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National Drinking Water Database


National Drinking Water Database - Chemical Contaminants

1,1,2-Trichloroethane


Status: Regulated - EPA has established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

1,1,2-Trichloroethane is used in production of synthetic fibers, plastic wraps and adhesives; it is released as a pollutant from various chemical manufacturing factories. [read more]

 
Detected
Found above
health guidelines
Found above
legal limit
States
14
10
-
Water utilities
31
18
-
People Served
1,198,408
660,225
-

Health Concerns for 1,1,2-Trichloroethane:


1,1,2-Trichloroethane Exposure by State

Water utilities in 14 states have reported detecting 1,1,2-Trichloroethane in treated tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies.

StateWater Suppliers with 1,1,2-Trichloroethane contaminationWater suppliers reporting 1,1,2-Trichloroethane above health-based limits
SystemsPopulationSystemsPopulation
Florida6415,9193307,349
California2234,1021190,106
New York8296,3815119,581
New Jersey220,100220,100
Idaho110,500110,500
Indiana16,26316,263
New Mexico12,40112,401
Pennsylvania32,14022,055
Virginia11,65011,650
Connecticut12201220
Delaware2203,30000
Missouri12,77900
Ohio12,60300
New Hampshire15000
Total311,198,40818660,225

The Most Polluted Communities

31 water utilities reported detecting 1,1,2-Trichloroethane in tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies

Ranked by highest average 1,1,2-Trichloroethane level

RankSystem Population Served Positive test results of total reported tests Average Level
(Range)
1Mcconnellsburg Boro Muni Auth
Mcconnellsburg, PA
2,0002 of 50.56 ppb
(0 to 1.8 ppb)
2Bedford Hills/Taconic Corr. Facilities
Bedford Hills, NY
1,1001 of 10.5 ppb
(0.5 ppb)
3Goshen Village
Goshen, NY
5,6761 of 90.41 ppb
(0 to 3.7 ppb)
4Windy Acres Mobile Home
Hackettstown, NJ
1005 of 120.3 ppb
(0 to 0.96 ppb)
5Indian Kill
Tuxedo, NY
2,0001 of 40.24 ppb
(0 to 0.94 ppb)
6Aloha Travel Trailer Park
Kissimmee, FL
2251 of 70.2 ppb
(0 to 1.4 ppb)
7Ledyard Wpca, Sablewoods System
Ledyard, CT
2201 of 80.18 ppb
(0 to 1.4 ppb)
8Clayton Municipal Supply
Albuquerque, NM
2,4011 of 30.17 ppb
(0 to 0.5 ppb)
9Wild Oaks Water Company
Rockport, NY
8051 of 30.17 ppb
(0 to 0.5 ppb)
10Rensselaer Water Department
Rensselaer, IN
6,2631 of 190.16 ppb
(0 to 3.1 ppb)

Health Based Limits for 1,1,2-Trichloroethane

StandardDescriptionLevel
California Public Health GoalsDefined by the State of California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA) as the level of contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. For acutely toxic substances, levels are set at which scientific evidence indicates that no known or anticipated adverse effects on health will occur, plus an adequate margin-of safety. PHGs for carcinogens or other substances which can cause chronic disease shall be based solely on health effects without regard to cost impacts and shall be set at levels which OEHHA has determined do not pose any significant risk to health.0.3 ppb
EPA Human Health Water Quality CriteriaWater quality criteria set by the US EPA provide guidance for states and tribes authorized to establish water quality standards under the Clean Water Act (CWA) to protect human health. These are non-enforceable standards based upon exposure by both drinking water and the contribution of water contamination to other consumed foods. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.0.59 ppb
One in one million (10-6) Cancer RiskThe concentration of a chemical in drinking water corresponding to an excess estimated lifetime cancer risk of 1 in 1,000,000. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.0.6 ppb
Maximum Contaminant Limit Goal (MCLG)A non-enforceable health goal that is set at a level at which no known or anticipated adverse effect on the health of persons occurs and which allows an adequate margin of safety. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.3 ppb
Lifetime health-based limit, non-cancer riskConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects for a lifetime of exposure. The Lifetime health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is based on exposure for a a 70-kg adult consuming 2 liters of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.3 ppb
Maximum Contaminant Limit (MCL)The enforceable standard which defines the highest level of a contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. MCLs are set as close to health-based limits (Maximum Contaminant Level Goals, or MCLGs) as feasible using the best available analytical and treatment technologies and taking cost into consideration. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.5 ppb
One in ten thousand (10-4) Cancer RiskThe concentration of a chemical in drinking water corresponding to an excess estimated lifetime cancer risk of 1 in 10,000. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.60 ppb
Drinking Water Equivalent LevelA lifetime exposure concentration protective of adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects, that assumes all of the exposure to a contaminant is from drinking water. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.100 ppb
Children's health-based limit for 10-day exposureConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic effects for up to ten days of exposure. The Ten-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.400 ppb
Children's health-based limit for 1-day exposureConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects for up to one day of exposure. The One-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.600 ppb

Testing Summary for 1,1,2-Trichloroethane

Are tests routinely required for 1,1,2-Trichloroethane by federal law?Yes
Water suppliers reporting tests for 1,1,2-Trichloroethane (2004-2009):33,938 of 47,576
Average testing rate for water supplier reporting tests (2004-2009):0.6 per year

Violation Summary for 1,1,2-Trichloroethane

Data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency includes the following violations of federal standards for 1,1,2-Trichloroethane since 2004

Maximum Contaminant Level Exceedance Violations0
Monitoring Violations4,298
Reporting Violations0

Cancer

Type of concern: Reference:
Possible human carcinogen California EPA Proposition 65
Cancer - strong evidence Proposition 65 List of Carcinogens
Limited evidence of carcinogenicity European Union - Classification & Labelling
Limited evidence of carcinogenicity Amer Conf of Gov't Industrial Hygienists - Carcinogens
Limited evidence of carcinogenicity EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)
Possible carcinogen Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
Cancer - not classifiable/not likely to be human carcinogen Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - Carcinogens

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

Type of concern: Reference:
Known human respiratory toxicant EPA Hazardous Air Pollutants
Classified as medium human health priority Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
One or more animal studies show classified as toxic effects at low doses EPA Categorized List of Inert Pesticide Ingredients
Classified as toxic or harmful European Union - Classification & Labelling
Limited evidence of gastrointestinal or liver toxicity National Library of Medicine HazMap
Limited evidence of gastrointestinal or liver toxicity Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2004
Limited evidence of sense organ toxicity US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center
Limited evidence of cardiovascular or blood toxicity California EPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, 2003
Limited evidence of kidney toxicity California EPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, 2003
One or more animal studies show classified as toxic effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs
Classified as not expected to be potentially toxic or harmful Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Persistence and bioaccumulation

Type of concern: Reference:
Persistent or bioaccumulative and moderate to high toxicity concern in humans Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
Not suspected to be bioaccumulative Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Occupational hazards

Type of concern: Reference:
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to low doses European Union - Classification & Labelling

Ecotoxicology

Type of concern: Reference:
Wildlife and environmental toxicity EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants
Not suspected to be an environmental toxin Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Neurotoxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
nervous system - weight of evidence unknown/unassessed/unreview: published lit review or major tox study National Library of Medicine HazMap

Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)

Type of concern: Reference:
Classified as skin irritant European Union - Classification & Labelling



Government, industry, academic studies and classifications

government/industry list/academic study appears on list as classification(s)
European Union - Classification & Labelling1,1,2-TRICHLOROETHANE•Limited evidence of a carcinogenic effect
•Harmful
•Harmful by inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed
•Repeated exposure may cause skin dryness or cracking
Amer Conf of Gov't Industrial Hygienists - Carcinogens1,1,2-TRICHLOROETHANE•Confirmed animal carcinogen with unknown relevance to humans (ACGIH classification A3)
Association of Occupational and Environmental Clinics1,1,2-TRICHLOROETHANE• S
Association of Occupational and Environmental Clinics1,1,2-TRICHLOROETHANE• S
Association of Occupational and Environmental Clinics1,1,2-TRICHLOROETHANE• S
EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants1,1,2-TRICHLOROETHANE•Priority water pollutant under the Clean Water Act
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListETHANE, 1,1,2-TRICHLORO-•This chemical was deemed a human health priority even though it did not meet the strict criteria of the categorization exercise of CEPA. The chemical was flagged for carcinogenic concern and suspected persistence.
EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)1,1,2-TRICHLOROETHANE•Group C: Possible human carcinogen (EPA classification)
EPA Hazardous Air Pollutants1,1,2-TRICHLOROETHANE•Hazardous air pollutant under Clean Air Act
National Library of Medicine HazMap1,1,2-TRICHLOROETHANE•Skin Designation (ACGIH) - Danger of cutaneous absorption (ACGIH): Yes;
•Hepatotoxin: Hepatotoxin, Secondary;
•Neurotoxin: CNS Solvent Syndrome;
•PEL (OSHA) - Permissible exposure limit (OSHA): 10 ppm;
•LC50 - Lethal concentration in 50% of animals tested: 1000 ppm;
•TLV (ACGIH) - Threshold limit value (ACGIH): 10 ppm;
•Flammability (NFPA) - NFPA flammability code: 0 = will not burn; 1 = must be preheated; 2 = high ambient temp required; 3 = may ignite at ambient temp; 4 = burn readily: 1: must be preheated;
•IDLH (NIOSH) - Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health: 100 ppm;
•Odor Threshold High - The lowest concentration at which a substance can be detected or recognized using the sense of smell: 167 ppm;
•Odor Threshold Low - The lowest concentration at which a substance can be detected or recognized using the sense of smell: 0.5 ppm;
•MAK - Maximum Allowable Concentration (Federal Republic of Germany): 10 ppm;
Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - Carcinogens1,1,2-TRICHLOROETHANE•IARC Group 3 (no cancer link)
EPA Categorized List of Inert Pesticide Ingredients1,1,2-TRICHLOROETHANE•Pesticide inerts of toxicological concern according to EPA (Environmental Protection Agency)
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs1,1,2TRICHLOROETHANE•Toxic, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Toxics Release Inventory programs
California EPA Proposition 65VINYL TRICHLORIDE (1,1,2-TRICHLOROETHANE)•Carcinogen: California Proposition 65
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 20041,1,2-TRICHLOROETHANE•Gastrointestinal or liver toxicity hazards: suspected
US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center1,1,2-TRICHLOROETHANE•Skin or sense organ toxicity hazards: suspected
California EPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, 20031,1,2-TRICHLOROETHANE•Cardiovascular or blood toxicity hazards: suspected
California EPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, 20031,1,2-TRICHLOROETHANE•Kidney toxicity hazards: suspected
Proposition 65 List of Carcinogens1,1,2-TRICHLOROETHANE•Cancer hazards: recognized



references

government/industry list/academic study reference
European Union - Classification & LabellingCPS&Q (Consumer Products Safety & Quality) formely known as ECB (European Chemicals Bureau). 2008. Classification and Labelling: Chemicals: Annex VI of Directive 67/548/EEC through the 31st ATP.
Amer Conf of Gov't Industrial Hygienists - CarcinogensACGIH (American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists) 2008. ACGIH cancer classification system. www.acgih.org.
Association of Occupational and Environmental ClinicsAOEC (Association of Occupational and Environmental Clinics). 2009. AEOC exposures codes and asthmagen designation.
EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListEC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2008. Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Evidence for human carcinogenicity based on 1986-2005 guidelines.
EPA Hazardous Air PollutantsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2005. Office of Air. The 112(b)1 Hazardous Air Pollutants List (as modified). Last modified: 12 Dec 2005.
National Library of Medicine HazMapNLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - CarcinogensIARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer). 2008. Overall Evaluations of Carcinogenicity to Humans, as evaluated in IARC Monographs Volumes 1-99 (a total of 935 agents, mixtures and exposures).
EPA Categorized List of Inert Pesticide IngredientsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1987 & 2005. Office of Pesticide Programs. Inert (other) Pesticide Ingredients in Pesticide Products - Categorized List of Inert (other) Pesticide Ingredients.
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1999. Toxics Release Inventory Program. PBT Chemical Rule.
California EPA Proposition 65California EPA (California Environmental Protection Agency). 9/2008. Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act of 1986. Chemicals known to the State to cause cancer or reproductive toxicity.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationAgency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Minimal risk Levels for Hazardous Substances. January 2004. http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/mrls.html, California EPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Air Toxics Hot Spots Program Risk Assessment Guidelines, Part III: Technical Support Document 'Determination of Noncancer Chronic Reference Exposure Levels'. Includes all Chronic Reference Exposure Levels (CRELs) adopted by OEHHA as of August 2003 (http://www.oehha.ca.gov/air/chronic_rels/AllChrels.html, plus draft CRELS proposed through March 2004 (http://www.oehha.ca.gov/air/chronic_rels/index.html., National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances. See Environmental Defense's Suspect Hazard Identification documentation.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationUS EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center. Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants. http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/hapindex.html
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationCalifornia EPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Air Toxics Hot Spots Program Risk Assessment Guidelines, Part III: Technical Support Document 'Determination of Noncancer Chronic Reference Exposure Levels'. Includes all Chronic Reference Exposure Levels (CRELs) adopted by OEHHA as of August 2003 (http://www.oehha.ca.gov/air/chronic_rels/AllChrels.html, plus draft CRELS proposed through March 2004 (http://www.oehha.ca.gov/air/chronic_rels/index.html.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationCalifornia EPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Air Toxics Hot Spots Program Risk Assessment Guidelines, Part III: Technical Support Document 'Determination of Noncancer Chronic Reference Exposure Levels'. Includes all Chronic Reference Exposure Levels (CRELs) adopted by OEHHA as of August 2003 (http://www.oehha.ca.gov/air/chronic_rels/AllChrels.html, plus draft CRELS proposed through March 2004 (http://www.oehha.ca.gov/air/chronic_rels/index.html.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationProposition 65 List of Carcinogens (July 2004) can be obtained from http://www.oehha.ca.gov/prop65/prop65_list/Newlist.html.

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