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National Drinking Water Database


National Drinking Water Database - Chemical Contaminants

1,2,3-Trichloropropane


Status: Unregulated - EPA has not established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

1,2,3-Trichloropropane is an industrial solvent, degreasing agent, and paint and varnish remover.

 
Detected
Found above
health guidelines
Found above
legal limit
States
12
11
-
Water utilities
132
130
-
People Served
4,536,180
4,434,671
-

Health Concerns for 1,2,3-Trichloropropane:


1,2,3-Trichloropropane Exposure by State

Water utilities in 12 states have reported detecting 1,2,3-Trichloropropane in treated tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies.

StateWater Suppliers with 1,2,3-Trichloropropane contaminationWater suppliers reporting 1,2,3-Trichloropropane above health-based limits
SystemsPopulationSystemsPopulation
California663,152,025653,053,295
Hawaii131,020,192131,020,192
Maine38315,88638315,886
Florida119,000119,000
New Jersey212,430212,430
Alabama14,31414,314
North Carolina33,45433,454
New York32,70532,705
Delaware12,05612,056
Washington21,29121,291
New Hampshire148148
Missouri12,77900
Total1324,536,1801304,434,671

The Most Polluted Communities

132 water utilities reported detecting 1,2,3-Trichloropropane in tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies

Ranked by highest average 1,2,3-Trichloropropane level

RankSystem Population Served Positive test results of total reported tests Average Level
(Range)
1Anson Water District
North Anson, ME
1,6301 of 140 ppb
(40 ppb)
2North Jay Water District
Jay, ME
6001 of 140 ppb
(40 ppb)
3Hampden Water District
Hampden, ME
3,9652 of 240 ppb
(40 ppb)
4Dexter Utility District
Dexter, ME
2,2004 of 626.67 ppb
(0 to 40 ppb)
5Kennebec Water District
Waterville, ME
21,5005 of 825 ppb
(0 to 40 ppb)
6Loring Utilities
Limestone, ME
1,4093 of 524 ppb
(0 to 40 ppb)
7Livermore Falls Water District
Livermore Falls, ME
3,2103 of 524 ppb
(0 to 40 ppb)
8Newport Water District
Newport, ME
1,5903 of 524 ppb
(0 to 40 ppb)
9Long Pond Water District
Sullivan, ME
4232 of 420 ppb
(0 to 40 ppb)
10Buckfield Water District
Buckfield, ME
4452 of 420 ppb
(0 to 40 ppb)

Health Based Limits for 1,2,3-Trichloropropane

StandardDescriptionLevel
California Public Health GoalsDefined by the State of California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA) as the level of contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. For acutely toxic substances, levels are set at which scientific evidence indicates that no known or anticipated adverse effects on health will occur, plus an adequate margin-of safety. PHGs for carcinogens or other substances which can cause chronic disease shall be based solely on health effects without regard to cost impacts and shall be set at levels which OEHHA has determined do not pose any significant risk to health.<0.01 ppb
Lifetime health-based limit, non-cancer riskConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects for a lifetime of exposure. The Lifetime health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is based on exposure for a a 70-kg adult consuming 2 liters of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.40 ppb
Health-Based Screening LevelA benchmark concentration of contaminants in water that may be of potential concern for human health, if exceeded. For noncarcinogens, the HBSL represents the contaminant concentration in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse effects over a lifetime of exposure. For carcinogens, the HBSL range represents the contaminant concentration in drinking water that corresponds to an excess estimated lifetime cancer risk of 1 chance in 1 million to 1 chance in 10 thousand. Source: U.S. Geological Survey.40 ppb
Drinking Water Equivalent LevelA lifetime exposure concentration protective of adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects, that assumes all of the exposure to a contaminant is from drinking water. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.200 ppb
Children's health-based limit for 1-day exposureConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects for up to one day of exposure. The One-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.600 ppb
Children's health-based limit for 10-day exposureConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic effects for up to ten days of exposure. The Ten-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.600 ppb

Testing Summary for 1,2,3-Trichloropropane

Are tests routinely required for 1,2,3-Trichloropropane by federal law?No
Water suppliers reporting tests for 1,2,3-Trichloropropane (2004-2009):21,327 of 47,576
Average testing rate for water supplier reporting tests (2004-2009):0.6 per year

Cancer

Type of concern: Reference:
Possible human carcinogen European Union - Classification & Labelling
Possible human carcinogen Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - Carcinogens
Possible human carcinogen NTP Report on Carcinogens, 11th Edition
Possible human carcinogen NTP - Tumor Induction in Mammary Gland
Possible human carcinogen California EPA Proposition 65
Cancer - strong evidence Proposition 65 List of Carcinogens
Limited evidence of carcinogenicity Amer Conf of Gov't Industrial Hygienists - Carcinogens
Limited evidence of carcinogenicity NIOSH Occupational Carcinogens
Possible carcinogen Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
One or more human case studies show possible cancer findings NTP - Tumor Induction in Mammary Gland
Cancer - limited evidence CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Cancer - limited evidence Silent Spring's Mammary Carcinogens Reviews Database
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1996
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Chemical Research in Toxicology 1991
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine (English Translation) 1974
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Environmental Mutagenesis 1987
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Environmental Mutagenesis 1985

Developmental/reproductive toxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
Limited evidence of reproductive toxicity European Union - Classification & Labelling
Possible human reproductive or developmental toxin Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
Limited evidence of reproductive toxicity Chapin, R, 1997

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

Type of concern: Reference:
Classified as a high human health priority Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
Classified as expected to be toxic or harmful Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
One or more animal studies show sense organ effects at low doses RTECS®- National Technical Information Service 4994
Classified as toxic or harmful European Union - Classification & Labelling
Limited evidence of gastrointestinal or liver toxicity National Library of Medicine HazMap
Limited evidence of respiratory toxicity Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2004
Limited evidence of gastrointestinal or liver toxicity Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2004
Limited evidence of kidney toxicity US EPA, 1788
Limited evidence of cardiovascular or blood toxicity US EPA, 1788
One or more animal studies show classified as toxic effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs

Occupational hazards

Type of concern: Reference:
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to low doses European Union - Classification & Labelling
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- MSHA STANDARD-air: 3,266,1971
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Gen Indu): 29,1910 1994
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Construc): 29,1926 1994
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Shipyard): 29,1915 1993
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Fed Cont): 41,50-204 1994

Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)

Type of concern: Reference:
One or more animal studies show skin irritation at moderate doses RTECS®- National Technical Information Service 4994

Persistence and bioaccumulation

Type of concern: Reference:
Not suspected to be bioaccumulative Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Neurotoxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
nervous system - weight of evidence unknown/unassessed/unreview: published lit review or major tox study National Library of Medicine HazMap

Ecotoxicology

Type of concern: Reference:
Not suspected to be an environmental toxin Environment Canada Domestic Substance List



Government, industry, academic studies and classifications

government/industry list/academic study appears on list as classification(s)
European Union - Classification & Labelling1,2,3-TRICHLOROPROPANE•May cause cancer
•May cause cancer
•May be toxic to the reproductive system
•May impair fertility
•Harmful
•Harmful by inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed
Amer Conf of Gov't Industrial Hygienists - Carcinogens1,2,3-TRICHLOROPROPANE•Confirmed animal carcinogen with unknown relevance to humans (ACGIH classification A3)
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListPROPANE, 1,2,3-TRICHLORO-•This chemical was deemed a high human health priority and was flagged by CEPA for further attention. The chemical is suspected to be carcinogenic, a reproductive toxin, and persistent.
National Library of Medicine HazMap1,2,3-TRICHLOROPROPANE•Skin Designation (ACGIH) - Danger of cutaneous absorption (ACGIH): Yes;
•Hepatotoxin: Hepatotoxin, Secondary;
•Neurotoxin: CNS Solvent Syndrome;
•PEL (OSHA) - Permissible exposure limit (OSHA): 50 ppm;
•LC50 - Lethal concentration in 50% of animals tested: 888 ppm;
•IARC Carcinogen - International Agency for Research on Cancer; classifies chemicals as established (1), probable (2a), or possible (2b) human carcinogens: Probable Carcinogen;
•TLV (ACGIH) - Threshold limit value (ACGIH): 10 ppm;
•Flammability (NFPA) - NFPA flammability code: 0 = will not burn; 1 = must be preheated; 2 = high ambient temp required; 3 = may ignite at ambient temp; 4 = burn readily: 2: high ambient temperature required;
•IDLH (NIOSH) - Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health: 100 ppm;
•Odor Threshold Low - The lowest concentration at which a substance can be detected or recognized using the sense of smell: 100 ppm;
Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - Carcinogens1,2,3-TRICHLOROPROPANE•IARC Group 2A: probable human carcinogen (International Agency for Research on Carcinogens)
NIOSH Occupational Carcinogens1,2,3-TRICHLOROPROPANE•Potential occupational carcinogen according to NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health)
NTP Report on Carcinogens, 11th Edition1,2,3-TRICHLOROPROPANE•Reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen (National Toxicology Program classification)
NTP - Tumor Induction in Mammary Gland1,2,3-TRICHLOROPROPANE•Induces mammary tumors (National Toxicology Program classification)
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs1,2,3TRICHLOROPROPANE•Toxic, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Toxics Release Inventory programs
California EPA Proposition 651,2,3-TRICHLOROPROPANE•Carcinogen: California Proposition 65
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 20041,2,3-TRICHLOROPROPANE•Respiratory toxicity hazards: suspected
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 20041,2,3-TRICHLOROPROPANE•Gastrointestinal or liver toxicity hazards: suspected
US EPA, 17881,2,3-TRICHLOROPROPANE•Kidney toxicity hazards: suspected
US EPA, 17881,2,3-TRICHLOROPROPANE•Cardiovascular or blood toxicity hazards: suspected
Chapin, R, 19971,2,3-TRICHLOROPROPANE•Reproductive toxicity hazards: suspected
Proposition 65 List of Carcinogens1,2,3-TRICHLOROPROPANE•Cancer hazards: recognized
Silent Spring's Mammary Carcinogens Reviews Database1,2,3-TRICHLOROPROPANE•Chemicals Shown to Cause Mammary Gland Tumors in Animal Studies
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,20071,2,3-TRICHLOROPROPANE• occupationally related - ACGIH TLV (human TWA)
RTECS®- Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine (English Translation) 19741,2,3-TRICHLOROPROPANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis (rat ihl)
RTECS®- Chemical Research in Toxicology 19911,2,3-TRICHLOROPROPANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage (rat ipr)
RTECS®- Environmental Mutagenesis 19851,2,3-TRICHLOROPROPANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (Salmonella typhimurium )
RTECS®- Environmental Mutagenesis 19871,2,3-TRICHLOROPROPANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Sister Chromatid Exchange (hamster lng)
RTECS®- MSHA STANDARD-air: 3,266,19711,2,3-TRICHLOROPROPANE• occupationally related - MSHA STANDARD-air (human TWA)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 19961,2,3-TRICHLOROPROPANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage ( human lym)
RTECS®- National Technical Information Service 49941,2,3-TRICHLOROPROPANE• sense organ - Primary eye irritant (rabbit )
• skin - Primary skin irritant (rabbit )
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Construc): 29,1926 19941,2,3-TRICHLOROPROPANE• occupationally related - OSHA PEL (Construc) (human TWA)
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Fed Cont): 41,50-204 19941,2,3-TRICHLOROPROPANE• occupationally related - OSHA PEL (Fed Cont) (human TWA)
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Gen Indu): 29,1910 19941,2,3-TRICHLOROPROPANE• occupationally related - OSHA PEL (Gen Indu) (human TWA)
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Shipyard): 29,1915 19931,2,3-TRICHLOROPROPANE• occupationally related - OSHA PEL (Shipyard) (human TWA)



references

government/industry list/academic study reference
European Union - Classification & LabellingCPS&Q (Consumer Products Safety & Quality) formely known as ECB (European Chemicals Bureau). 2008. Classification and Labelling: Chemicals: Annex VI of Directive 67/548/EEC through the 31st ATP.
Amer Conf of Gov't Industrial Hygienists - CarcinogensACGIH (American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists) 2008. ACGIH cancer classification system. www.acgih.org.
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListEC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
National Library of Medicine HazMapNLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - CarcinogensIARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer). 2008. Overall Evaluations of Carcinogenicity to Humans, as evaluated in IARC Monographs Volumes 1-99 (a total of 935 agents, mixtures and exposures).
NIOSH Occupational CarcinogensNIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health). 2006. NIOSH Carcinogens List (Potential occupational carcinogens). http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/npotocca.html.
NTP Report on Carcinogens, 11th EditionNTP (National Toxicology Program). 2005. Report on Carcinogens, Eleventh Edition; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Toxicology Program.
NTP - Tumor Induction in Mammary GlandNTP (National Toxicology Program) 2006. Chemicals Associated with Site-Specific Tumor Induction in Mammary Gland.
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1999. Toxics Release Inventory Program. PBT Chemical Rule.
California EPA Proposition 65California EPA (California Environmental Protection Agency). 9/2008. Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act of 1986. Chemicals known to the State to cause cancer or reproductive toxicity.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationAgency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Minimal risk Levels for Hazardous Substances. January 2004. http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/mrls.html, US EPA. Addition of Certain Chemicals; Toxic Chemical Release Reporting; Community Right to Know. Proposed and Final Rules. 59 Federal Register 1788 (Jan 12, 1994); 59 Federal Register 61432 (November 30, 1994). Summarized in Hazard Information on Toxic Chemicals Added to EPCRA Section 313 Under Chemical Expansion. http://www.epa.gov/tri/chemical/hazard_cx.htm
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationAgency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Minimal risk Levels for Hazardous Substances. January 2004. http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/mrls.html, US EPA. Addition of Certain Chemicals; Toxic Chemical Release Reporting; Community Right to Know. Proposed and Final Rules. 59 Federal Register 1788 (Jan 12, 1994); 59 Federal Register 61432 (November 30, 1994). Summarized in Hazard Information on Toxic Chemicals Added to EPCRA Section 313 Under Chemical Expansion. http://www.epa.gov/tri/chemical/hazard_cx.htm, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances. See Environmental Defense's Suspect Hazard Identification documentation.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationUS EPA. Addition of Certain Chemicals; Toxic Chemical Release Reporting; Community Right to Know. Proposed and Final Rules. 59 Federal Register 1788 (Jan 12, 1994); 59 Federal Register 61432 (November 30, 1994). Summarized in Hazard Information on Toxic Chemicals Added to EPCRA Section 313 Under Chemical Expansion. http://www.epa.gov/tri/chemical/hazard_cx.htm
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationUS EPA. Addition of Certain Chemicals; Toxic Chemical Release Reporting; Community Right to Know. Proposed and Final Rules. 59 Federal Register 1788 (Jan 12, 1994); 59 Federal Register 61432 (November 30, 1994). Summarized in Hazard Information on Toxic Chemicals Added to EPCRA Section 313 Under Chemical Expansion. http://www.epa.gov/tri/chemical/hazard_cx.htm, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances. See Environmental Defense's Suspect Hazard Identification documentation.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationChapin, R.E. and R.A. Sloane. NIEHS/NTP Reproductive Assessment by Continuous Breeding: Evolving Study Design and Summaries of Ninety Studies. Environmental Health Perspectives 105, Supplement 1: 199-394. 1997. http://ehpnet1.niehs.nih.gov/docs/1997/Suppl-1/chapin.html
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationProposition 65 List of Carcinogens (July 2004) can be obtained from http://www.oehha.ca.gov/prop65/prop65_list/Newlist.html.
Silent Spring's Mammary Carcinogens Reviews DatabaseRudel RA, KR Attfield, JN Schifano and JG Brody. Chemicals Causing Mammary Gland Tumors in Animals Signal New Directions for Epidemiology, Chemicals Testing, and Risk Assessment for Breast Cancer Prevention. CANCER Supplement. 2007 Jun 15;109(12):2635-2666.
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007
RTECS®- Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine (English Translation) 1974RTECS®- Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine (English Translation). Translation of BEBMAE. (Plenum Pub. Corp., 233 Spring St., New York, NY 10013) V.41- 78,1414,1974
RTECS®- Chemical Research in Toxicology 1991RTECS®- Chemical Research in Toxicology. (American Chemical Soc., Distribution Office Dept. 223, POB 57/36, West End Station, Washington, DC 20037) V.1- 4,528,1991
RTECS®- Environmental Mutagenesis 1985RTECS®- Environmental Mutagenesis. (New York, NY) V.1-9, 1979-87. For publisher information, see EMMUEG. 7(Suppl 3),15,1985
RTECS®- Environmental Mutagenesis 1987RTECS®- Environmental Mutagenesis. (New York, NY) V.1-9, 1979-87. For publisher information, see EMMUEG. 9,401,1987
RTECS®- MSHA STANDARD-air: 3,266,1971RTECS®- MSHA STANDARD-air: 3,266,1971
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1996RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 371,185,1996
RTECS®- National Technical Information Service 4994RTECS®- National Technical Information Service. (Springfield, VA 22161) Formerly U.S. Clearinghouse for Scientific & Technical Information. OTS0534994
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Construc): 29,1926 1994RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Construc): 29,1926.55,1994
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Fed Cont): 41,50-204 1994RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Fed Cont): 41,50-204.50,1994
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Gen Indu): 29,1910 1994RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Gen Indu): 29,1910.1000,1994
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Shipyard): 29,1915 1993RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Shipyard): 29,1915.1000,1993

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