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National Drinking Water Database


National Drinking Water Database - Chemical Contaminants

1,2-Dichloroethane


Status: Regulated - EPA has established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

1,2-Dichloroethane is a chemical used in the production of vinyl chloride; it is released as a pollutant from industrial chemical factories. [read more]

 
Detected
Found above
health guidelines
Found above
legal limit
States
29
29
4
Water utilities
174
174
5
People Served
3,367,934
3,367,934
91,320

Health Concerns for 1,2-Dichloroethane:


1,2-Dichloroethane Exposure by State

Water utilities in 29 states have reported detecting 1,2-Dichloroethane in treated tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies.

StateWater Suppliers with 1,2-Dichloroethane contaminationWater suppliers reporting 1,2-Dichloroethane above health-based limits
SystemsPopulationSystemsPopulation
New York14839,09514839,095
Florida8624,9818624,981
New Jersey11503,41511503,415
California10392,75810392,758
Delaware4237,6044237,604
Wisconsin26227,89626227,896
Indiana2115,1382115,138
Massachusetts7108,0857108,085
Minnesota13107,36413107,364
Alabama190,888190,888
New Mexico231,151231,151
Texas824,654824,654
Ohio520,123520,123
Missouri38,05238,052
Pennsylvania166,125166,125
Nebraska65,95065,950
Arkansas14,53814,538
Michigan13,87213,872
Maryland13,60013,600
Oklahoma73,42273,422
Virginia52,85952,859
North Carolina61,60361,603
Illinois21,26621,266
Iowa41,01541,015
South Dakota17751775
Idaho16871687
New Hampshire66286628
Wyoming12541254
Connecticut21362136
Total1743,367,9341743,367,934

The Most Polluted Communities

174 water utilities reported detecting 1,2-Dichloroethane in tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies

Ranked by highest average 1,2-Dichloroethane level

RankSystem Population Served Positive test results of total reported tests Average Level
(Range)
1Kouts Water Works
Kouts, IN
1,7381 of 52.8 ppb
(0 to 14 ppb)
2University Lake Schl Upper Schl
Hartland, WI
1358 of 142.55 ppb
(0 to 15 ppb)
3Union
Union, IL
5762 of 31.93 ppb
(0 to 4.3 ppb)
4Blaine
Blaine, MN
52,61216 of 201.67 ppb
(0 to 5.7 ppb)
5Camelot Mhp
Asheville, NC
854 of 71.53 ppb
(0 to 4.62 ppb)
6Peterson Municipal Water Supply
Peterson, IA
3722 of 21.45 ppb
(1.2 to 1.7 ppb)
7Newark Water Department
Newark, DE
36,1304 of 151.18 ppb
(0 to 6.19 ppb)
8Westside Water Supply
Westside, IA
3271 of 10.9 ppb
(0.9 ppb)
9Mill Race
Wake Forest, NC
12117 of 190.86 ppb
(0 to 1.3 ppb)
10City of Tilden
Tilden, NE
1,0782 of 70.81 ppb
(0 to 3.9 ppb)

Health Based Limits for 1,2-Dichloroethane

StandardDescriptionLevel
Maximum Contaminant Limit Goal (MCLG)A non-enforceable health goal that is set at a level at which no known or anticipated adverse effect on the health of persons occurs and which allows an adequate margin of safety. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.0 ppb
EPA Human Health Water Quality CriteriaWater quality criteria set by the US EPA provide guidance for states and tribes authorized to establish water quality standards under the Clean Water Act (CWA) to protect human health. These are non-enforceable standards based upon exposure by both drinking water and the contribution of water contamination to other consumed foods. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.0.38 ppb
California Public Health GoalsDefined by the State of California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA) as the level of contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. For acutely toxic substances, levels are set at which scientific evidence indicates that no known or anticipated adverse effects on health will occur, plus an adequate margin-of safety. PHGs for carcinogens or other substances which can cause chronic disease shall be based solely on health effects without regard to cost impacts and shall be set at levels which OEHHA has determined do not pose any significant risk to health.0.4 ppb
One in one million (10-6) Cancer RiskThe concentration of a chemical in drinking water corresponding to an excess estimated lifetime cancer risk of 1 in 1,000,000. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.0.4 ppb
Maximum Contaminant Limit (MCL)The enforceable standard which defines the highest level of a contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. MCLs are set as close to health-based limits (Maximum Contaminant Level Goals, or MCLGs) as feasible using the best available analytical and treatment technologies and taking cost into consideration. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.5 ppb
One in ten thousand (10-4) Cancer RiskThe concentration of a chemical in drinking water corresponding to an excess estimated lifetime cancer risk of 1 in 10,000. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.40 ppb
Children's health-based limit for 1-day exposureConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects for up to one day of exposure. The One-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.700 ppb
Children's health-based limit for 10-day exposureConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic effects for up to ten days of exposure. The Ten-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.700 ppb

Testing Summary for 1,2-Dichloroethane

Are tests routinely required for 1,2-Dichloroethane by federal law?Yes
Water suppliers reporting tests for 1,2-Dichloroethane (2004-2009):33,972 of 47,576
Average testing rate for water supplier reporting tests (2004-2009):0.6 per year

Violation Summary for 1,2-Dichloroethane

Data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency includes the following violations of federal standards for 1,2-Dichloroethane since 2004

Maximum Contaminant Level Exceedance Violations2
Monitoring Violations4,286
Reporting Violations0

Cancer

Type of concern: Reference:
Possible human carcinogen European Union - Classification & Labelling
Possible human carcinogen EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)
Possible human carcinogen NTP Report on Carcinogens, 11th Edition
Possible human carcinogen NTP - Tumor Induction in Mammary Gland
Possible human carcinogen California EPA Proposition 65
Limited evidence of carcinogenicity Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - Carcinogens
One or more human case studies show possible cancer findings NTP - Tumor Induction in Mammary Gland
Cancer - limited evidence Silent Spring's Mammary Carcinogens Reviews Database
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Cancer Letters (Shannon, Ireland) 1981
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1985
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 1982
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1989
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1983
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Carcinogenesis (London) 1983
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Cancer Research 1984
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1986
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Chemico-Biological Interactions 1979
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1981
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Environmental Science Research 1982
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Eisei Shikenjo Hokoku 1985
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 2000
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Toxicologist 2005
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- European Microscopy Society (EMS) Abstracts -,169,2003
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Cancer Research 1974
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry 1987
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 1982
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 1992
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1978
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1991
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1993
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Environmental Science Research 1985
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1988
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- European Microscopy Society (EMS) Abstracts -,169,2003
One or more animal studies show tumor formation at high doses RTECS®- Banbury Report 1980

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

Type of concern: Reference:
Known human respiratory toxicant EPA Hazardous Air Pollutants
One or more animal studies show sense organ effects at very low doses RTECS®- Union Carbide Data Sheet 1970
One or more animal studies show classified as toxic effects at low doses EPA Categorized List of Inert Pesticide Ingredients
Classified as toxic or harmful European Union - Classification & Labelling
Limited evidence of kidney toxicity Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2004
Limited evidence of gastrointestinal or liver toxicity Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2004
Limited evidence of respiratory toxicity US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center
Limited evidence of cardiovascular or blood toxicity US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center
One or more animal studies show classified as toxic effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs
One or more animal studies show gastrointestinal effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) RTECS®- Casopis Lekaru Ceskych 1947
One or more animal studies show liver effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) RTECS®- Casopis Lekaru Ceskych 1947
One or more animal studies show sense organ effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) RTECS®- "Prehled Prumyslove Toxikologie; Organicke Latky," Marhold, J 1986
One or more animal studies show respiratory effects at high doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) RTECS®- Sovetskaia Meditsina 1958
One or more animal studies show gastrointestinal effects at high doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) RTECS®- Sovetskaia Meditsina 1958
One or more animal studies show liver effects at high doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) RTECS®- National Toxicology Program Technical Report Series 3123
One or more animal studies show kidney or renal system effects at high doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) RTECS®- National Toxicology Program Technical Report Series 3123
One or more animal studies show blood effects at high doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) RTECS®- Drug and Chemical Toxicology 1994
One or more animal studies show liver effects at high doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) RTECS®- Drug and Chemical Toxicology 1994
Classified as not expected to be potentially toxic or harmful Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
Classified as a low human health priority Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Multiple, additive exposure sources

Type of concern: Reference:
Used in food or as an additive with limited or no toxicity information available FDA Everything Added to Food
Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in food FDA Food Additive Status

Occupational hazards

Type of concern: Reference:
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to low doses European Union - Classification & Labelling
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2005
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2006
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- MSHA STANDARD-air: 3,79,1971
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Gen Indu): 29,1910 1994
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Construc): 29,1926 1994
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Shipyard): 29,1915 1993
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Fed Cont): 41,50-204 1994
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007
No workplace limits set National Library of Medicine HazMap

Developmental/reproductive toxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
Limited evidence of developmental toxicity US EPA, 9204
Limited evidence of reproductive toxicity US EPA, 9204

Persistence and bioaccumulation

Type of concern: Reference:
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife Canada PBTs - Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics (ARET)
Not suspected to be bioaccumulative Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)

Type of concern: Reference:
Classified as irritant European Union - Classification & Labelling
One or more animal studies show skin irritation at moderate doses RTECS®- Union Carbide Data Sheet 1970
One or more animal studies show skin irritation at moderate doses RTECS®- "Prehled Prumyslove Toxikologie; Organicke Latky," Marhold, J 1986

Neurotoxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
One or more animal studies show brain, nervous system, or behavioral effects at high doses RTECS®- Sovetskaia Meditsina 1958

Ecotoxicology

Type of concern: Reference:
Wildlife and environmental toxicity EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants
Wildlife and environmental toxicity European Union - Water Framework Directive
Not suspected to be an environmental toxin Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Miscellaneous

Type of concern: Reference:
Occupational hazards related to handling European Union - Classification & Labelling



Government, industry, academic studies and classifications

government/industry list/academic study appears on list as classification(s)
European Union - Classification & Labelling1,2-DICHLOROETHANE•Highly flammable
•Highly flammable
•May cause cancer
•May cause cancer
•Harmful
•Harmful if swallowed
•Irritant (eyes, skin, or lungs)
•Irritating to eyes, respiratory system and skin
FDA Food Additive StatusETHYLENE DICHLORIDE• Food additive: solvent
• Food additive: food additive for which a petition has been filed and a regulation issued
• 30 parts per million - In production of spice oleoresins - CFR173.230
• miscellaneous
• Food additive: food additive for which a petition has been filed and a regulation issued
• less than 0.2 parts per million in flume water - Used in flume water for washing sugar beets prior to slicing operation - CFR173.315
• Food additive: fumigant
• Food additive: food additive for which a petition has been filed and a regulation issued
• cross reference fumigant for grain-mill machinery
• Food additive: solvent
• Food additive: food additive for which a petition has been filed and a regulation issued
• 300 parts per million in ext
Association of Occupational and Environmental ClinicsETHYLENE DICHLORIDE• S
Association of Occupational and Environmental ClinicsETHYLENE DICHLORIDE• S
EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants1,2-DICHLOROETHANE•Priority water pollutant under the Clean Water Act
FDA Everything Added to FoodETHYLENE DICHLORIDE• Although listed as a added to food, there is no current reported use of the substance, and, therefore, although toxicology information may be available in PAFA, it is not being updated.
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListETHANE, 1,2-DICHLORO-•This chemical was deemed a low human health priority and was NOT flagged by CEPA for further attention. The chemical was flagged for suspected persistence.
EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)1,2-DICHLOROETHANE•Group B2: Probable human carcinogen - sufficient data in animals (EPA classification)
European Union - Water Framework Directive1,2-DICHLOROETHANE•Priority substance in EU water policy
EPA Hazardous Air PollutantsETHYLENE DICHLORIDE (1,2-DICHLOROETHANE)•Hazardous air pollutant under Clean Air Act
National Library of Medicine HazMapETHYLENE DICHLORIDE•Dermatotoxin: Skin Burns;
•Restricted - Regulations that have banned or restricted the use of the agent: Use as fumigant suspended by EPA due to toxicity. [Sullivan, p. 1053];
•Toxic Pneumonitis: Yes;
•Hepatotoxin: Hepatotoxin, Primary;
•Nephrotoxin: Yes;
•Neurotoxin: CNS Solvent Syndrome;
•PEL (OSHA) - Permissible exposure limit (OSHA): 50 ppm, Ceiling(OSHA) = 100 ppm (200 ppm for 5-min peak in any 3 hrs);
•LC50 - Lethal concentration in 50% of animals tested: 2000 ppm;IA: P
Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - Carcinogens1,2-DICHLOROETHANE•IARC Group 2B: possible human carcinogen (International Agency for Research on Carcinogens)
EPA Categorized List of Inert Pesticide IngredientsETHYLENE DICHLORIDE•Pesticide inerts of toxicological concern according to EPA (Environmental Protection Agency)
NTP Report on Carcinogens, 11th Edition1,2-DICHLOROETHANE (ETHYLENE DICHLORIDE)•Reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen (National Toxicology Program classification)
NTP - Tumor Induction in Mammary Gland1,2-DICHLOROETHANE•Induces mammary tumors (National Toxicology Program classification)
Canada PBTs - Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics (ARET)1,2DICHLOROETHANE•Persistent toxicant under Canada's Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics program - targeted for elimination or reduction
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs1,2DICHLOROETHANE•Toxic, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Toxics Release Inventory programs
California EPA Proposition 65ETHYLENE DICHLORIDE (1,2-DICHLOROETHANE)•Carcinogen: California Proposition 65
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 20041,2-DICHLOROETHANE•Kidney toxicity hazards: suspected
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 20041,2-DICHLOROETHANE•Gastrointestinal or liver toxicity hazards: suspected
US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center1,2-DICHLOROETHANE•Respiratory toxicity hazards: suspected
US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center1,2-DICHLOROETHANE•Cardiovascular or blood toxicity hazards: suspected
US EPA, 92041,2-DICHLOROETHANE•Developmental toxicity hazards: suspected
US EPA, 92041,2-DICHLOROETHANE•Reproductive toxicity hazards: suspected
Silent Spring's Mammary Carcinogens Reviews Database1,2-DICHLOROETHANE•Chemicals Shown to Cause Mammary Gland Tumors in Animal Studies
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2005ETHYLENE DICHLORIDE• occupationally related - ACGIH TLV (human TWA)
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2006ETHYLENE DICHLORIDE• occupationally related - ACGIH TLV (human TWA)
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007ETHYLENE DICHLORIDE• occupationally related - ACGIH TLV (human TWA)
RTECS®- "Prehled Prumyslove Toxikologie; Organicke Latky," Marhold, J 1986ETHYLENE DICHLORIDE• sense organ - Primary eye irritant (rabbit )
• skin - Primary skin irritant (rabbit )
RTECS®- Banbury Report 1980ETHYLENE DICHLORIDE• cancer - gastrointestinal tumors (rat TDLo)
• mutagenic - skin tumors (rat TDLo)
RTECS®- Cancer Letters (Shannon, Ireland) 1981ETHYLENE DICHLORIDE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Inhibition ( human lym)
RTECS®- Cancer Letters (Shannon, Ireland) 1981ETHYLENE DICHLORIDE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Inhibition ( human lym)
RTECS®- Cancer Research 1974ETHYLENE DICHLORIDE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (Salmonella typhimurium )
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA repair (Escherichia coli )
RTECS®- Cancer Research 1984ETHYLENE DICHLORIDE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage (mouse orl)
RTECS®- Cancer Research 1974ETHYLENE DICHLORIDE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (Salmonella typhimurium )
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA repair (Escherichia coli )
RTECS®- Cancer Research 1984ETHYLENE DICHLORIDE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage (mouse orl)
RTECS®- Carcinogenesis (London) 1983ETHYLENE DICHLORIDE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage (mouse ipr)
RTECS®- Carcinogenesis (London) 1983ETHYLENE DICHLORIDE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage (mouse ipr)
RTECS®- Casopis Lekaru Ceskych 1947ETHYLENE DICHLORIDE• liver - Fatty liver degeneration ( human LDLo)
• gastrointestinal - Nausea or vomiting ( human LDLo)
• gastrointestinal - Ulceration or bleeding from stomach ( human LDLo)
RTECS®- Chemico-Biological Interactions 1979ETHYLENE DICHLORIDE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: body fluid assay (mouse )
RTECS®- Chemico-Biological Interactions 1979ETHYLENE DICHLORIDE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: body fluid assay (mouse )
RTECS®- Drug and Chemical Toxicology 1994ETHYLENE DICHLORIDE• liver - Changes in liver weight (rat TDLo)
• blood - Changes in serum composition (eg., TP, bilirubin, cholesterol) (rat TDLo)
RTECS®- Eisei Shikenjo Hokoku 1985ETHYLENE DICHLORIDE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis (hamster lng)
RTECS®- Eisei Shikenjo Hokoku 1985ETHYLENE DICHLORIDE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis (hamster lng)
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 1992ETHYLENE DICHLORIDE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: other mutation test systems (Escherichia coli )
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 2000ETHYLENE DICHLORIDE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Morphological Transform (mouse fbr)
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 1992ETHYLENE DICHLORIDE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: other mutation test systems (Escherichia coli )
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 2000ETHYLENE DICHLORIDE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Morphological Transform (mouse fbr)
RTECS®- Environmental Science Research 1982ETHYLENE DICHLORIDE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Morphological Transform (hamster emb)
RTECS®- Environmental Science Research 1985ETHYLENE DICHLORIDE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Sex Chromosome Loss and Nondisjunction (Drosophila melanogaster ihl)
RTECS®- Environmental Science Research 1982ETHYLENE DICHLORIDE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Morphological Transform (hamster emb)
RTECS®- Environmental Science Research 1985ETHYLENE DICHLORIDE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Sex Chromosome Loss and Nondisjunction (Drosophila melanogaster ihl)
RTECS®- European Microscopy Society (EMS) Abstracts -,169,2003ETHYLENE DICHLORIDE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Dominant Lethal Strain (Drosophila melanogaster oth)
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: sperm (mouse ipr)
RTECS®- MSHA STANDARD-air: 3,79,1971ETHYLENE DICHLORIDE• occupationally related - MSHA STANDARD-air (human TWA)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1983ETHYLENE DICHLORIDE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: (mouse ipr)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1985ETHYLENE DICHLORIDE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Mammalian Somatic Cells ( human lym)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1986ETHYLENE DICHLORIDE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Inhibition (mouse ipr)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1988ETHYLENE DICHLORIDE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Sex Chromosome Loss and Nondisjunction ( Aspergillis nidulans )
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1989ETHYLENE DICHLORIDE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Unscheduled DNA Synthesis (rat lvr)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1991ETHYLENE DICHLORIDE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: (Drosophila melanogaster ihl)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1993ETHYLENE DICHLORIDE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Sex Chromosome Loss and Nondisjunction (Drosophila melanogaster orl)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1978ETHYLENE DICHLORIDE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: (Drosophila melanogaster orl)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1981ETHYLENE DICHLORIDE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (hamster ovr)
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Mammalian Somatic Cells (hamster ovr)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1983ETHYLENE DICHLORIDE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: (mouse ipr)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1985ETHYLENE DICHLORIDE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Mammalian Somatic Cells ( human lym)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1986ETHYLENE DICHLORIDE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Inhibition (mouse ipr)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1988ETHYLENE DICHLORIDE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Sex Chromosome Loss and Nondisjunction ( Aspergillis nidulans )
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1989ETHYLENE DICHLORIDE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Unscheduled DNA Synthesis (rat lvr)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1991ETHYLENE DICHLORIDE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: (Drosophila melanogaster ihl)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1993ETHYLENE DICHLORIDE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Sex Chromosome Loss and Nondisjunction (Drosophila melanogaster orl)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1978ETHYLENE DICHLORIDE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: (Drosophila melanogaster orl)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1981ETHYLENE DICHLORIDE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (hamster ovr)
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Mammalian Somatic Cells (hamster ovr)
RTECS®- National Toxicology Program Technical Report Series 3123ETHYLENE DICHLORIDE• kidney or renal system - Changes in bladder weight (rat TDLo)
• liver - Changes in liver weight (rat TDLo)
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Construc): 29,1926 1994ETHYLENE DICHLORIDE• occupationally related - OSHA PEL (Construc) (human TWA)
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Fed Cont): 41,50-204 1994ETHYLENE DICHLORIDE• occupationally related - OSHA PEL (Fed Cont) (human TWA)
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Gen Indu): 29,1910 1994ETHYLENE DICHLORIDE• occupationally related - OSHA PEL (Gen Indu) (human TWA)
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Shipyard): 29,1915 1993ETHYLENE DICHLORIDE• occupationally related - OSHA PEL (Shipyard) (human TWA)
RTECS®- Sovetskaia Meditsina 1958ETHYLENE DICHLORIDE• respiratory - Cough ( human TDLo)
• gastrointestinal - Nausea or vomiting ( human TDLo)
• brain, nervous system, or behavioral effect - Somnolence (general depressed activity) ( human TDLo)
RTECS®- Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry 1987ETHYLENE DICHLORIDE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (Salmonella typhimurium )
RTECS®- Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry 1987ETHYLENE DICHLORIDE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (Salmonella typhimurium )
RTECS®- Toxicologist 2005ETHYLENE DICHLORIDE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: sperm (mouse ipr)
RTECS®- Toxicologist 2005ETHYLENE DICHLORIDE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: sperm (mouse ipr)
RTECS®- Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 1982ETHYLENE DICHLORIDE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage (rat orl)
RTECS®- Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 1982ETHYLENE DICHLORIDE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage (rat orl)
RTECS®- Union Carbide Data Sheet 1970ETHYLENE DICHLORIDE• sense organ - Primary eye irritant (rabbit )
• skin - Primary skin irritant (rabbit )



references

government/industry list/academic study reference
European Union - Classification & LabellingCPS&Q (Consumer Products Safety & Quality) formely known as ECB (European Chemicals Bureau). 2008. Classification and Labelling: Chemicals: Annex VI of Directive 67/548/EEC through the 31st ATP.
FDA Food Additive StatusFDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration) 2006. Food Additive Status List. Downloaded from http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/%7Edms/opa-appa.html, Oct 16, 2006.
Association of Occupational and Environmental ClinicsAOEC (Association of Occupational and Environmental Clinics). 2009. AEOC exposures codes and asthmagen designation.
EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants
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Silent Spring's Mammary Carcinogens Reviews DatabaseRudel RA, KR Attfield, JN Schifano and JG Brody. Chemicals Causing Mammary Gland Tumors in Animals Signal New Directions for Epidemiology, Chemicals Testing, and Risk Assessment for Breast Cancer Prevention. CANCER Supplement. 2007 Jun 15;109(12):2635-2666.
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RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2006RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2006
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007
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RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 2000RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.10- 1987- 35,300,2000
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RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 2000RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.10- 35,300,2000
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RTECS®- Mutation Research 1993RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- -1964 285,209,1993
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RTECS®- Mutation Research 1981RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- -1964 90,183,1981
RTECS®- National Toxicology Program Technical Report Series 3123RTECS®- National Toxicology Program Technical Report Series. (Research Triangle Park, NC 27709) No.206- NIH-91-3123
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Construc): 29,1926 1994RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Construc): 29,1926.55,1994
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Fed Cont): 41,50-204 1994RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Fed Cont): 41,50-204.50,1994
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Gen Indu): 29,1910 1994RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Gen Indu): 29,1910.1000,1994
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Shipyard): 29,1915 1993RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Shipyard): 29,1915.1000,1993
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