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National Drinking Water Database


National Drinking Water Database - Chemical Contaminants

1,1,1,2-Tetrachloroethane


Status: Unregulated - EPA has not established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

1,1,1,2-Tetrachloroethane is a synthetic chemical used in metal degreasing and as an intermediate in industrial chemical production.

 
Detected
Found above
health guidelines
Found above
legal limit
States
11
3
-
Water utilities
18
4
-
People Served
577,594
28,723
-

Health Concerns for 1,1,1,2-Tetrachloroethane:


1,1,1,2-Tetrachloroethane Exposure by State

Water utilities in 11 states have reported detecting 1,1,1,2-Tetrachloroethane in treated tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies.

StateWater Suppliers with 1,1,1,2-Tetrachloroethane contaminationWater suppliers reporting 1,1,1,2-Tetrachloroethane above health-based limits
SystemsPopulationSystemsPopulation
New York716,455213,550
Massachusetts237,80019,800
Alabama15,37315,373
Florida1307,07600
Delaware1201,00000
North Carolina15,65500
Missouri12,77900
New Jersey196000
Virginia134800
Maine18000
Wisconsin16800
Total18577,594428,723

The Most Polluted Communities

18 water utilities reported detecting 1,1,1,2-Tetrachloroethane in tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies

Ranked by highest average 1,1,1,2-Tetrachloroethane level

RankSystem Population Served Positive test results of total reported tests Average Level
(Range)
1Bridgeport Utilities Board
Bridgeport, AL
5,3731 of 22.15 ppb
(0 to 4.3 ppb)
2Grafton Water District
Grafton, MA
9,8002 of 190.75 ppb
(0 to 14 ppb)
3Bedford Hills/Taconic Corr. Facilities
Bedford Hills, NY
1,1001 of 10.5 ppb
(0.5 ppb)
4Himrod Water District
Penn Yan, NY
801 of 20.25 ppb
(0 to 0.5 ppb)
5Foremost Farms Usa Cooperative
Plover, WI
681 of 10.22 ppb
(0.22 ppb)
6Town of Wadesboro
Wadesboro, NC
5,6551 of 40.2 ppb
(0 to 0.8 ppb)
7Sunrise Bungalows
Spring Valley, NY
501 of 70.2 ppb
(0 to 1.4 ppb)
8Wild Oaks Water Company
Rockport, NY
8051 of 30.17 ppb
(0 to 0.5 ppb)
9Mcwa, Genesee West
Rochester, NY
8002 of 30.12 ppb
(0 to 0.23 ppb)
10Herrings Village
Herrings, NY
1201 of 50.1 ppb
(0 to 0.5 ppb)

Health Based Limits for 1,1,1,2-Tetrachloroethane

StandardDescriptionLevel
One in one million (10-6) Cancer RiskThe concentration of a chemical in drinking water corresponding to an excess estimated lifetime cancer risk of 1 in 1,000,000. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.1 ppb
Lifetime health-based limit, non-cancer riskConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects for a lifetime of exposure. The Lifetime health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is based on exposure for a a 70-kg adult consuming 2 liters of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.70 ppb
Health-Based Screening LevelA benchmark concentration of contaminants in water that may be of potential concern for human health, if exceeded. For noncarcinogens, the HBSL represents the contaminant concentration in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse effects over a lifetime of exposure. For carcinogens, the HBSL range represents the contaminant concentration in drinking water that corresponds to an excess estimated lifetime cancer risk of 1 chance in 1 million to 1 chance in 10 thousand. Source: U.S. Geological Survey.70 ppb
One in ten thousand (10-4) Cancer RiskThe concentration of a chemical in drinking water corresponding to an excess estimated lifetime cancer risk of 1 in 10,000. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.100 ppb
Drinking Water Equivalent LevelA lifetime exposure concentration protective of adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects, that assumes all of the exposure to a contaminant is from drinking water. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.1000 ppb
Children's health-based limit for 1-day exposureConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects for up to one day of exposure. The One-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.2000 ppb
Children's health-based limit for 10-day exposureConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic effects for up to ten days of exposure. The Ten-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.2000 ppb

Testing Summary for 1,1,1,2-Tetrachloroethane

Are tests routinely required for 1,1,1,2-Tetrachloroethane by federal law?No
Water suppliers reporting tests for 1,1,1,2-Tetrachloroethane (2004-2009):21,426 of 47,576
Average testing rate for water supplier reporting tests (2004-2009):0.6 per year

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

Type of concern: Reference:
One or more animal studies show sense organ effects at very low doses RTECS®- Archives des Maladies Professionnelles de Medecine du Travail et de Securite Sociale 1974
Classified as not expected to be potentially toxic or harmful Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Cancer

Type of concern: Reference:
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 2006
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1996
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Science 1987
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 1988
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1995
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1988
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry 1987

Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)

Type of concern: Reference:
One or more animal studies show skin irritation at high doses RTECS®- Archives des Maladies Professionnelles de Medecine du Travail et de Securite Sociale 1974

Ecotoxicology

Type of concern: Reference:
Not suspected to be an environmental toxin Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Persistence and bioaccumulation

Type of concern: Reference:
Not suspected to be bioaccumulative Environment Canada Domestic Substance List



Government, industry, academic studies and classifications

government/industry list/academic study appears on list as classification(s)
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListETHANE, 1,1,1,2-TETRACHLORO-•This chemical was NOT flagged by CEPA for further attention. The chemical was flagged for suspected persistence.
RTECS®- Archives des Maladies Professionnelles de Medecine du Travail et de Securite Sociale 1974ETHANE, 1,1,1,2-TETRACHLORO-• sense organ - Primary eye irritant (rabbit )
• skin - Primary skin irritant (rabbit )
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 1988ETHANE, 1,1,1,2-TETRACHLORO-• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Mammalian Somatic Cells (mouse lym)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1988ETHANE, 1,1,1,2-TETRACHLORO-• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Gene Conversion and Mitotic Recombination ( Aspergillis nidulans )
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Sex Chromosome Loss and Nondisjunction ( Aspergillis nidulans )
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1995ETHANE, 1,1,1,2-TETRACHLORO-• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: other mutation test systems (mouse orl)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1996ETHANE, 1,1,1,2-TETRACHLORO-• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Sex Chromosome Loss and Nondisjunction ( human lng)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 2006ETHANE, 1,1,1,2-TETRACHLORO-• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: (hamster ovr)
RTECS®- Science 1987ETHANE, 1,1,1,2-TETRACHLORO-• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (mouse lym)
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Sister Chromatid Exchange (hamster ovr)
RTECS®- Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry 1987ETHANE, 1,1,1,2-TETRACHLORO-• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (Salmonella typhimurium )



references

government/industry list/academic study reference
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListEC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
RTECS®- Archives des Maladies Professionnelles de Medecine du Travail et de Securite Sociale 1974RTECS®- Archives des Maladies Professionnelles de Medecine du Travail et de Securite Sociale. (SPPIF, B.P.22, F-41353 Vineuil, France) V.7- 35,593,1974
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 1988RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.10- 12,85,1988
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1988RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 201,401,1988
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1995RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 343,157,1995
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1996RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 369,243,1996
RTECS®- Mutation Research 2006RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 602,14,2006
RTECS®- Science 1987RTECS®- Science. (American Assoc. for the Advancement of Science, 1333 H St., NW, Washington, DC 20005) V.1- 236,933,1987
RTECS®- Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry 1987RTECS®- Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry. (Gordon & Breach Science Pub. Inc., 1 Park Ave., New York, NY 10016) V.3(3/4)- 15,101,1987

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