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National Drinking Water Database


National Drinking Water Database - Chemical Contaminants

2,4-D


Status: Regulated - EPA has established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

2,4-D is a chlorophenol herbicide used on row crops, lawns and golf courses. [read more]

 
Detected
Found above
health guidelines
Found above
legal limit
States
28
-
-
Water utilities
128
-
-
People Served
6,575,124
-
-

Health Concerns for 2,4-D:


2,4-D Exposure by State

Water utilities in 28 states have reported detecting 2,4-D in treated tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies.

StateWater Suppliers with 2,4-D contamination
SystemsPopulation
North Carolina351,755,346
Indiana91,350,315
Florida10927,471
New Jersey5656,732
Kentucky5387,780
Delaware2306,270
Nevada2250,500
Maryland10194,407
Arizona3190,000
California3141,711
Pennsylvania394,112
Massachusetts484,188
Ohio148,000
Connecticut339,897
Virginia137,000
Oregon136,093
Rhode Island117,500
New Mexico1013,443
Vermont112,200
Wisconsin48,606
New York27,965
Iowa23,981
Arkansas12,950
Idaho42,673
Montana11,900
Illinois31,874
Minnesota11,310
Nebraska1900
Total1286,575,124

The Most Polluted Communities

128 water utilities reported detecting 2,4-D in tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies

Ranked by highest average 2,4-D level

RankSystem Population Served Positive test results of total reported tests Average Level
(Range)
1NJ American Water Company
Shorthills, NJ
217,2301 of 22.3 ppb
(0 to 4.59 ppb)
2City of Manassas
Manassas, VA
37,0001 of 20.75 ppb
(0 to 1.5 ppb)
3Valle Del Rio Water System
Santa Teresa, NM
2431 of 20.6 ppb
(0 to 1.2 ppb)
4New Brunswick W Dept
New Brunswick, NJ
50,0021 of 30.58 ppb
(0 to 1.75 ppb)
5Fossil Rock Recreation Area
IL
4381 of 30.53 ppb
(0 to 1.6 ppb)
6Reserve Water Works
Reserve, NM
3401 of 10.51 ppb
(0.51 ppb)
7Rich Prairie Sewer and Water District
Pierz, MN
1,3101 of 10.5 ppb
(0.5 ppb)
8Ogden Municipal Utilities
Ogden, IA
2,0231 of 40.5 ppb
(0 to 2 ppb)
9Mesilla Park Manor Water System
Las Cruces, NM
8481 of 20.5 ppb
(0 to 1 ppb)
10Summer Wind Mobile Home Park
Las Cruces, NM
4761 of 20.48 ppb
(0 to 0.96 ppb)

Health Based Limits for 2,4-D

StandardDescriptionLevel
California Public Health GoalsDefined by the State of California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA) as the level of contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. For acutely toxic substances, levels are set at which scientific evidence indicates that no known or anticipated adverse effects on health will occur, plus an adequate margin-of safety. PHGs for carcinogens or other substances which can cause chronic disease shall be based solely on health effects without regard to cost impacts and shall be set at levels which OEHHA has determined do not pose any significant risk to health.20 ppb
Maximum Contaminant Limit (MCL)The enforceable standard which defines the highest level of a contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. MCLs are set as close to health-based limits (Maximum Contaminant Level Goals, or MCLGs) as feasible using the best available analytical and treatment technologies and taking cost into consideration. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.70 ppb
Maximum Contaminant Limit Goal (MCLG)A non-enforceable health goal that is set at a level at which no known or anticipated adverse effect on the health of persons occurs and which allows an adequate margin of safety. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.70 ppb
EPA Human Health Water Quality CriteriaWater quality criteria set by the US EPA provide guidance for states and tribes authorized to establish water quality standards under the Clean Water Act (CWA) to protect human health. These are non-enforceable standards based upon exposure by both drinking water and the contribution of water contamination to other consumed foods. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.100 ppb
Drinking Water Equivalent LevelA lifetime exposure concentration protective of adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects, that assumes all of the exposure to a contaminant is from drinking water. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.200 ppb
Children's health-based limit for 10-day exposureConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic effects for up to ten days of exposure. The Ten-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.300 ppb
Children's health-based limit for 1-day exposureConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects for up to one day of exposure. The One-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.1000 ppb

Testing Summary for 2,4-D

Are tests routinely required for 2,4-D by federal law?Yes
Water suppliers reporting tests for 2,4-D (2004-2009):20,263 of 47,576
Average testing rate for water supplier reporting tests (2004-2009):0.4 per year

Violation Summary for 2,4-D

Data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency includes the following violations of federal standards for 2,4-D since 2004

Maximum Contaminant Level Exceedance Violations0
Monitoring Violations1,415
Reporting Violations0

Allergies/immunotoxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
Human skin toxicant or allergen - strong evidence CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Limited evidence of immune system toxicity or allergies European Union - Classification & Labelling
Limited evidence of immune toxicity or allergies CHE Toxicant and Disease Database

Neurotoxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
Strong evidence of human neurotoxicity Chemicals known to be neurotoxic to humans
Moderate evidence of human neurotoxicity CHE Toxicant and Disease Database

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

Type of concern: Reference:
Known human respiratory toxicant EPA Hazardous Air Pollutants
Classified as a high human health priority Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
Possible human hematologic toxicant CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
One or more animal studies show sense organ effects at very low doses RTECS®- "Sbornik Vysledku Toxixologickeho Vysetreni Latek A Pripravku," Marhold, J 1972
Classified as toxic or harmful European Union - Classification & Labelling
Limited evidence of gastrointestinal toxicity CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Limited evidence of gastrointestinal or liver toxicity US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center
Limited evidence of sense organ toxicity US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center
One or more animal studies show classified as toxic effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs
reproductive - weight of evidence unknown/unassessed/unreview: published lit review or major tox study National Library of Medicine HazMap
Classified as not expected to be potentially toxic or harmful Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Cancer

Type of concern: Reference:
Cancer - moderate evidence - immune system CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Cancer - moderate evidence - musculoskeletal CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Possible carcinogen Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
Cancer - limited evidence CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1977
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Cytology and Genetics (English Translation) 1974
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Journal of Heredity 1982
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Cytologia 1987
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1978
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Toxicology Letters 1985
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 1987
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Chemico-Biological Interactions 1977
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- In Vitro 1973
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Phytochemistry 1972
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Food and Chemical Toxicology 2001
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 2001
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Archives of Toxicology 2000
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 2002
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Food and Chemical Toxicology 2003
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 2004
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Toxicology 2004
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Toxicology Letters 2004
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1988
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- National Technical Information Service 3226
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1981
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Microbios Letters 1977
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1993
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 1995
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Ecological Bulletins 1978
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Archives of Toxicology 2000
One or more in vitro tests on microorganisms show positive mutation results RTECS®- Phytochemistry 1972

Persistence and bioaccumulation

Type of concern: Reference:
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife and humans National Library of Medicine HazMap
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife National Library of Medicine HazMap
Not suspected to be persistent Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
Not suspected to be bioaccumulative Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Developmental/reproductive toxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
Limited evidence of reproductive toxicity National Library of Medicine HazMap
Human reproductive toxicant - moderate evidence CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Human nervous system toxicant - moderate evidence Chemicals known to be neurotoxic to humans
Limited evidence of nervous system toxicity CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Limited evidence of developmental toxicity CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Limited evidence of developmental toxicity US EPA, 9204
Limited evidence of reproductive toxicity US EPA, 9204

Endocrine disruption

Type of concern: Reference:
Human disruptor - moderate evidence European Commission on Endocrine Disruption
Limited evidence of wildlife and the environment disruption European Commission on Endocrine Disruption
Limited evidence of endocrine disruption Illinois EPA, 1997
endocrine - weight of evidence unknown/unassessed/unreview: published lit review or major tox study Illinois EPA Chemicals Associated with Endocrine System

Occupational hazards

Type of concern: Reference:
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to low doses European Union - Classification & Labelling
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to moderate doses RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007

Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)

Type of concern: Reference:
Classified as irritant European Union - Classification & Labelling
One or more animal studies show skin irritation at moderate doses RTECS®- "Sbornik Vysledku Toxixologickeho Vysetreni Latek A Pripravku," Marhold, J 1972

Ecotoxicology

Type of concern: Reference:
Wildlife and environmental toxicity European Union - Classification & Labelling
Wildlife and environmental toxicity Illinois EPA Chemicals Associated with Endocrine System
Not suspected to be an environmental toxin Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Multiple, additive exposure sources

Type of concern: Reference:
Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in food FDA Food Additive Status



Government, industry, academic studies and classifications

government/industry list/academic study appears on list as classification(s)
European Union - Classification & Labelling2,4-D•Harmful
•Harmful if swallowed
•Irritant (eyes, skin, or lungs)
•Irritating to respiratory system
•May cause sensitization by skin contact
•Harmful to aquatic organisms
FDA Food Additive Status2,4-D• PEST
• Food additive: food additive for which a petition has been filed and a regulation issued
• 2 parts per million - Tolerances for Residues - 40 Code of Federal Regulations 180.142
Association of Occupational and Environmental ClinicsAGENT ORANGE• P
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListACETIC ACID, (2,4-DICHLOROPHENOXY)-•This chemical was deemed a high human health priority even though it did not meet the strict criteria of the categorization exercise of CEPA. The chemical was flagged for suspected carcinogenic concerns.
Illinois EPA Chemicals Associated with Endocrine System2,4-D•EPA: probable endocrine disruptor
European Commission on Endocrine Disruption2,4-DICHLOROPHENOXY ACETIC ACID (2,4-D)HH-CAT2;WF-CAT2
EPA Hazardous Air Pollutants2,4-D, SALTS AND ESTERS•Hazardous air pollutant under Clean Air Act
National Library of Medicine HazMap2,4-D•Reproductive Toxin - A chemical that is toxic to the reproductive system, including defects in the progeny and injury to male and female reproductive function: Yes;
•PEL (OSHA) - Permissible exposure limit (OSHA): 10 mg/m3;
•Bioaccumulates: Yes;
•IARC Carcinogen - International Agency for Research on Cancer; classifies chemicals as established (1), probable (2a), or possible (2b) human carcinogens: Possible Carcinogen;
•TLV (ACGIH) - Threshold limit value (ACGIH): 10 mg/m3;
•IDLH (NIOSH) - Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health: 100 mg/m3;
•MAK - Maximum Allowable Concentration (Federal Republic of Germany): 1 mg/m3, inhalable fraction;
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs(2,4DICHLOROPHENOXY)ACETIC ACID•Toxic, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Toxics Release Inventory programs
US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center2,4-D•Gastrointestinal or liver toxicity hazards: suspected
US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center2,4-D•Skin or sense organ toxicity hazards: suspected
US EPA, 92042,4-D•Developmental toxicity hazards: suspected
US EPA, 92042,4-D•Reproductive toxicity hazards: suspected
Illinois EPA, 19972,4-D•Endocrine toxicity hazards: suspected
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,20072,4-D• occupationally related - ACGIH TLV (human TWA)
RTECS®- "Sbornik Vysledku Toxixologickeho Vysetreni Latek A Pripravku," Marhold, J 19722,4-D• sense organ - Primary eye irritant (rabbit )
• skin - Primary skin irritant (rabbit )
RTECS®- Archives of Toxicology 20002,4-D• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (Saccharomyces cerevisiae )
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis (mouse ipr)
RTECS®- Chemico-Biological Interactions 19772,4-D• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Mammalian Somatic Cells (hamster lng)
RTECS®- Cytologia 19872,4-D• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis (rat ipr)
RTECS®- Cytology and Genetics (English Translation) 19742,4-D• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis ( human lym)
RTECS®- Ecological Bulletins 19782,4-D• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Sex Chromosome Loss and Nondisjunction (Drosophila melanogaster unr)
RTECS®- Ecological Bulletins 19782,4-D• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Sex Chromosome Loss and Nondisjunction (Drosophila melanogaster orl)
RTECS®- Ecological Bulletins 19782,4-D• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (Saccharomyces cerevisiae )
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 19872,4-D• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis (hamster ovr)
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Sister Chromatid Exchange (hamster ovr)
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 19952,4-D• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: (Drosophila melanogaster mul)
RTECS®- Food and Chemical Toxicology 20012,4-D• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Sister Chromatid Exchange (mouse orl)
RTECS®- Food and Chemical Toxicology 20032,4-D• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage ( human ast)
RTECS®- In Vitro 19732,4-D• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis (cattle kdy)
RTECS®- Journal of Heredity 19822,4-D• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Sister Chromatid Exchange ( human lym)
RTECS®- Microbios Letters 19772,4-D• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (other micro-organisms )
RTECS®- Mutation Research 19882,4-D• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (Salmonella typhimurium )
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Gene Conversion and Mitotic Recombination ( Aspergillis nidulans )
RTECS®- Mutation Research 19932,4-D• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: (Drosophila melanogaster orl)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 19772,4-D• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Unscheduled DNA Synthesis ( human fbr)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 20012,4-D• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis (mouse orl)
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: sperm (mouse orl)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 20022,4-D• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Micronucleus test ( human lym)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 19782,4-D• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Inhibition (mouse orl)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 19812,4-D• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Adduct (Escherichia coli )
RTECS®- National Technical Information Service 32262,4-D• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA repair (Escherichia coli )
RTECS®- Phytochemistry 19722,4-D• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage (salmon spr)
RTECS®- Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 20042,4-D• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage (rat orl)
RTECS®- Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 20042,4-D• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis ( human lym)
RTECS®- Toxicology Letters 20042,4-D• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage ( human fbr)
RTECS®- Toxicology Letters 19852,4-D• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Inhibition (hamster ovr)
RTECS®- Toxicology 20042,4-D• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis ( human lym)
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Micronucleus test ( human lym)



references

government/industry list/academic study reference
European Union - Classification & LabellingCPS&Q (Consumer Products Safety & Quality) formely known as ECB (European Chemicals Bureau). 2008. Classification and Labelling: Chemicals: Annex VI of Directive 67/548/EEC through the 31st ATP.
FDA Food Additive StatusFDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration) 2006. Food Additive Status List. Downloaded from http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/%7Edms/opa-appa.html, Oct 16, 2006.
Association of Occupational and Environmental ClinicsAOEC (Association of Occupational and Environmental Clinics). 2009. AEOC exposures codes and asthmagen designation.
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListEC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
Illinois EPA Chemicals Associated with Endocrine SystemIllinois EPA (Illinois Environmental Protection Agency). 2000. Preliminary list of chemicals associated with endocrine system effects in animals and humans (*) or in vitro (+). In EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) 2000. Handbook for Non-Cancer Health Effects Valuation, Appendix C.
European Commission on Endocrine DisruptionEU (European Union)- Strategy for Endocrine Disrupters 2007. Commision on endocrin disruption requested by the European Parliament in 1998.
EPA Hazardous Air PollutantsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2005. Office of Air. The 112(b)1 Hazardous Air Pollutants List (as modified). Last modified: 12 Dec 2005.
National Library of Medicine HazMapNLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1999. Toxics Release Inventory Program. PBT Chemical Rule.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationUS EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center. Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants. http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/hapindex.html, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances. See Environmental Defense's Suspect Hazard Identification documentation.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationUS EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center. Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants. http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/hapindex.html, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances. See Environmental Defense's Suspect Hazard Identification documentation.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationUS EPA. Roadmaps to Sources of Information on Chemicals Listed in the Emergency Planning Community and Community Right-to-Know Act (Also Known as SARA Title 3), Section 313 Toxic Release Inventory (for Microcomputers). (Report Number EPADFDK92040). 1991. Data file distributed in 2 diskettes by Office of Pollution, Prevention, and Toxics, Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. NOTE: Datasource no longer being maintained by EPA; not currently available online.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationUS EPA. Roadmaps to Sources of Information on Chemicals Listed in the Emergency Planning Community and Community Right-to-Know Act (Also Known as SARA Title 3), Section 313 Toxic Release Inventory (for Microcomputers). (Report Number EPADFDK92040). 1991. Data file distributed in 2 diskettes by Office of Pollution, Prevention, and Toxics, Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. NOTE: Datasource no longer being maintained by EPA; not currently available online., Frazier , L. and M. L. Hage (eds.). Reproductive Hazards of the Workplace, Wiley Europe, 1998. Table 10 (Partial List of Reproductive Toxicants) available at http://www.pharmacy.ohio-state.edu/homepage/safety/chemhygiene_table_repro.pdf., A Relational Database of Hazardous Chemicals and Occupational Diseases. Browse Haz-Map by Adverse Effects http://hazmap.nlm.nih.gov/hazmapadv.html, Jankovic, J. A Screening Method for Occupational Reproductive Health Risk. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal. 57: 641-649. 1996.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationIllinois EPA. Endocrine Disruptors Strategy. 1997. (Table 1: Preliminary List of Chemicals Associated with Endocrine System Effects in Animals and Humans or In Vitro). http://www.nihs.go.jp/hse/environ/illiepatable.htm, Japanese National Institute of Health Sciences. Lists of Paradigmatic Chemicals. http://www.nihs.go.jp/hse/endocrine-e/paradigm/paradigm.html, Keith, L.H. (ed.). Environmental Endocrine Disruptors. John Wiley & Sons, NY. 1997. http://www.wileyeurope.com/cda/product/0,,0471191450%7Cdesc%7C3037,00.html
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