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National Drinking Water Database


National Drinking Water Database - Chemical Contaminants

1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene


Status: Regulated - EPA has established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene is a pollutant from textile finishing factories and industrial chemical manufacturing. [read more]

 
Detected
Found above
health guidelines
Found above
legal limit
States
20
-
-
Water utilities
55
-
-
People Served
1,092,407
-
-

Health Concerns for 1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene:


1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene Exposure by State

Water utilities in 20 states have reported detecting 1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene in treated tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies.

StateWater Suppliers with 1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene contamination
SystemsPopulation
Florida15752,712
California2162,744
Pennsylvania751,530
New Jersey143,000
Alabama120,961
Ohio115,062
Missouri414,379
Massachusetts18,906
Connecticut25,155
Virginia54,160
New York42,855
New Mexico12,401
Delaware12,300
Oklahoma11,640
Kentucky11,584
New Hampshire21,364
Indiana2673
Illinois1485
North Carolina2346
Oregon1150
Total551,092,407

The Most Polluted Communities

55 water utilities reported detecting 1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene in tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies

Ranked by highest average 1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene level

RankSystem Population Served Positive test results of total reported tests Average Level
(Range)
1Springhill Mobile Home Park
Wappingers Falls, NY
1501 of 10.8 ppb
(0.8 ppb)
2Usfs Toketee Ranger Station
Roseburg, OR
1501 of 10.7 ppb
(0.7 ppb)
320 Station Road - Apt Building
Brookfield, CT
271 of 10.67 ppb
(0.67 ppb)
4Mcconnellsburg Boro Muni Auth
Mcconnellsburg, PA
2,0002 of 50.56 ppb
(0 to 1.8 ppb)
5Bedford Hills/Taconic Corr. Facilities
Bedford Hills, NY
1,1001 of 10.5 ppb
(0.5 ppb)
6Holiday Travel Park
Bunnell, FL
821 of 40.43 ppb
(0 to 1.7 ppb)
7Aquarion Water Company: Millbury
Millbury, MA
8,9061 of 30.4 ppb
(0 to 1.2 ppb)
8Hca Tomhicken
Hazleton, PA
1231 of 50.4 ppb
(0 to 2 ppb)
9Newport Water Works
Newport, IN
5781 of 60.3 ppb
(0 to 1.8 ppb)
10Monroe Bay Trailer Park
Colonial Beach, VA
851 of 20.3 ppb
(0 to 0.6 ppb)

Health Based Limits for 1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene

StandardDescriptionLevel
California Public Health GoalsDefined by the State of California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA) as the level of contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. For acutely toxic substances, levels are set at which scientific evidence indicates that no known or anticipated adverse effects on health will occur, plus an adequate margin-of safety. PHGs for carcinogens or other substances which can cause chronic disease shall be based solely on health effects without regard to cost impacts and shall be set at levels which OEHHA has determined do not pose any significant risk to health.5 ppb
Maximum Contaminant Limit (MCL)The enforceable standard which defines the highest level of a contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. MCLs are set as close to health-based limits (Maximum Contaminant Level Goals, or MCLGs) as feasible using the best available analytical and treatment technologies and taking cost into consideration. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.70 ppb
Maximum Contaminant Limit Goal (MCLG)A non-enforceable health goal that is set at a level at which no known or anticipated adverse effect on the health of persons occurs and which allows an adequate margin of safety. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.70 ppb
Lifetime health-based limit, non-cancer riskConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects for a lifetime of exposure. The Lifetime health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is based on exposure for a a 70-kg adult consuming 2 liters of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.70 ppb
Children's health-based limit for 1-day exposureConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects for up to one day of exposure. The One-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.100 ppb
Children's health-based limit for 10-day exposureConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic effects for up to ten days of exposure. The Ten-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.100 ppb
EPA Human Health Water Quality CriteriaWater quality criteria set by the US EPA provide guidance for states and tribes authorized to establish water quality standards under the Clean Water Act (CWA) to protect human health. These are non-enforceable standards based upon exposure by both drinking water and the contribution of water contamination to other consumed foods. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.260 ppb
Drinking Water Equivalent LevelA lifetime exposure concentration protective of adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects, that assumes all of the exposure to a contaminant is from drinking water. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.350 ppb

Testing Summary for 1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene

Are tests routinely required for 1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene by federal law?Yes
Water suppliers reporting tests for 1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene (2004-2009):33,902 of 47,576
Average testing rate for water supplier reporting tests (2004-2009):0.6 per year

Violation Summary for 1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene

Data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency includes the following violations of federal standards for 1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene since 2004

Maximum Contaminant Level Exceedance Violations0
Monitoring Violations4,303
Reporting Violations0

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

Type of concern: Reference:
Known human respiratory toxicant EPA Hazardous Air Pollutants
Classified as expected to be toxic or harmful Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
Classified as toxic or harmful European Union - Classification & Labelling
Limited evidence of gastrointestinal or liver toxicity National Library of Medicine HazMap
One or more animal studies show classified as toxic effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs

Persistence and bioaccumulation

Type of concern: Reference:
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife and humans EU PTBs - PRIO database & Secondary PRIO database
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife OSPAR PBTs - Substances of Possible Concern
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife EPA PBTs - Waste Minimization Program (RCRA)
Not suspected to be bioaccumulative Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Occupational hazards

Type of concern: Reference:
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to low doses European Union - Classification & Labelling

Developmental/reproductive toxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
Limited evidence of developmental toxicity US EPA, 9204

Cancer

Type of concern: Reference:
Cancer - limited evidence California Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, 6020
Cancer - not classifiable/not likely to be human carcinogen EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutagenesis 1987

Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)

Type of concern: Reference:
Classified as irritant European Union - Classification & Labelling
One or more animal studies show skin irritation at low doses RTECS®- Archives of Environmental Health 1975

Ecotoxicology

Type of concern: Reference:
Wildlife and environmental toxicity European Union - Classification & Labelling
Wildlife and environmental toxicity EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants
Wildlife and environmental toxicity European Union - Water Framework Directive
Suspected to be an environmental toxin and be persistent or bioaccumulative Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
Suspected to be an environmental toxin Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Neurotoxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
nervous system - weight of evidence unknown/unassessed/unreview: published lit review or major tox study National Library of Medicine HazMap



Government, industry, academic studies and classifications

government/industry list/academic study appears on list as classification(s)
European Union - Classification & Labelling1,2,4-TRICHLOROBENZENE•Harmful
•Harmful if swallowed
•Irritant (eyes, skin, or lungs)
•Irritating to skin
•Dangerous for the environment
•Very toxic to aquatic organisms
Association of Occupational and Environmental Clinics1,2,4-TRICHLOROBENZENE• o
EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants1,2,4-TRICHLOROBENZENE•Priority water pollutant under the Clean Water Act
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListBENZENE, 1,2,4-TRICHLORO-•This chemical was flagged for further attention by CEPA due to suspected aquatic toxicity and persistence.
EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)1,2,4-TRICHLOROBENZENE•Group D: Not classifiable as to human carcinogenicity (EPA classification)
European Union - Water Framework Directive(1,2,4-TRICHLOROBENZENE)•Priority substance in EU water policy
EPA Hazardous Air Pollutants1,2,4-TRICHLOROBENZENE•Hazardous air pollutant under Clean Air Act
National Library of Medicine HazMap1,2,4-TRICHLOROBENZENE•Hepatotoxin: Hepatotoxin, Secondary;
•Neurotoxin: CNS Solvent Syndrome;
•Ceiling (American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygiene, ACGIH): 5 ppm;
•Odor Threshold Low - The lowest concentration at which a substance can be detected or recognized using the sense of smell: 2.96 ppm;
EU PTBs - PRIO database & Secondary PRIO database1,2,4-TRICHLOROBENZENE•Persistent, bioaccumulative toxicant - European Chemicals Bureau PBT working group
OSPAR PBTs - Substances of Possible Concern1,2,4TRICHLOROBENZENE•Persistent, bioaccumulative toxicant - Oslo-Paris (OSPAR) Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic, priority chemical
OSPAR PBTs - Substances of Possible Concern1,2,4TRICHLOROBENZENE•Persistent, bioaccumulative toxicant - Oslo-Paris (OSPAR) Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic, chemical of concern
EPA PBTs - Waste Minimization Program (RCRA)1,2,4-TRICHLOROBENZENE•Persistent, bioaccumulative toxicant - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, priority chemical for voluntary waste/emission reductions
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs1,2,4TRICHLOROBENZENE•Toxic, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Toxics Release Inventory programs
US EPA, 92041,2,4-TRICHLOROBENZENE•Developmental toxicity hazards: suspected
California Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, 60201,2,4-TRICHLOROBENZENE•Cancer hazards: suspected
RTECS®- Archives of Environmental Health 19751,2,4-TRICHLOROBENZENE• skin - Primary skin irritant (rabbit )
RTECS®- Mutagenesis 19871,2,4-TRICHLOROBENZENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Micronucleus test (mouse ipr)



references

government/industry list/academic study reference
European Union - Classification & LabellingCPS&Q (Consumer Products Safety & Quality) formely known as ECB (European Chemicals Bureau). 2008. Classification and Labelling: Chemicals: Annex VI of Directive 67/548/EEC through the 31st ATP.
Association of Occupational and Environmental ClinicsAOEC (Association of Occupational and Environmental Clinics). 2009. AEOC exposures codes and asthmagen designation.
EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListEC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2008. Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Evidence for human carcinogenicity based on 1986-2005 guidelines.
European Union - Water Framework DirectiveEU (European Union). 2000. Water Framework Directive (Directive 2000/60/EC ) - integrated river basin management for Europe. List of priority substances.
EPA Hazardous Air PollutantsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2005. Office of Air. The 112(b)1 Hazardous Air Pollutants List (as modified). Last modified: 12 Dec 2005.
National Library of Medicine HazMapNLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
EU PTBs - PRIO database & Secondary PRIO databaseEU (European Union). 2006. Persistent, bioaccumulative chemicals identified in PRIO database - a tool for risk reduction of chemicals. Secondary PRIO database - a tool for risk reduction of chemicals. Secondary Kemi. Place Published, Kemi-Swedish Chemicals Inspectorate.
OSPAR PBTs - Substances of Possible ConcernOSPAR (Oslo-Paris). 2002. OSPAR List of Substances of Possible Concern. Secondary OSPAR List of Substances of Possible Concern. Secondary OSPAR. Place Published, OSPAR Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environement of North-East Atlanic.
EPA PBTs - Waste Minimization Program (RCRA)EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1998. Resource Conservatin and Recovery Act (RCRA) Waste Minimization Program - priority chemicals for elimination or reduction.
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1999. Toxics Release Inventory Program. PBT Chemical Rule.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationUS EPA. Roadmaps to Sources of Information on Chemicals Listed in the Emergency Planning Community and Community Right-to-Know Act (Also Known as SARA Title 3), Section 313 Toxic Release Inventory (for Microcomputers). (Report Number EPADFDK92040). 1991. Data file distributed in 2 diskettes by Office of Pollution, Prevention, and Toxics, Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. NOTE: Datasource no longer being maintained by EPA; not currently available online.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationCalifornia Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Toxicity Criteria Database - OEHHA Cancer Potency Values . http://www.oehha.ca.gov/risk/pdf/60204cascpl.pdf., Proposition 65 List of Carcinogens (July 2004) can be obtained from http://www.oehha.ca.gov/prop65/prop65_list/Newlist.html.-CAND
RTECS®- Archives of Environmental Health 1975RTECS®- Archives of Environmental Health. (Heldref Pub., 4000 Albemarle St., NW, Washington, DC 20016) V.1- 30,165,1975
RTECS®- Mutagenesis 1987RTECS®- Mutagenesis. (Oxford Univ. Press, Pinkhill House, Southfield Road, Eynsham, Oxford OX8 1JJ, UK) V.1- 2,111,1987

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