exposure by State

Water utilities in 3 states have reported detecting 2,4,5-T in treated tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies.

StateWater Suppliers with 2,4,5-T contamination
SystemsPopulation
California111,510
Maryland35,782
Arkansas1704
Total517,996

The Most Polluted Communities

5 water utilities reported detecting 2,4,5-T in tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies

Ranked by highest average 2,4,5-T level

RankSystem Population Served Positive test results of total reported tests Average Level
(Range)
1Hart Heritage
Street, MD
371 of 10.47 ppb
(0.47 ppb)
2Briercrest Apartments
Jefferson, MD
451 of 30.25 ppb
(0 to 0.76 ppb)
3Midland-Lonaconing
Lonaconing, MD
5,7001 of 50.05 ppb
(0 to 0.26 ppb)
4Cwsc King City
San Jose, CA
11,5101 of 170.03 ppb
(0 to 0.55 ppb)
5Imboden Waterworks
Imboden, AR
7041 of 3< 0.01 ppb
(0 to 0.03 ppb)

Health Based Limits for 2,4,5-T

StandardDescriptionLevel
Lifetime health-based limit, non-cancer riskConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects for a lifetime of exposure. The Lifetime health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is based on exposure for a a 70-kg adult consuming 2 liters of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.70 ppb
Health-Based Screening LevelA benchmark concentration of contaminants in water that may be of potential concern for human health, if exceeded. For noncarcinogens, the HBSL represents the contaminant concentration in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse effects over a lifetime of exposure. For carcinogens, the HBSL range represents the contaminant concentration in drinking water that corresponds to an excess estimated lifetime cancer risk of 1 chance in 1 million to 1 chance in 10 thousand. Source: U.S. Geological Survey.70 ppb
Drinking Water Equivalent LevelA lifetime exposure concentration protective of adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects, that assumes all of the exposure to a contaminant is from drinking water. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.350 ppb
Children's health-based limit for 1-day exposureConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects for up to one day of exposure. The One-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.800 ppb
Children's health-based limit for 10-day exposureConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic effects for up to ten days of exposure. The Ten-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.800 ppb

Testing Summary for 2,4,5-T

Are tests routinely required for 2,4,5-T by federal law?No
Water suppliers reporting tests for 2,4,5-T (2004-2009):3,239 of 47,576
Average testing rate for water supplier reporting tests (2004-2009):0.3 per year

Neurotoxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
Strong evidence of human neurotoxicity Chemicals known to be neurotoxic to humans
Moderate evidence of human neurotoxicity CHE Toxicant and Disease Database

Allergies/immunotoxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
Human skin toxicant or allergen - strong evidence CHE Toxicant and Disease Database

Developmental/reproductive toxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
Limited evidence of reproductive toxicity National Library of Medicine HazMap
Human nervous system toxicant - moderate evidence Chemicals known to be neurotoxic to humans
Limited evidence of developmental toxicity CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Limited evidence of nervous system toxicity CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Limited evidence of reproductive toxicity A Relational Database of Hazardous Chemicals and Occupational Diseases, 1996

Cancer

Type of concern: Reference:
Cancer - moderate evidence - musculoskeletal CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Cancer - limited evidence CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 1987
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Phytochemistry 1972
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Journal of Heredity 1973
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1979
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Ecological Bulletins 1978
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Archives of Toxicology 2000
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Microbiology Series 1981
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 1995
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1979
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Ecological Bulletins 1978
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 2000
One or more in vitro tests on microorganisms show positive mutation results RTECS®- Phytochemistry 1972

Persistence and bioaccumulation

Type of concern: Reference:
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife and humans National Library of Medicine HazMap
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife National Library of Medicine HazMap

Endocrine disruption

Type of concern: Reference:
Human disruptor - moderate evidence European Commission on Endocrine Disruption
Limited evidence of endocrine disruption Illinois EPA, 1997
endocrine - weight of evidence unknown/unassessed/unreview: published lit review or major tox study Illinois EPA Chemicals Associated with Endocrine System

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

Type of concern: Reference:
Possible human hematologic toxicant CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Classified as toxic or harmful European Union - Classification & Labelling
Limited evidence of gastrointestinal or liver toxicity National Library of Medicine HazMap
reproductive - weight of evidence unknown/unassessed/unreview: published lit review or major tox study National Library of Medicine HazMap

Occupational hazards

Type of concern: Reference:
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to low doses European Union - Classification & Labelling
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to moderate doses RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007

Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)

Type of concern: Reference:
Classified as irritant European Union - Classification & Labelling

Ecotoxicology

Type of concern: Reference:
Wildlife and environmental toxicity European Union - Classification & Labelling
Wildlife and environmental toxicity Illinois EPA Chemicals Associated with Endocrine System



Government, industry, academic studies and classifications

government/industry list/academic study appears on list as classification(s)
European Union - Classification & Labelling2,4,5-T•Harmful
•Harmful if swallowed
•Irritant (eyes, skin, or lungs)
•Irritating to eyes, respiratory system and skin
•Dangerous for the environment
•Very toxic to aquatic organisms
Association of Occupational and Environmental ClinicsAGENT ORANGE• P
Illinois EPA Chemicals Associated with Endocrine System2,4,5-T•EPA: probable endocrine disruptor
European Commission on Endocrine Disruption2,4,5-T = 2,4,5-TRICHLOROPHENOXYACETICACIDHH-CAT2;WF-CAT3b
National Library of Medicine HazMap2,4,5-T•Reproductive Toxin - A chemical that is toxic to the reproductive system, including defects in the progeny and injury to male and female reproductive function: Yes;
•Restricted - Regulations that have banned or restricted the use of the agent: All uses in the U.S. canceled in 1985; [EPA Pesticides, p. 95];
•Hepatotoxin: Hepatotoxin, Secondary;
•PEL (OSHA) - Permissible exposure limit (OSHA): 10 mg/m3;
•Bioaccumulates: Yes;
•IARC Carcinogen - International Agency for Research on Cancer; classifies chemicals as established (1), probable (2a), or possible (2b) human carcinogens: Possible Carcinogen;
•TLV (ACGIH) - Threshold limit value (ACGIH): 10 mg/m3;
•IDLH (NIOSH) - Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health: 250 mg/m3;
•MAK - Maximum Allowable Concentration (Federal Republic of Germany): 10 mg/m3, inhalable fraction;
A Relational Database of Hazardous Chemicals and Occupational Diseases, 19962,4,5-T•Reproductive toxicity hazards: suspected
Illinois EPA, 19972,4,5-T•Endocrine toxicity hazards: suspected
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,20072,4,5-T• occupationally related - ACGIH TLV (human TWA)
RTECS®- Archives of Toxicology 20002,4,5-T• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis (mouse ipr)
RTECS®- Ecological Bulletins 19782,4,5-T• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis (gerbil par)
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Sex Chromosome Loss and Nondisjunction (Drosophila melanogaster unr)
RTECS®- Ecological Bulletins 19782,4,5-T• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (Saccharomyces cerevisiae )
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 19872,4,5-T• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis (hamster ovr)
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Sister Chromatid Exchange (hamster ovr)
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 19952,4,5-T• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: (Drosophila melanogaster mul)
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 20002,4,5-T• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: (Drosophila melanogaster )
RTECS®- Journal of Heredity 19732,4,5-T• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis (mammal ipr)
RTECS®- Microbiology Series 19812,4,5-T• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (Bacillus subtilis )
RTECS®- Mutation Research 19792,4,5-T• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis (Drosophila melanogaster orl)
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Sex Chromosome Loss and Nondisjunction (Drosophila melanogaster orl)
RTECS®- Phytochemistry 19722,4,5-T• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage (salmon spr)



references

government/industry list/academic study reference
European Union - Classification & LabellingCPS&Q (Consumer Products Safety & Quality) formely known as ECB (European Chemicals Bureau). 2008. Classification and Labelling: Chemicals: Annex VI of Directive 67/548/EEC through the 31st ATP.
Association of Occupational and Environmental ClinicsAOEC (Association of Occupational and Environmental Clinics). 2009. AEOC exposures codes and asthmagen designation.
Illinois EPA Chemicals Associated with Endocrine SystemIllinois EPA (Illinois Environmental Protection Agency). 2000. Preliminary list of chemicals associated with endocrine system effects in animals and humans (*) or in vitro (+). In EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) 2000. Handbook for Non-Cancer Health Effects Valuation, Appendix C.
European Commission on Endocrine DisruptionEU (European Union)- Strategy for Endocrine Disrupters 2007. Commision on endocrin disruption requested by the European Parliament in 1998.
National Library of Medicine HazMapNLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationA Relational Database of Hazardous Chemicals and Occupational Diseases. Browse Haz-Map by Adverse Effects http://hazmap.nlm.nih.gov/hazmapadv.html, Jankovic, J. A Screening Method for Occupational Reproductive Health Risk. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal. 57: 641-649. 1996.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationIllinois EPA. Endocrine Disruptors Strategy. 1997. (Table 1: Preliminary List of Chemicals Associated with Endocrine System Effects in Animals and Humans or In Vitro). http://www.nihs.go.jp/hse/environ/illiepatable.htm, Japanese National Institute of Health Sciences. Lists of Paradigmatic Chemicals. http://www.nihs.go.jp/hse/endocrine-e/paradigm/paradigm.html, Keith, L.H. (ed.). Environmental Endocrine Disruptors. John Wiley & Sons, NY. 1997. http://www.wileyeurope.com/cda/product/0,,0471191450%7Cdesc%7C3037,00.html
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007
RTECS®- Archives of Toxicology 2000RTECS®- Archives of Toxicology. (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberger Pl. 3, D-1000 Berlin 33, Fed. Rep. Ger.) V.32- 74,560,2000
RTECS®- Ecological Bulletins 1978RTECS®- Ecological Bulletins. (Editorial Service of FRN, Box 6710, S-11385, Stockholm, Sweden) No.19- 27,182,1978
RTECS®- Ecological Bulletins 1978RTECS®- Ecological Bulletins. (Editorial Service of FRN, Box 6710, S-11385, Stockholm, Sweden) No.19- 27,193,1978
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 1987RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.10- 10(Suppl 10),1,1987
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 1995RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.10- 25,148,1995
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 2000RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.10- 36,40,2000
RTECS®- Journal of Heredity 1973RTECS®- Journal of Heredity. (American Genetic Assoc., 818 18th St., NW, Washington, DC 20006) V.5- 1914- 64,213,1973
RTECS®- Microbiology Series 1981RTECS®- Microbiology Series. (Marcel Dekker, 270 Madison Ave., New York, NY 10016) V.1- 5,93,1981
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1979RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 65,83,1979
RTECS®- Phytochemistry 1972RTECS®- Phytochemistry. An International Journal of Plant Biochemistry. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.1- 11,3135,1972

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