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National Drinking Water Database


National Drinking Water Database - Chemical Contaminants

1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane


Status: Unregulated - EPA has not established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane is a synthetic chemical used for metal degreasing and in the production of paint, cement, paint removers and moth-proofing products.

 
Detected
Found above
health guidelines
Found above
legal limit
States
6
4
-
Water utilities
10
8
-
People Served
513,118
509,379
-

Health Concerns for 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane:


1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane Exposure by State

Water utilities in 6 states have reported detecting 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane in treated tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies.

StateWater Suppliers with 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane contaminationWater suppliers reporting 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane above health-based limits
SystemsPopulationSystemsPopulation
Washington1305,0001305,000
Delaware1201,0001201,000
New York32,70532,705
North Carolina36743674
Missouri12,77900
New Jersey196000
Total10513,1188509,379

The Most Polluted Communities

10 water utilities reported detecting 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane in tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies

Ranked by highest average 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane level

RankSystem Population Served Positive test results of total reported tests Average Level
(Range)
1Wild Oaks Water Company
Rockport, NY
8051 of 355.67 ppb
(0 to 167 ppb)
2Bedford Hills/Taconic Corr. Facilities
Bedford Hills, NY
1,1001 of 10.5 ppb
(0.5 ppb)
3Mcwa, Genesee West
Rochester, NY
8002 of 30.13 ppb
(0 to 0.26 ppb)
4Ham`s Mhp NO 2
Stanley, NC
991 of 150.07 ppb
(0 to 1.1 ppb)
5Hillcrest/Mcbride Heights S/D
Mt Airy, NC
4901 of 90.06 ppb
(0 to 0.5 ppb)
6Ridgeview S/D
Garner, NC
851 of 150.04 ppb
(0 to 0.6 ppb)
7Artesian Water Company
Newark, DE
201,0001 of 1340.01 ppb
(0 to 1.63 ppb)
8Harding Woods Mhp
Pittsgrove Twp, NJ
9601 of 10< 0.01 ppb
(0 to 0.08 ppb)
9City of Tacoma Water Division
Tacoma, WA
305,0001 of 34< 0.01 ppb
(0 to 0.2 ppb)
10Camdenton
Camdenton, MO
2,7791 of 22< 0.01 ppb
(< .01 to 7.0E-5 ppb)

Health Based Limits for 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane

StandardDescriptionLevel
California Public Health GoalsDefined by the State of California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA) as the level of contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. For acutely toxic substances, levels are set at which scientific evidence indicates that no known or anticipated adverse effects on health will occur, plus an adequate margin-of safety. PHGs for carcinogens or other substances which can cause chronic disease shall be based solely on health effects without regard to cost impacts and shall be set at levels which OEHHA has determined do not pose any significant risk to health.0.1 ppb
EPA Human Health Water Quality CriteriaWater quality criteria set by the US EPA provide guidance for states and tribes authorized to establish water quality standards under the Clean Water Act (CWA) to protect human health. These are non-enforceable standards based upon exposure by both drinking water and the contribution of water contamination to other consumed foods. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.0.17 ppb
One in one million (10-6) Cancer RiskThe concentration of a chemical in drinking water corresponding to an excess estimated lifetime cancer risk of 1 in 1,000,000. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.0.2 ppb
Lifetime health-based limit, non-cancer riskConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects for a lifetime of exposure. The Lifetime health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is based on exposure for a a 70-kg adult consuming 2 liters of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.0.3 ppb
Health-Based Screening LevelA benchmark concentration of contaminants in water that may be of potential concern for human health, if exceeded. For noncarcinogens, the HBSL represents the contaminant concentration in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse effects over a lifetime of exposure. For carcinogens, the HBSL range represents the contaminant concentration in drinking water that corresponds to an excess estimated lifetime cancer risk of 1 chance in 1 million to 1 chance in 10 thousand. Source: U.S. Geological Survey.0.3 ppb
Drinking Water Equivalent LevelA lifetime exposure concentration protective of adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects, that assumes all of the exposure to a contaminant is from drinking water. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.2 ppb
One in ten thousand (10-4) Cancer RiskThe concentration of a chemical in drinking water corresponding to an excess estimated lifetime cancer risk of 1 in 10,000. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.20 ppb
Children's health-based limit for 1-day exposureConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects for up to one day of exposure. The One-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.40 ppb
Children's health-based limit for 10-day exposureConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic effects for up to ten days of exposure. The Ten-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.40 ppb

Testing Summary for 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane

Are tests routinely required for 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane by federal law?No
Water suppliers reporting tests for 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane (2004-2009):21,610 of 47,576
Average testing rate for water supplier reporting tests (2004-2009):0.6 per year

Cancer

Type of concern: Reference:
Possible human carcinogen California EPA Proposition 65
Cancer - strong evidence Proposition 65 List of Carcinogens
Limited evidence of carcinogenicity Amer Conf of Gov't Industrial Hygienists - Carcinogens
Limited evidence of carcinogenicity EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)
Limited evidence of carcinogenicity NIOSH Occupational Carcinogens
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Carcinogenesis (London) 1992
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1995
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 1987
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry 1987
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 1992
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Cancer Research 1974
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1988
Cancer - not classifiable/not likely to be human carcinogen Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - Carcinogens

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

Type of concern: Reference:
Known human respiratory toxicant EPA Hazardous Air Pollutants
Classified as very toxic or harmful European Union - Classification & Labelling
Limited evidence of gastrointestinal or liver toxicity National Library of Medicine HazMap
Limited evidence of respiratory toxicity Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2004
Limited evidence of gastrointestinal or liver toxicity Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2004
One or more animal studies show classified as toxic effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs
Classified as not expected to be potentially toxic or harmful Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
Classified as a low human health priority Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Occupational hazards

Type of concern: Reference:
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to very low doses European Union - Classification & Labelling
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to moderate doses RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- MSHA STANDARD-air: 3,249,1971
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Gen Indu): 29,1910 1994
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Construc): 29,1926 1994
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Shipyard): 29,1915 1993
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Fed Cont): 41,50-204 1994

Developmental/reproductive toxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
Limited evidence of developmental toxicity US EPA, 9204

Ecotoxicology

Type of concern: Reference:
Wildlife and environmental toxicity European Union - Classification & Labelling
Wildlife and environmental toxicity EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants
Not suspected to be an environmental toxin Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Persistence and bioaccumulation

Type of concern: Reference:
Not suspected to be bioaccumulative Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Neurotoxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
nervous system - weight of evidence unknown/unassessed/unreview: published lit review or major tox study National Library of Medicine HazMap



Government, industry, academic studies and classifications

government/industry list/academic study appears on list as classification(s)
European Union - Classification & Labelling1,1,2,2-TETRACHLOROETHANE•Very toxic
•Very toxic by inhalation and in contact with skin
•Dangerous for the environment
•Toxic to aquatic organisms
Amer Conf of Gov't Industrial Hygienists - Carcinogens1,1,2,2-TETRACHLOROETHANE•Confirmed animal carcinogen with unknown relevance to humans (ACGIH classification A3)
EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants1,1,2,2-TETRACHLOROETHANE•Priority water pollutant under the Clean Water Act
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListETHANE, 1,1,2,2-TETRACHLORO-•This chemical was deemed a low human health priority and was NOT flagged by CEPA for further attention. The chemical was flagged for suspected persistence.
EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)1,1,2,2-TETRACHLOROETHANE•Group C: Possible human carcinogen (EPA classification)
EPA Hazardous Air Pollutants1,1,2,2-TETRACHLOROETHANE•Hazardous air pollutant under Clean Air Act
National Library of Medicine HazMap1,1,2,2-TETRACHLOROETHANE•Skin Designation (ACGIH) - Danger of cutaneous absorption (ACGIH): Yes;
•Hepatotoxin: Hepatotoxin, Primary;
•Neurotoxin: CNS Solvent Syndrome;
•PEL (OSHA) - Permissible exposure limit (OSHA): 5 ppm;
•LC50 - Lethal concentration in 50% of animals tested: 1029 ppm;
•TLV (ACGIH) - Threshold limit value (ACGIH): 1 ppm;
•Flammability (NFPA) - NFPA flammability code: 0 = will not burn; 1 = must be preheated; 2 = high ambient temp required; 3 = may ignite at ambient temp; 4 = burn readily: 0: will not burn;
•IDLH (NIOSH) - Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health: 100 ppm;
•Lacrimator - A substance that irritates the eyes and induces the flow of tears: Yes;
•Odor Threshold High - The lowest concentration at which a substance can be detected or recognized using the sense of smell: 7.9 ppm;
•Odor Threshold Low - The lowest concentration at which a substance can be detected or recognized using the sense of smell: 0.23 ppm;
•MAK - Maximum Allowable Concentration (Federal Republic of Germany): 1 ppm;
Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - Carcinogens1,1,2,2-TETRACHLOROETHANE•IARC Group 3 (no cancer link)
NIOSH Occupational Carcinogens1,1,2,2-TETRACHLOROETHANE•Potential occupational carcinogen according to NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health)
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs1,1,2,2TETRACHLOROETHANE•Toxic, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Toxics Release Inventory programs
California EPA Proposition 651,1,2,2-TETRACHLOROETHANE•Carcinogen: California Proposition 65
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 20041,1,2,2-TETRACHLOROETHANE•Respiratory toxicity hazards: suspected
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 20041,1,2,2-TETRACHLOROETHANE•Gastrointestinal or liver toxicity hazards: suspected
US EPA, 92041,1,2,2-TETRACHLOROETHANE•Developmental toxicity hazards: suspected
Proposition 65 List of Carcinogens1,1,2,2-TETRACHLOROETHANE•Cancer hazards: recognized
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,20071,1,2,2-TETRACHLOROETHANE• occupationally related - ACGIH TLV (human TWA)
RTECS®- Cancer Research 19741,1,2,2-TETRACHLOROETHANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA repair (Escherichia coli )
RTECS®- Carcinogenesis (London) 19921,1,2,2-TETRACHLOROETHANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Inhibition ( human hla)
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 19871,1,2,2-TETRACHLOROETHANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Sister Chromatid Exchange (hamster ovr)
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 19921,1,2,2-TETRACHLOROETHANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: other mutation test systems (Escherichia coli )
RTECS®- MSHA STANDARD-air: 3,249,19711,1,2,2-TETRACHLOROETHANE• occupationally related - MSHA STANDARD-air (human TWA)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 19881,1,2,2-TETRACHLOROETHANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Sex Chromosome Loss and Nondisjunction ( Aspergillis nidulans )
RTECS®- Mutation Research 19951,1,2,2-TETRACHLOROETHANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: other mutation test systems (mouse orl)
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Construc): 29,1926 19941,1,2,2-TETRACHLOROETHANE• occupationally related - OSHA PEL (Construc) (human TWA)
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Fed Cont): 41,50-204 19941,1,2,2-TETRACHLOROETHANE• occupationally related - OSHA PEL (Fed Cont) (human TWA)
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Gen Indu): 29,1910 19941,1,2,2-TETRACHLOROETHANE• occupationally related - OSHA PEL (Gen Indu) (human TWA)
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Shipyard): 29,1915 19931,1,2,2-TETRACHLOROETHANE• occupationally related - OSHA PEL (Shipyard) (human TWA)
RTECS®- Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry 19871,1,2,2-TETRACHLOROETHANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (Salmonella typhimurium )



references

government/industry list/academic study reference
European Union - Classification & LabellingCPS&Q (Consumer Products Safety & Quality) formely known as ECB (European Chemicals Bureau). 2008. Classification and Labelling: Chemicals: Annex VI of Directive 67/548/EEC through the 31st ATP.
Amer Conf of Gov't Industrial Hygienists - CarcinogensACGIH (American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists) 2008. ACGIH cancer classification system. www.acgih.org.
EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListEC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2008. Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Evidence for human carcinogenicity based on 1986-2005 guidelines.
EPA Hazardous Air PollutantsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2005. Office of Air. The 112(b)1 Hazardous Air Pollutants List (as modified). Last modified: 12 Dec 2005.
National Library of Medicine HazMapNLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - CarcinogensIARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer). 2008. Overall Evaluations of Carcinogenicity to Humans, as evaluated in IARC Monographs Volumes 1-99 (a total of 935 agents, mixtures and exposures).
NIOSH Occupational CarcinogensNIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health). 2006. NIOSH Carcinogens List (Potential occupational carcinogens). http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/npotocca.html.
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1999. Toxics Release Inventory Program. PBT Chemical Rule.
California EPA Proposition 65California EPA (California Environmental Protection Agency). 9/2008. Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act of 1986. Chemicals known to the State to cause cancer or reproductive toxicity.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationAgency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Minimal risk Levels for Hazardous Substances. January 2004. http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/mrls.html, US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center. Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants. http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/hapindex.html
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationAgency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Minimal risk Levels for Hazardous Substances. January 2004. http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/mrls.html, US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center. Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants. http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/hapindex.html, A Relational Database of Hazardous Chemicals and Occupational Diseases. Browse Haz-Map by Adverse Effects http://hazmap.nlm.nih.gov/hazmapadv.html, LaDou, J. (ed.). Occupational Medicine. Appleton & Lange, Norwalk, CN. 1990., National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances. See Environmental Defense's Suspect Hazard Identification documentation., Zimmerman, H.J. and J.H. Lewis. Chemical- and Toxin-Induced Hepatotoxicity. Gastroenterology Clinics of North America. 24(4): 1027-1045. 1995. (Table 3: Forms of environmental hepatic injury).
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationUS EPA. Roadmaps to Sources of Information on Chemicals Listed in the Emergency Planning Community and Community Right-to-Know Act (Also Known as SARA Title 3), Section 313 Toxic Release Inventory (for Microcomputers). (Report Number EPADFDK92040). 1991. Data file distributed in 2 diskettes by Office of Pollution, Prevention, and Toxics, Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. NOTE: Datasource no longer being maintained by EPA; not currently available online.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationProposition 65 List of Carcinogens (July 2004) can be obtained from http://www.oehha.ca.gov/prop65/prop65_list/Newlist.html.
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007
RTECS®- Cancer Research 1974RTECS®- Cancer Research. (Public Ledger Building, Suit 816, 6th & Chestnut Sts., Philadelphia, PA 19106) V.1- 34,2576,1974
RTECS®- Carcinogenesis (London) 1992RTECS®- Carcinogenesis (London). (Oxford Univ. Press, Pinkhill House, Southfield Road, Eynsham, Oxford OX8 1JJ, UK) V.1- 13,2389,1992
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 1987RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.10- 10(Suppl 10),1,1987
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 1992RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.10- 19,98,1992
RTECS®- MSHA STANDARD-air: 3,249,1971RTECS®- MSHA STANDARD-air: 3,249,1971
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1988RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 201,401,1988
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1995RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 343,157,1995
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Construc): 29,1926 1994RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Construc): 29,1926.55,1994
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Fed Cont): 41,50-204 1994RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Fed Cont): 41,50-204.50,1994
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Gen Indu): 29,1910 1994RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Gen Indu): 29,1910.1000,1994
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Shipyard): 29,1915 1993RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Shipyard): 29,1915.1000,1993
RTECS®- Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry 1987RTECS®- Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry. (Gordon & Breach Science Pub. Inc., 1 Park Ave., New York, NY 10016) V.3(3/4)- 15,101,1987

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