The Power of Information

National Drinking Water Database


National Drinking Water Database - Chemical Contaminants

1,2-Dichloropropane


Status: Regulated - EPA has established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

1,2-Dichloropropane is used as a solvent and intermediate in the production of dry cleaning agent perchloroethylene; it is released as a pollutant from chemical factories, landfills, and from agricultural soil due to former use as a fumigant. [read more]

 
Detected
Found above
health guidelines
Found above
legal limit
States
23
23
1
Water utilities
104
104
3
People Served
2,304,834
2,304,834
286

Health Concerns for 1,2-Dichloropropane:


1,2-Dichloropropane Exposure by State

Water utilities in 23 states have reported detecting 1,2-Dichloropropane in treated tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies.

StateWater Suppliers with 1,2-Dichloropropane contaminationWater suppliers reporting 1,2-Dichloropropane above health-based limits
SystemsPopulationSystemsPopulation
New Jersey4918,1324918,132
California13699,81013699,810
Florida9396,5499396,549
New York7174,9157174,915
Wisconsin926,283926,283
Ohio323,833323,833
North Carolina3115,9213115,921
Connecticut113,707113,707
Massachusetts17,85617,856
Texas47,27747,277
Minnesota24,21224,212
Missouri13,27313,273
Washington32,57732,577
New Mexico12,40112,401
Pennsylvania22,08522,085
Virginia11,65011,650
Nebraska21,64221,642
Illinois19801980
Iowa28892889
New Hampshire44564456
Wyoming12541254
Michigan11011101
Oregon131131
Total1042,304,8341042,304,834

The Most Polluted Communities

104 water utilities reported detecting 1,2-Dichloropropane in tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies

Ranked by highest average 1,2-Dichloropropane level

RankSystem Population Served Positive test results of total reported tests Average Level
(Range)
1Bass MH Court
Nashville, NC
1074 of 53.98 ppb
(0 to 6 ppb)
2Harmony Homes
Altamonte Springs, FL
2344 of 52.48 ppb
(0 to 4.3 ppb)
3Harmony Acres Mobile Park
Tangent, OR
311 of 12 ppb
(2 ppb)
4Bay Laurel S/D
Wake Forest, NC
5919 of 201.61 ppb
(0 to 2.9 ppb)
5Ridgeview S/D
Garner, NC
8518 of 191.59 ppb
(0 to 7.8 ppb)
6Lakeview Park Water Assn
Soap Lake, WA
1,0413 of 51.44 ppb
(0 to 3.1 ppb)
7Duncan Ridge S/D
Fuquay Varina, NC
469 of 101.42 ppb
(0 to 2.4 ppb)
8Kanawha Water Supply
Kanawha, IA
7391 of 11.4 ppb
(1.4 ppb)
9Aquarion Water Co of CT-Simsbury System
Bridgeport, CT
13,70753 of 691.33 ppb
(0 to 3.07 ppb)
10Blythe Mobile Home Estates
Blythe, CA
301 of 11.3 ppb
(1.3 ppb)

Health Based Limits for 1,2-Dichloropropane

StandardDescriptionLevel
Maximum Contaminant Limit Goal (MCLG)A non-enforceable health goal that is set at a level at which no known or anticipated adverse effect on the health of persons occurs and which allows an adequate margin of safety. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.0 ppb
California Public Health GoalsDefined by the State of California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA) as the level of contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. For acutely toxic substances, levels are set at which scientific evidence indicates that no known or anticipated adverse effects on health will occur, plus an adequate margin-of safety. PHGs for carcinogens or other substances which can cause chronic disease shall be based solely on health effects without regard to cost impacts and shall be set at levels which OEHHA has determined do not pose any significant risk to health.0.5 ppb
EPA Human Health Water Quality CriteriaWater quality criteria set by the US EPA provide guidance for states and tribes authorized to establish water quality standards under the Clean Water Act (CWA) to protect human health. These are non-enforceable standards based upon exposure by both drinking water and the contribution of water contamination to other consumed foods. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.0.5 ppb
One in one million (10-6) Cancer RiskThe concentration of a chemical in drinking water corresponding to an excess estimated lifetime cancer risk of 1 in 1,000,000. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.0.6 ppb
Maximum Contaminant Limit (MCL)The enforceable standard which defines the highest level of a contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. MCLs are set as close to health-based limits (Maximum Contaminant Level Goals, or MCLGs) as feasible using the best available analytical and treatment technologies and taking cost into consideration. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.5 ppb
One in ten thousand (10-4) Cancer RiskThe concentration of a chemical in drinking water corresponding to an excess estimated lifetime cancer risk of 1 in 10,000. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.60 ppb
Children's health-based limit for 10-day exposureConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic effects for up to ten days of exposure. The Ten-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.90 ppb

Testing Summary for 1,2-Dichloropropane

Are tests routinely required for 1,2-Dichloropropane by federal law?Yes
Water suppliers reporting tests for 1,2-Dichloropropane (2004-2009):33,971 of 47,576
Average testing rate for water supplier reporting tests (2004-2009):0.6 per year

Violation Summary for 1,2-Dichloropropane

Data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency includes the following violations of federal standards for 1,2-Dichloropropane since 2004

Maximum Contaminant Level Exceedance Violations0
Monitoring Violations4,302
Reporting Violations0

Cancer

Type of concern: Reference:
Possible human carcinogen NTP - Tumor Induction in Mammary Gland
Possible human carcinogen California EPA Proposition 65
Cancer - strong evidence Proposition 65 List of Carcinogens
Limited evidence of carcinogenicity NIOSH Occupational Carcinogens
One or more human case studies show possible cancer findings NTP - Tumor Induction in Mammary Gland
Cancer - limited evidence CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Cancer - limited evidence Silent Spring's Mammary Carcinogens Reviews Database
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Science 1987
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- National Toxicology Program Technical Report Series 1986
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 1987
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Environmental Mutagenesis 1987
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Environmental Mutagenesis 1983
Cancer - not classifiable/not likely to be human carcinogen Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - Carcinogens

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

Type of concern: Reference:
Known human respiratory toxicant EPA Hazardous Air Pollutants
One or more animal studies show classified as toxic effects at low doses EPA Categorized List of Inert Pesticide Ingredients
Classified as toxic or harmful European Union - Classification & Labelling
Limited evidence of gastrointestinal or liver toxicity National Library of Medicine HazMap
Limited evidence of respiratory toxicity Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2004
Limited evidence of gastrointestinal or liver toxicity Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2004
Limited evidence of cardiovascular or blood toxicity Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2004
Limited evidence of sense organ toxicity US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center
Limited evidence of kidney toxicity US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center
One or more animal studies show classified as toxic effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs
One or more animal studies show sense organ effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) RTECS®- American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal 1969
reproductive - weight of evidence unknown/unassessed/unreview: published lit review or major tox study National Library of Medicine HazMap
Classified as not expected to be potentially toxic or harmful Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Developmental/reproductive toxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
Limited evidence of reproductive toxicity National Library of Medicine HazMap
Limited evidence of reproductive toxicity Frazier , L, 1998

Occupational hazards

Type of concern: Reference:
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to low doses European Union - Classification & Labelling
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- MSHA STANDARD-air: 3,218,1971
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Gen Indu): 29,1910 1994
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Construc): 29,1926 1994
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Shipyard): 29,1915 1993
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Fed Cont): 41,50-204 1994

Ecotoxicology

Type of concern: Reference:
Wildlife and environmental toxicity EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants
Not suspected to be an environmental toxin Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Persistence and bioaccumulation

Type of concern: Reference:
Not suspected to be bioaccumulative Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Neurotoxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
nervous system - weight of evidence unknown/unassessed/unreview: published lit review or major tox study National Library of Medicine HazMap

Miscellaneous

Type of concern: Reference:
Occupational hazards related to handling European Union - Classification & Labelling



Government, industry, academic studies and classifications

government/industry list/academic study appears on list as classification(s)
European Union - Classification & Labelling1,2-DICHLOROPROPANE•Highly flammable
•Highly flammable
•Harmful
•Harmful by inhalation and if swallowed
Association of Occupational and Environmental ClinicsPROPYLENE DICHLORIDE• S
Association of Occupational and Environmental ClinicsPROPYLENE DICHLORIDE• S
EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants1,2-DICHLOROPROPANE•Priority water pollutant under the Clean Water Act
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListPROPANE, 1,2-DICHLORO-•This chemical was NOT flagged by CEPA for further attention. The chemical was flagged for suspected persistence.
EPA Hazardous Air PollutantsPROPYLENE DICHLORIDE (1,2-DICHLOROPROPANE)•Hazardous air pollutant under Clean Air Act
National Library of Medicine HazMapPROPYLENE DICHLORIDE•Reproductive Toxin - A chemical that is toxic to the reproductive system, including defects in the progeny and injury to male and female reproductive function: Yes;
•Hepatotoxin: Hepatotoxin, Primary;
•Neurotoxin: CNS Solvent Syndrome;
•PEL (OSHA) - Permissible exposure limit (OSHA): 75 ppm;
•STEL (ACGIH) - Short-term exposure limits (ACGIH): 110 ppm;
•LC50 - Lethal concentration in 50% of animals tested: 1944 ppm;
•TLV (ACGIH) - Threshold limit value (ACGIH): 75 ppm;
•Flammability (NFPA) - NFPA flammability code: 0 = will not burn; 1 = must be preheated; 2 = high ambient temp required; 3 = may ignite at ambient temp; 4 = burn readily: 3: may ignite at ambient temperature;
•IDLH (NIOSH) - Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health: 400 ppm;
•Odor Threshold High - The lowest concentration at which a substance can be detected or recognized using the sense of smell: 0.52 ppm;
•Odor Threshold Low - The lowest concentration at which a substance can be detected or recognized using the sense of smell: 0.26 ppm;
Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - Carcinogens1,2-DICHLOROPROPANE•IARC Group 3 (no cancer link)
EPA Categorized List of Inert Pesticide IngredientsPROPYLENE DICHLORIDE (1,2-DICHLOROPROPANE)•Pesticide inerts of toxicological concern according to EPA (Environmental Protection Agency)
NIOSH Occupational CarcinogensPROPYLENE DICHLORIDE•Potential occupational carcinogen according to NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health)
NTP - Tumor Induction in Mammary Gland1,2-DICHLOROPROPANE•Induces mammary tumors (National Toxicology Program classification)
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs1,2DICHLOROPROPANE•Toxic, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Toxics Release Inventory programs
California EPA Proposition 651,2-DICHLOROPROPANE•Carcinogen: California Proposition 65
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 20041,2-DICHLOROPROPANE•Respiratory toxicity hazards: suspected
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 20041,2-DICHLOROPROPANE•Gastrointestinal or liver toxicity hazards: suspected
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 20041,2-DICHLOROPROPANE•Cardiovascular or blood toxicity hazards: suspected
US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center1,2-DICHLOROPROPANE•Skin or sense organ toxicity hazards: suspected
US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center1,2-DICHLOROPROPANE•Kidney toxicity hazards: suspected
Frazier , L, 19981,2-DICHLOROPROPANE•Reproductive toxicity hazards: suspected
Proposition 65 List of Carcinogens1,2-DICHLOROPROPANE•Cancer hazards: recognized
Silent Spring's Mammary Carcinogens Reviews Database1,2-DICHLOROPROPANE•Chemicals Shown to Cause Mammary Gland Tumors in Animal Studies
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,20071,2-DICHLOROPROPANE• occupationally related - ACGIH TLV (human TWA)
RTECS®- American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal 19691,2-DICHLOROPROPANE• sense organ - Primary eye irritant (rabbit )
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 19871,2-DICHLOROPROPANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Sister Chromatid Exchange (hamster ovr)
RTECS®- Environmental Mutagenesis 19831,2-DICHLOROPROPANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (Salmonella typhimurium )
RTECS®- Environmental Mutagenesis 19871,2-DICHLOROPROPANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Sister Chromatid Exchange (hamster lng)
RTECS®- MSHA STANDARD-air: 3,218,19711,2-DICHLOROPROPANE• occupationally related - MSHA STANDARD-air (human TWA)
RTECS®- National Toxicology Program Technical Report Series 19861,2-DICHLOROPROPANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis (hamster ovr)
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Construc): 29,1926 19941,2-DICHLOROPROPANE• occupationally related - OSHA PEL (Construc) (human TWA)
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Fed Cont): 41,50-204 19941,2-DICHLOROPROPANE• occupationally related - OSHA PEL (Fed Cont) (human TWA)
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Gen Indu): 29,1910 19941,2-DICHLOROPROPANE• occupationally related - OSHA PEL (Gen Indu) (human TWA)
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Shipyard): 29,1915 19931,2-DICHLOROPROPANE• occupationally related - OSHA PEL (Shipyard) (human TWA)
RTECS®- Science 19871,2-DICHLOROPROPANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (mouse lym)



references

government/industry list/academic study reference
European Union - Classification & LabellingCPS&Q (Consumer Products Safety & Quality) formely known as ECB (European Chemicals Bureau). 2008. Classification and Labelling: Chemicals: Annex VI of Directive 67/548/EEC through the 31st ATP.
Association of Occupational and Environmental ClinicsAOEC (Association of Occupational and Environmental Clinics). 2009. AEOC exposures codes and asthmagen designation.
EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListEC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
EPA Hazardous Air PollutantsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2005. Office of Air. The 112(b)1 Hazardous Air Pollutants List (as modified). Last modified: 12 Dec 2005.
National Library of Medicine HazMapNLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - CarcinogensIARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer). 2008. Overall Evaluations of Carcinogenicity to Humans, as evaluated in IARC Monographs Volumes 1-99 (a total of 935 agents, mixtures and exposures).
EPA Categorized List of Inert Pesticide IngredientsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1987 & 2005. Office of Pesticide Programs. Inert (other) Pesticide Ingredients in Pesticide Products - Categorized List of Inert (other) Pesticide Ingredients.
NIOSH Occupational CarcinogensNIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health). 2006. NIOSH Carcinogens List (Potential occupational carcinogens). http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/npotocca.html.
NTP - Tumor Induction in Mammary GlandNTP (National Toxicology Program) 2006. Chemicals Associated with Site-Specific Tumor Induction in Mammary Gland.
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1999. Toxics Release Inventory Program. PBT Chemical Rule.
California EPA Proposition 65California EPA (California Environmental Protection Agency). 9/2008. Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act of 1986. Chemicals known to the State to cause cancer or reproductive toxicity.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationAgency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Minimal risk Levels for Hazardous Substances. January 2004. http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/mrls.html, US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center. Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants. http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/hapindex.html
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationAgency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Minimal risk Levels for Hazardous Substances. January 2004. http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/mrls.html, US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center. Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants. http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/hapindex.html, A Relational Database of Hazardous Chemicals and Occupational Diseases. Browse Haz-Map by Adverse Effects http://hazmap.nlm.nih.gov/hazmapadv.html, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances. See Environmental Defense's Suspect Hazard Identification documentation.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationAgency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Minimal risk Levels for Hazardous Substances. January 2004. http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/mrls.html, US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center. Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants. http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/hapindex.html, Klaassen, C., M. Amdur and J. Doull (eds.). Casarett and Doull's Toxicology. The Basic Science of Poisons, 5th Ed. Pergamon Press, NY. 1996.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationUS EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center. Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants. http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/hapindex.html
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationUS EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center. Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants. http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/hapindex.html, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances. See Environmental Defense's Suspect Hazard Identification documentation.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationFrazier , L. and M. L. Hage (eds.). Reproductive Hazards of the Workplace, Wiley Europe, 1998. Table 10 (Partial List of Reproductive Toxicants) available at http://www.pharmacy.ohio-state.edu/homepage/safety/chemhygiene_table_repro.pdf.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationProposition 65 List of Carcinogens (July 2004) can be obtained from http://www.oehha.ca.gov/prop65/prop65_list/Newlist.html.
Silent Spring's Mammary Carcinogens Reviews DatabaseRudel RA, KR Attfield, JN Schifano and JG Brody. Chemicals Causing Mammary Gland Tumors in Animals Signal New Directions for Epidemiology, Chemicals Testing, and Risk Assessment for Breast Cancer Prevention. CANCER Supplement. 2007 Jun 15;109(12):2635-2666.
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007
RTECS®- American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal 1969RTECS®- American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal. (AIHA, 475 Wolf Ledges Pkwy., Akron, OH 44311) V.19- 30,470,1969
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 1987RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.10- 10(Suppl 10),1,1987
RTECS®- Environmental Mutagenesis 1983RTECS®- Environmental Mutagenesis. (New York, NY) V.1-9, 1979-87. For publisher information, see EMMUEG. 5(Suppl 1),3,1983
RTECS®- Environmental Mutagenesis 1987RTECS®- Environmental Mutagenesis. (New York, NY) V.1-9, 1979-87. For publisher information, see EMMUEG. 9,401,1987
RTECS®- MSHA STANDARD-air: 3,218,1971RTECS®- MSHA STANDARD-air: 3,218,1971
RTECS®- National Toxicology Program Technical Report Series 1986RTECS®- National Toxicology Program Technical Report Series. (Research Triangle Park, NC 27709) No.206- NTP-TR-263,1986
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Construc): 29,1926 1994RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Construc): 29,1926.55,1994
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Fed Cont): 41,50-204 1994RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Fed Cont): 41,50-204.50,1994
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Gen Indu): 29,1910 1994RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Gen Indu): 29,1910.1000,1994
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Shipyard): 29,1915 1993RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Shipyard): 29,1915.1000,1993
RTECS®- Science 1987RTECS®- Science. (American Assoc. for the Advancement of Science, 1333 H St., NW, Washington, DC 20005) V.1- 236,933,1987

"RTECS®" is a United States trademark owned and licensed under authority of the U.S. Government, by and through MDL Information Systems, Inc.