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National Drinking Water Database


National Drinking Water Database - Chemical Contaminants

1,4-Dioxane


Status: Unregulated - EPA has not established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

1,4-Dioxane is a stabilizing chemical in industrial solvents and an emerging groundwater pollutant from solvent recycling and plastic manufacturing; it is a probable human carcinogen. [read more]

 
Detected
Found above
health guidelines
Found above
legal limit
States
4
3
-
Water utilities
20
8
-
People Served
1,026,435
498,209
-

Health Concerns for 1,4-Dioxane:


1,4-Dioxane Exposure by State

Water utilities in 4 states have reported detecting 1,4-Dioxane in treated tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies.

StateWater Suppliers with 1,4-Dioxane contaminationWater suppliers reporting 1,4-Dioxane above health-based limits
SystemsPopulationSystemsPopulation
California16994,3956495,006
Michigan28,70913,173
New Hampshire130130
Massachusetts123,30100
Total201,026,4358498,209

The Most Polluted Communities

20 water utilities reported detecting 1,4-Dioxane in tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies

Ranked by highest average 1,4-Dioxane level

RankSystem Population Served Positive test results of total reported tests Average Level
(Range)
1Howard Manor Condominiums
Plaistow, NH
301 of 15 ppb
(5 ppb)
2Santa Monica-City, Water Division
Santa Monica, CA
84,18414 of 164.8 ppb
(0 to 7.3 ppb)
3California Water Service Co. - Ela
Montebello, CA
151,04253 of 604.04 ppb
(0 to 8 ppb)
4Park WC - Bellflower-Norwalk
Downey, CA
71,00012 of 123.88 ppb
(3.05 to 5.59 ppb)
5City of Clare
Clare, MI
3,17311 of 123.07 ppb
(0 to 7.67 ppb)
6Tract 349 Mutual Water Co.
Cudahy, CA
7,50014 of 152.42 ppb
(0 to 4.7 ppb)
7City of Davison
Davison, MI
5,5361 of 12 ppb
(2 ppb)
8Gswc - Norwalk
Santa Fe Springs, CA
31,3203 of 31.82 ppb
(1.6 to 2.17 ppb)
9South Gate-City, Water Dept.
South Gate, CA
82,55012 of 141.44 ppb
(0 to 3.7 ppb)
10Burlington Water Dept
Burlington, MA
23,30112 of 120.98 ppb
(0.14 to 1.47 ppb)

Health Based Limits for 1,4-Dioxane

StandardDescriptionLevel
One in one million (10-6) Cancer RiskThe concentration of a chemical in drinking water corresponding to an excess estimated lifetime cancer risk of 1 in 1,000,000. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.3 ppb
One in ten thousand (10-4) Cancer RiskThe concentration of a chemical in drinking water corresponding to an excess estimated lifetime cancer risk of 1 in 10,000. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.300 ppb
Children's health-based limit for 10-day exposureConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic effects for up to ten days of exposure. The Ten-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.400 ppb
Children's health-based limit for 1-day exposureConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects for up to one day of exposure. The One-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.4000 ppb

Testing Summary for 1,4-Dioxane

Are tests routinely required for 1,4-Dioxane by federal law?No
Water suppliers reporting tests for 1,4-Dioxane (2004-2009):96 of 47,576
Average testing rate for water supplier reporting tests (2004-2009):2.1 per year

Cancer

Type of concern: Reference:
Possible human carcinogen EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)
Possible human carcinogen NTP Report on Carcinogens, 11th Edition
Possible human carcinogen California EPA Proposition 65
Cancer - strong evidence Proposition 65 List of Carcinogens
Limited evidence of carcinogenicity European Union - Classification & Labelling
Limited evidence of carcinogenicity Amer Conf of Gov't Industrial Hygienists - Carcinogens
Limited evidence of carcinogenicity Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - Carcinogens
Limited evidence of carcinogenicity NIOSH Occupational Carcinogens
Cancer - limited evidence Silent Spring's Mammary Carcinogens Reviews Database
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Carcinogenesis (London) 1992
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Cancer Letters (Shannon, Ireland) 1990
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Personal Communication from J 1982
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Archives of Toxicology 1981
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 1981
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1994
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 1988
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 1987
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 2005

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

Type of concern: Reference:
Known human respiratory toxicant EPA Hazardous Air Pollutants
Classified as a high human health priority Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
One or more animal studies show sense organ effects at very low doses RTECS®- American Journal of Ophthalmology 1946
Classified as expected to be toxic or harmful Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
One or more animal studies show classified as toxic effects at low doses EPA Categorized List of Inert Pesticide Ingredients
One or more animal studies show sense organ effects at low doses RTECS®- "Prehled Prumyslove Toxikologie; Organicke Latky," Marhold, J 1986
One or more animal studies show sense organ effects at low doses RTECS®- Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 1959
Limited evidence of gastrointestinal or liver toxicity National Library of Medicine HazMap
Limited evidence of sense organ toxicity US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center, 2000
Limited evidence of respiratory toxicity US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center, 2000
Limited evidence of kidney toxicity A Relational Database of Hazardous Chemicals and Occupational Diseases, 2003
Limited evidence of cardiovascular or blood toxicity California EPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, 2003
Limited evidence of gastrointestinal or liver toxicity California EPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, 2003
One or more animal studies show classified as toxic effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs
One or more animal studies show sense organ effects at high doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) RTECS®- National Cancer Institute Carcinogenesis Technical Report Series 1978
One or more animal studies show sense organ effects at high doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) RTECS®- Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology 1946

Allergies/immunotoxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
Limited evidence of immune system toxicity or allergies National Library of Medicine HazMap

Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)

Type of concern: Reference:
Classified as irritant European Union - Classification & Labelling
One or more animal studies show skin irritation at moderate doses RTECS®- Union Carbide Data Sheet 1971

Developmental/reproductive toxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
One or more animal studies show reproductive effects at high doses RTECS®- Toxicology Letters 1985

Occupational hazards

Type of concern: Reference:
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2005
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2006
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- MSHA STANDARD-air: 3,94,1971
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Gen Indu): 29,1910 1994
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Construc): 29,1926 1994
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Shipyard): 29,1915 1993
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Fed Cont): 41,50-204 1994
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007

Ecotoxicology

Type of concern: Reference:
Not suspected to be an environmental toxin Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Persistence and bioaccumulation

Type of concern: Reference:
Not suspected to be bioaccumulative Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Neurotoxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
nervous system - weight of evidence unknown/unassessed/unreview: published lit review or major tox study National Library of Medicine HazMap

Miscellaneous

Type of concern: Reference:
Occupational hazards related to handling European Union - Classification & Labelling



Government, industry, academic studies and classifications

government/industry list/academic study appears on list as classification(s)
European Union - Classification & Labelling1,4-DIOXANE•Highly flammable
•Highly flammable
•Limited evidence of a carcinogenic effect
•Limited evidence of a carcinogenic effect
•Irritant (eyes, skin, or lungs)
•Irritating to eyes and respiratory system
•Repeated exposure may cause skin dryness or cracking
Amer Conf of Gov't Industrial Hygienists - Carcinogens1,4-DIOXANE•Confirmed animal carcinogen with unknown relevance to humans (ACGIH classification A3)
Association of Occupational and Environmental ClinicsDIOXANE• S
Association of Occupational and Environmental ClinicsDIOXANE• S
Canada - Prohibited and Restricted Cosmetics IngredientsDIOXANE•Prohibited from use in Canadian cosmetics
Environment Canada Domestic Substance List1,4-DIOXANE•This chemical was deemed a high human health priority and was flagged by CEPA for further attention. The chemical is suspected to be carcinogenic and persistent.
EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)1,4-DIOXANE•Group B2: Probable human carcinogen - sufficient data in animals (EPA classification)
European Union - Banned or Restricted in CosmeticsDIOXANE•Prohibited in EU cosmetics: must not form part of the composition of cosmetic products
EPA Hazardous Air Pollutants1,4-DIOXANE (1,4-DIETHYLENEOXIDE)•Hazardous air pollutant under Clean Air Act
National Library of Medicine HazMapDIOXANE•Skin Designation (ACGIH) - Danger of cutaneous absorption (ACGIH): Yes;
•Skin Sensitizer - An agent that can induce an allergic reaction in the skin or lungs: Yes;
•Hepatotoxin: Hepatotoxin, Secondary;
•Nephrotoxin: Yes;
•Neurotoxin: CNS Solvent Syndrome;
•PEL (OSHA) - Permissible exposure limit (OSHA): 100 ppm;
•LC50 - Lethal concentration in 50% of animals tested: 16174 ppm;
•IARC Carcinogen - International Agency for Research on Cancer; classifies chemicals as established (1), probable (2a), or possible (2b) human carcinogens: Possible Carcinogen;
•TLV (ACGIH) - Threshold limit value (ACGIH): 20 ppm;
•Flammability (NFPA) - NFPA flammability code: 0 = will not burn; 1 = must be preheated; 2 = high ambient temp required; 3 = may ignite at ambient temp; 4 = burn readily: 3: may ignite at ambient temperature;
•IDLH (NIOSH) - Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health: 500 ppm;
•Odor Threshold High - The lowest concentration at which a substance can be detected or recognized using the sense of smell: 172 ppm;
•Odor Threshold Low - The lowest concentration at which a substance can be detected or recognized using the sense of smell: 0.8 ppm;
•MAK - Maximum Allowable Concentration (Federal Republic of Germany): 20 ppm;
Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - Carcinogens1,4-DIOXANE•IARC Group 2B: possible human carcinogen (International Agency for Research on Carcinogens)
EPA Categorized List of Inert Pesticide IngredientsDIOXANE•Pesticide inerts of toxicological concern according to EPA (Environmental Protection Agency)
NIOSH Occupational CarcinogensDIOXANE•Potential occupational carcinogen according to NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health)
NTP Report on Carcinogens, 11th Edition1,4-DIOXANE•Reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen (National Toxicology Program classification)
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs1,4-DIOXANE•Toxic, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Toxics Release Inventory programs
California EPA Proposition 651,4-DIOXANE•Carcinogen: California Proposition 65
US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center, 20001,4-DIOXANE•Skin or sense organ toxicity hazards: suspected
US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center, 20001,4-DIOXANE•Respiratory toxicity hazards: suspected
A Relational Database of Hazardous Chemicals and Occupational Diseases, 20031,4-DIOXANE•Kidney toxicity hazards: suspected
California EPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, 20031,4-DIOXANE•Cardiovascular or blood toxicity hazards: suspected
California EPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, 20031,4-DIOXANE•Gastrointestinal or liver toxicity hazards: suspected
Proposition 65 List of Carcinogens1,4-DIOXANE•Cancer hazards: recognized
Silent Spring's Mammary Carcinogens Reviews Database1,4-DIOXANE•Chemicals Shown to Cause Mammary Gland Tumors in Animal Studies
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,20051,4-DIOXANE• occupationally related - ACGIH TLV (human TWA)
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,20061,4-DIOXANE• occupationally related - ACGIH TLV (human TWA)
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,20071,4-DIOXANE• occupationally related - ACGIH TLV (human TWA)
RTECS®- "Prehled Prumyslove Toxikologie; Organicke Latky," Marhold, J 19861,4-DIOXANE• sense organ - Primary eye irritant (rabbit )
RTECS®- American Journal of Ophthalmology 19461,4-DIOXANE• sense organ - Primary eye irritant (rabbit )
RTECS®- American Journal of Ophthalmology 19461,4-DIOXANE• sense organ - Primary eye irritant (rabbit )
RTECS®- Archives of Toxicology 19811,4-DIOXANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: other mutation test systems (rat ivn)
RTECS®- Archives of Toxicology 19811,4-DIOXANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: other mutation test systems (rat ivn)
RTECS®- Cancer Letters (Shannon, Ireland) 19901,4-DIOXANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage (rat orl)
RTECS®- Cancer Letters (Shannon, Ireland) 19901,4-DIOXANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage (rat orl)
RTECS®- Carcinogenesis (London) 19921,4-DIOXANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Inhibition ( human hla)
RTECS®- Carcinogenesis (London) 19921,4-DIOXANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Inhibition ( human hla)
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 19871,4-DIOXANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Sister Chromatid Exchange (hamster ovr)
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 19881,4-DIOXANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Morphological Transform (mouse fbr)
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 19871,4-DIOXANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Sister Chromatid Exchange (hamster ovr)
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 19881,4-DIOXANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Morphological Transform (mouse fbr)
RTECS®- Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology 19461,4-DIOXANE• sense organ - Primary eye irritant ( human )
RTECS®- Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 19591,4-DIOXANE• sense organ - Primary eye irritant (guinea pig )
RTECS®- Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 19591,4-DIOXANE• sense organ - Primary eye irritant (guinea pig )
RTECS®- MSHA STANDARD-air: 3,94,19711,4-DIOXANE• occupationally related - MSHA STANDARD-air (human TWA)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 19941,4-DIOXANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Micronucleus test (mouse orl)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 19941,4-DIOXANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Micronucleus test (mouse orl)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 20051,4-DIOXANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis (mouse scu)
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Micronucleus test (mouse scu)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 19941,4-DIOXANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Micronucleus test (mouse orl)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 19941,4-DIOXANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Micronucleus test (mouse orl)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 20051,4-DIOXANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis (mouse scu)
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Micronucleus test (mouse scu)
RTECS®- National Cancer Institute Carcinogenesis Technical Report Series 19781,4-DIOXANE• mutagenic - liver tumors (rat TDLo)
• sense organ - Tumors (rat TDLo)
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Construc): 29,1926 19941,4-DIOXANE• occupationally related - OSHA PEL (Construc) (human TWA)
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Fed Cont): 41,50-204 19941,4-DIOXANE• occupationally related - OSHA PEL (Fed Cont) (human TWA)
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Gen Indu): 29,1910 19941,4-DIOXANE• occupationally related - OSHA PEL (Gen Indu) (human TWA)
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Shipyard): 29,1915 19931,4-DIOXANE• occupationally related - OSHA PEL (Shipyard) (human TWA)
RTECS®- Personal Communication from J 19821,4-DIOXANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage (rat lvr)
RTECS®- Personal Communication from J 19821,4-DIOXANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage (rat lvr)
RTECS®- Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 19811,4-DIOXANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Unscheduled DNA Synthesis (rat orl)
RTECS®- Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 19811,4-DIOXANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Unscheduled DNA Synthesis (rat orl)
RTECS®- Toxicology Letters 19851,4-DIOXANE• reproductive - Fetotoxicity (rat TDLo)
RTECS®- Union Carbide Data Sheet 19711,4-DIOXANE• skin - Primary skin irritant (rabbit )



references

government/industry list/academic study reference
European Union - Classification & LabellingCPS&Q (Consumer Products Safety & Quality) formely known as ECB (European Chemicals Bureau). 2008. Classification and Labelling: Chemicals: Annex VI of Directive 67/548/EEC through the 31st ATP.
Amer Conf of Gov't Industrial Hygienists - CarcinogensACGIH (American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists) 2008. ACGIH cancer classification system. www.acgih.org.
Association of Occupational and Environmental ClinicsAOEC (Association of Occupational and Environmental Clinics). 2009. AEOC exposures codes and asthmagen designation.
Canada - Prohibited and Restricted Cosmetics IngredientsHealth Canada. 2007. List of Prohibited and Restricted Cosmetic Ingredients. Canada's Cosmetic Ingredient Hotlist. March 2007.
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListEC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2008. Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Evidence for human carcinogenicity based on 1986-2005 guidelines.
European Union - Banned or Restricted in CosmeticsEC (European Commission of the European Union). 1999-2006. Enterprise Directorate-General Pharmaceuticals and Cosmetics. The rules governing cosmetic products in the European Union, Volume 1, "Cosmetics legislation."
EPA Hazardous Air PollutantsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2005. Office of Air. The 112(b)1 Hazardous Air Pollutants List (as modified). Last modified: 12 Dec 2005.
National Library of Medicine HazMapNLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - CarcinogensIARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer). 2008. Overall Evaluations of Carcinogenicity to Humans, as evaluated in IARC Monographs Volumes 1-99 (a total of 935 agents, mixtures and exposures).
EPA Categorized List of Inert Pesticide IngredientsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1987 & 2005. Office of Pesticide Programs. Inert (other) Pesticide Ingredients in Pesticide Products - Categorized List of Inert (other) Pesticide Ingredients.
NIOSH Occupational CarcinogensNIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health). 2006. NIOSH Carcinogens List (Potential occupational carcinogens). http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/npotocca.html.
NTP Report on Carcinogens, 11th EditionNTP (National Toxicology Program). 2005. Report on Carcinogens, Eleventh Edition; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Toxicology Program.
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1999. Toxics Release Inventory Program. PBT Chemical Rule.
California EPA Proposition 65California EPA (California Environmental Protection Agency). 9/2008. Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act of 1986. Chemicals known to the State to cause cancer or reproductive toxicity.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationUS EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center. Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants. http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/hapindex.html, A Relational Database of Hazardous Chemicals and Occupational Diseases. Browse Haz-Map by Adverse Effects http://hazmap.nlm.nih.gov/hazmapadv.html, California EPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Acute Reference Exposure Levels (RELs), Averaging Times, and Toxicologic Endpoints. Includes all Acute Reference Exposure Levels (ARELs) developed by OEHHA through May 2000http://www.oehha.org/air/acute_rels/allAcRELs.html, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances. See Environmental Defense's Suspect Hazard Identification documentation.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationUS EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center. Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants. http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/hapindex.html, California EPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Acute Reference Exposure Levels (RELs), Averaging Times, and Toxicologic Endpoints. Includes all Acute Reference Exposure Levels (ARELs) developed by OEHHA through May 2000http://www.oehha.org/air/acute_rels/allAcRELs.html, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances. See Environmental Defense's Suspect Hazard Identification documentation.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationA Relational Database of Hazardous Chemicals and Occupational Diseases. Browse Haz-Map by Adverse Effects http://hazmap.nlm.nih.gov/hazmapadv.html, California EPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Air Toxics Hot Spots Program Risk Assessment Guidelines, Part III: Technical Support Document 'Determination of Noncancer Chronic Reference Exposure Levels'. Includes all Chronic Reference Exposure Levels (CRELs) adopted by OEHHA as of August 2003 (http://www.oehha.ca.gov/air/chronic_rels/AllChrels.html, plus draft CRELS proposed through March 2004 (http://www.oehha.ca.gov/air/chronic_rels/index.html., National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances. See Environmental Defense's Suspect Hazard Identification documentation.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationCalifornia EPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Air Toxics Hot Spots Program Risk Assessment Guidelines, Part III: Technical Support Document 'Determination of Noncancer Chronic Reference Exposure Levels'. Includes all Chronic Reference Exposure Levels (CRELs) adopted by OEHHA as of August 2003 (http://www.oehha.ca.gov/air/chronic_rels/AllChrels.html, plus draft CRELS proposed through March 2004 (http://www.oehha.ca.gov/air/chronic_rels/index.html., National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances. See Environmental Defense's Suspect Hazard Identification documentation.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationCalifornia EPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Air Toxics Hot Spots Program Risk Assessment Guidelines, Part III: Technical Support Document 'Determination of Noncancer Chronic Reference Exposure Levels'. Includes all Chronic Reference Exposure Levels (CRELs) adopted by OEHHA as of August 2003 (http://www.oehha.ca.gov/air/chronic_rels/AllChrels.html, plus draft CRELS proposed through March 2004 (http://www.oehha.ca.gov/air/chronic_rels/index.html., National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances. See Environmental Defense's Suspect Hazard Identification documentation.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationProposition 65 List of Carcinogens (July 2004) can be obtained from http://www.oehha.ca.gov/prop65/prop65_list/Newlist.html.
Silent Spring's Mammary Carcinogens Reviews DatabaseRudel RA, KR Attfield, JN Schifano and JG Brody. Chemicals Causing Mammary Gland Tumors in Animals Signal New Directions for Epidemiology, Chemicals Testing, and Risk Assessment for Breast Cancer Prevention. CANCER Supplement. 2007 Jun 15;109(12):2635-2666.
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2005RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2005
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2006RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2006
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007
RTECS®- "Prehled Prumyslove Toxikologie; Organicke Latky," Marhold, J 1986RTECS®- "Prehled Prumyslove Toxikologie; Organicke Latky," Marhold, J., Prague, Czechoslovakia, Avicenum, 1986 -,810,1986
RTECS®- American Journal of Ophthalmology 1946RTECS®- American Journal of Ophthalmology. (Ophthalmic Pub. Co., 435 N. Michigan Ave., Suite 1415, Chicago, IL 60611) Series 3: V.1- 1918- 29,1363,1946
RTECS®- American Journal of Ophthalmology 1946RTECS®- American Journal of Ophthalmology. (Ophthalmic Pub. Co., 435 N. Michigan Ave., Suite 1415, Chicago, IL 60611) Series 3: V.1- 29,1363,1946
RTECS®- Archives of Toxicology 1981RTECS®- Archives of Toxicology. (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberger Pl. 3, D-1000 Berlin 33, Fed. Rep. Ger.) V.32- 1974- 49,29,1981
RTECS®- Archives of Toxicology 1981RTECS®- Archives of Toxicology. (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberger Pl. 3, D-1000 Berlin 33, Fed. Rep. Ger.) V.32- 49,29,1981
RTECS®- Cancer Letters (Shannon, Ireland) 1990RTECS®- Cancer Letters (Shannon, Ireland). (Elsevier Scientific Pub. Ireland Ltd., POB 85, Limerick, Ireland) V.1- 53,67,1990
RTECS®- Cancer Letters (Shannon, Ireland) 1990RTECS®- Cancer Letters (Shannon, Ireland). (Elsevier Scientific Pub. Ireland Ltd., POB 85, Limerick, Ireland) V.1- 1975- 53,67,1990
RTECS®- Carcinogenesis (London) 1992RTECS®- Carcinogenesis (London). (Oxford Univ. Press, Pinkhill House, Southfield Road, Eynsham, Oxford OX8 1JJ, UK) V.1- 1980- 13,2389,1992
RTECS®- Carcinogenesis (London) 1992RTECS®- Carcinogenesis (London). (Oxford Univ. Press, Pinkhill House, Southfield Road, Eynsham, Oxford OX8 1JJ, UK) V.1- 13,2389,1992
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 1987RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.10- 1987- 10(Suppl 10),1,1987
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 1988RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.10- 1987- 11,41,1988
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 1987RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.10- 10(Suppl 10),1,1987
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 1988RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.10- 11,41,1988
RTECS®- Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology 1946RTECS®- Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. (Cambridge, MA) V.18-31, 1936-49. For publisher information, see AEHLAU. 28,262,1946
RTECS®- Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 1959RTECS®- Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology. (Pharmaceutical Soc. of Great Britain, 1 Lambeth High St., London SEI 7JN, UK) V.1- 11,150,1959
RTECS®- Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 1959RTECS®- Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology. (Pharmaceutical Soc. of Great Britain, 1 Lambeth High St., London SEI 7JN, UK) V.1- 1949- 11,150,1959
RTECS®- MSHA STANDARD-air: 3,94,1971RTECS®- MSHA STANDARD-air: 3,94,1971
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1994RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 322,142,1994
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1994RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 322,145,1994
RTECS®- Mutation Research 2005RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 586,28,2005
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1994RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- -1964 322,142,1994
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1994RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- -1964 322,145,1994
RTECS®- Mutation Research 2005RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- -1964 586,28,2005
RTECS®- National Cancer Institute Carcinogenesis Technical Report Series 1978RTECS®- National Cancer Institute Carcinogenesis Technical Report Series. (Bethesda, MD) No.0-205. For publisher information, see NTPTR*. NCI-TR-80,1978
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Construc): 29,1926 1994RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Construc): 29,1926.55,1994
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Fed Cont): 41,50-204 1994RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Fed Cont): 41,50-204.50,1994
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Gen Indu): 29,1910 1994RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Gen Indu): 29,1910.1000,1994
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Shipyard): 29,1915 1993RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Shipyard): 29,1915.1000,1993
RTECS®- Personal Communication from J 1982RTECS®- Personal Communication from J.F. Sina, Merck Institute for Therapeutic Research, West Point, PA 19486, Oct. 26, 1982 26OCT1982
RTECS®- Personal Communication from J 1982RTECS®- Personal Communication from J.F. Sina, Merck Institute for Therapeutic Research, West Point, PA 19486, Oct. 26, 1982 26OCT1982
RTECS®- Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 1981RTECS®- Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1- 1959- 60,287,1981
RTECS®- Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 1981RTECS®- Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1- 60,287,1981
RTECS®- Toxicology Letters 1985RTECS®- Toxicology Letters. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1977- 26,85,1985
RTECS®- Union Carbide Data Sheet 1971RTECS®- Union Carbide Data Sheet. (Union Carbide Corp., 39 Old Ridgebury Rd., Danbury, CT 06817) 12/17/1971

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