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National Drinking Water Database


National Drinking Water Database - Chemical Contaminants

1,3-Dichloropropene


Status: Unregulated - EPA has not established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

1,3-Dichloropropene is used in chemical synthesis, in agriculture as a soil fumigant and nematocide, and as a corrosion inhibition agent.

 
Detected
Found above
health guidelines
Found above
legal limit
States
3
3
-
Water utilities
10
9
-
People Served
627,042
236,692
-

Health Concerns for 1,3-Dichloropropene:


1,3-Dichloropropene Exposure by State

Water utilities in 3 states have reported detecting 1,3-Dichloropropene in treated tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies.

StateWater Suppliers with 1,3-Dichloropropene contaminationWater suppliers reporting 1,3-Dichloropropene above health-based limits
SystemsPopulationSystemsPopulation
California7618,1366227,786
Indiana16,26316,263
North Carolina22,64322,643
Total10627,0429236,692

The Most Polluted Communities

10 water utilities reported detecting 1,3-Dichloropropene in tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies

Ranked by highest average 1,3-Dichloropropene level

RankSystem Population Served Positive test results of total reported tests Average Level
(Range)
1San Gabriel Valley WC - Fontana
Fontana, CA
102,5991 of 661.97 ppb
(0 to 130 ppb)
2Town of White Lake
White Lake, NC
2,5001 of 30.47 ppb
(0 to 1.4 ppb)
3Sandy Mush Detention Center
Merced, CA
7791 of 40.44 ppb
(0 to 1.75 ppb)
4Walnut Park Mutual Water Co.
Huntington Park, CA
18,0001 of 150.33 ppb
(0 to 5 ppb)
5Rensselaer Water Department
Rensselaer, IN
6,2631 of 190.18 ppb
(0 to 3.5 ppb)
6Ridgebrook Bluff S/D
Apex, NC
1431 of 140.1 ppb
(0 to 1.4 ppb)
7Montara Water and Sanitary District
Montara, CA
5,4121 of 25< 0.01 ppb
(0 to 0.21 ppb)
8Monterey Park-City, Water Dept.
Monterey Park, CA
57,00015 of 318< 0.01 ppb
(0 to 0.41 ppb)
9Calam - Parkway
Sacramento, CA
43,9961 of 105< 0.01 ppb
(0 to 0.7 ppb)
10City of Fresno Water Division
Fresno, CA
390,3501 of 384< 0.01 ppb
(0 to 0.13 ppb)

Health Based Limits for 1,3-Dichloropropene

StandardDescriptionLevel
California Public Health GoalsDefined by the State of California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA) as the level of contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. For acutely toxic substances, levels are set at which scientific evidence indicates that no known or anticipated adverse effects on health will occur, plus an adequate margin-of safety. PHGs for carcinogens or other substances which can cause chronic disease shall be based solely on health effects without regard to cost impacts and shall be set at levels which OEHHA has determined do not pose any significant risk to health.0.2 ppb
Health-Based Screening LevelA benchmark concentration of contaminants in water that may be of potential concern for human health, if exceeded. For noncarcinogens, the HBSL represents the contaminant concentration in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse effects over a lifetime of exposure. For carcinogens, the HBSL range represents the contaminant concentration in drinking water that corresponds to an excess estimated lifetime cancer risk of 1 chance in 1 million to 1 chance in 10 thousand. Source: U.S. Geological Survey.0.3 ppb-30 ppb
One in one million (10-6) Cancer RiskThe concentration of a chemical in drinking water corresponding to an excess estimated lifetime cancer risk of 1 in 1,000,000. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.0.4 ppb
Children's health-based limit for 1-day exposureConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects for up to one day of exposure. The One-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.30 ppb
Children's health-based limit for 10-day exposureConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic effects for up to ten days of exposure. The Ten-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.30 ppb
EPA Human Health Water Quality CriteriaWater quality criteria set by the US EPA provide guidance for states and tribes authorized to establish water quality standards under the Clean Water Act (CWA) to protect human health. These are non-enforceable standards based upon exposure by both drinking water and the contribution of water contamination to other consumed foods. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.35 ppb
One in ten thousand (10-4) Cancer RiskThe concentration of a chemical in drinking water corresponding to an excess estimated lifetime cancer risk of 1 in 10,000. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.40 ppb
Drinking Water Equivalent LevelA lifetime exposure concentration protective of adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects, that assumes all of the exposure to a contaminant is from drinking water. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.1000 ppb

Testing Summary for 1,3-Dichloropropene

Are tests routinely required for 1,3-Dichloropropene by federal law?No
Water suppliers reporting tests for 1,3-Dichloropropene (2004-2009):10,281 of 47,576
Average testing rate for water supplier reporting tests (2004-2009):0.6 per year

Cancer

Type of concern: Reference:
Cancer - strong evidence Proposition 65 List of Carcinogens
Limited evidence of carcinogenicity Amer Conf of Gov't Industrial Hygienists - Carcinogens
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1998
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Science 1987
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 1989
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Canadian Journal of Genetics and Cytology 1980
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Environmental Mutagenesis 1983
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Environmental Mutagenesis 1980
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1988
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Environmental Mutagenesis 1985
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 2005
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 2004

Allergies/immunotoxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
Limited evidence of immune system toxicity or allergies European Economic Community

Occupational hazards

Type of concern: Reference:
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to low doses European Union - Classification & Labelling
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to moderate doses RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007

Persistence and bioaccumulation

Type of concern: Reference:
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife Canada PBTs - Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics (ARET)

Developmental/reproductive toxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
Limited evidence of reproductive toxicity Frazier , L, 1998

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

Type of concern: Reference:
Limited evidence of respiratory toxicity Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2004
Limited evidence of sense organ toxicity European Economic Community
One or more animal studies show classified as toxic effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs

Ecotoxicology

Type of concern: Reference:
Wildlife and environmental toxicity European Union - Classification & Labelling
Wildlife and environmental toxicity EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants



Government, industry, academic studies and classifications

government/industry list/academic study appears on list as classification(s)
European Union - Classification & Labelling1,3-DICHLOROPROPENE; [1] ; (Z)-1,3-DICHLOROPROPENE [2]•Harmful by inhalation
•Very toxic to aquatic organisms
Amer Conf of Gov't Industrial Hygienists - Carcinogens1,3-DICHLOROPROPENE (TECHNICAL GRADE) (DCP)•Confirmed animal carcinogen with unknown relevance to humans (ACGIH classification A3)
EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants1,3-DICHLOROPROPENE (MIXED ISOMERS)•Priority water pollutant under the Clean Water Act
Canada PBTs - Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics (ARET)1,3-DICHLORO-1-PROPENE•Toxicant of concern under Canada's Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics program - targeted for elimination or reduction
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs1,3-DICHLORO-1-PROPENE•Toxic, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Toxics Release Inventory programs
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 20041,3-DICHLOROPROPENE (MIXED ISOMERS)•Respiratory toxicity hazards: suspected
European Economic Community1,3-DICHLOROPROPENE (MIXED ISOMERS)•Skin or sense organ toxicity hazards: suspected
European Economic Community1,3-DICHLOROPROPENE (MIXED ISOMERS)•Immunotoxicity hazards: suspected
Frazier , L, 19981,3-DICHLOROPROPENE (MIXED ISOMERS)•Reproductive toxicity hazards: suspected
Proposition 65 List of Carcinogens1,3-DICHLOROPROPENE (MIXED ISOMERS)•Cancer hazards: recognized
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007PROPENE, 1,3-DICHLORO-• occupationally related - ACGIH TLV (human TWA)
RTECS®- Canadian Journal of Genetics and Cytology 1980PROPENE, 1,3-DICHLORO-• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Sister Chromatid Exchange (hamster ovr)
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 1989PROPENE, 1,3-DICHLORO-• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis (hamster ovr)
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 2004PROPENE, 1,3-DICHLORO-• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (Salmonella typhimurium )
RTECS®- Environmental Mutagenesis 1980PROPENE, 1,3-DICHLORO-• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (Salmonella typhimurium )
RTECS®- Environmental Mutagenesis 1983PROPENE, 1,3-DICHLORO-• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (Salmonella typhimurium )
RTECS®- Environmental Mutagenesis 1985PROPENE, 1,3-DICHLORO-• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Sex Chromosome Loss and Nondisjunction (Drosophila melanogaster orl)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1988PROPENE, 1,3-DICHLORO-• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: other mutation test systems (Escherichia coli )
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1998PROPENE, 1,3-DICHLORO-• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage (mouse ipr)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 2005PROPENE, 1,3-DICHLORO-• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (Salmonella typhimurium )
RTECS®- Science 1987PROPENE, 1,3-DICHLORO-• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Mammalian Somatic Cells (mouse lym)



references

government/industry list/academic study reference
European Union - Classification & LabellingCPS&Q (Consumer Products Safety & Quality) formely known as ECB (European Chemicals Bureau). 2008. Classification and Labelling: Chemicals: Annex VI of Directive 67/548/EEC through the 31st ATP.
Amer Conf of Gov't Industrial Hygienists - CarcinogensACGIH (American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists) 2008. ACGIH cancer classification system. www.acgih.org.
EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants
Canada PBTs - Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics (ARET)EC (Environment Canada). 1994. Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics (ARET). ARET substance list of persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic chemicals.
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1999. Toxics Release Inventory Program. PBT Chemical Rule.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationAgency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Minimal risk Levels for Hazardous Substances. January 2004. http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/mrls.html, US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center. Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants. http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/hapindex.html, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances. See Environmental Defense's Suspect Hazard Identification documentation.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationEuropean Economic Community. Sensitizing Substances in the EEC List of Dangerous Substances. Annex I to Council Directive 67/548/EEC. http://www.kemi.se/default_eng.cfm?page=klass_mark/klasshem_eng.htm, US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center. Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants. http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/hapindex.html, A Relational Database of Hazardous Chemicals and Occupational Diseases. Browse Haz-Map by Adverse Effects http://hazmap.nlm.nih.gov/hazmapadv.html
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationEuropean Economic Community. Sensitizing Substances in the EEC List of Dangerous Substances. Annex I to Council Directive 67/548/EEC. http://www.kemi.se/default_eng.cfm?page=klass_mark/klasshem_eng.htm, A Relational Database of Hazardous Chemicals and Occupational Diseases. Browse Haz-Map by Adverse Effects http://hazmap.nlm.nih.gov/hazmapadv.html
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationFrazier , L. and M. L. Hage (eds.). Reproductive Hazards of the Workplace, Wiley Europe, 1998. Table 10 (Partial List of Reproductive Toxicants) available at http://www.pharmacy.ohio-state.edu/homepage/safety/chemhygiene_table_repro.pdf.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationProposition 65 List of Carcinogens (July 2004) can be obtained from http://www.oehha.ca.gov/prop65/prop65_list/Newlist.html.
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007
RTECS®- Canadian Journal of Genetics and Cytology 1980RTECS®- Canadian Journal of Genetics and Cytology. (National Research Council of Canada, Publication Sales and Distribution, Ottawa ON K1A OR6, Canada) V.1- 22,681,1980
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 1989RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.10- 13,60,1989
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 2004RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.10- 44,329,2004
RTECS®- Environmental Mutagenesis 1980RTECS®- Environmental Mutagenesis. (New York, NY) V.1-9, 1979-87. For publisher information, see EMMUEG. 2,59,1980
RTECS®- Environmental Mutagenesis 1983RTECS®- Environmental Mutagenesis. (New York, NY) V.1-9, 1979-87. For publisher information, see EMMUEG. 5(Suppl 1),3,1983
RTECS®- Environmental Mutagenesis 1985RTECS®- Environmental Mutagenesis. (New York, NY) V.1-9, 1979-87. For publisher information, see EMMUEG. 7,325,1985
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1988RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 203,81,1988
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1998RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 419,13,1998
RTECS®- Mutation Research 2005RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 572,98,2005
RTECS®- Science 1987RTECS®- Science. (American Assoc. for the Advancement of Science, 1333 H St., NW, Washington, DC 20005) V.1- 236,933,1987

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