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National Drinking Water Database


National Drinking Water Database - Chemical Contaminants

1,1,1-Trichloroethane


Status: Regulated - EPA has established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

1,1,1-Trichloroethane is an industrial cleaning solvent that contaminates drinking water sources due to releases from metal degreasing sites and chemicals factories. [read more]

 
Detected
Found above
health guidelines
Found above
legal limit
States
32
-
-
Water utilities
257
-
-
People Served
6,855,222
-
-

Health Concerns for 1,1,1-Trichloroethane:


1,1,1-Trichloroethane Exposure by State

Water utilities in 32 states have reported detecting 1,1,1-Trichloroethane in treated tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies.

StateWater Suppliers with 1,1,1-Trichloroethane contamination
SystemsPopulation
California131,852,144
Pennsylvania401,235,032
New Jersey33952,230
New York33800,303
Wisconsin26309,425
Massachusetts15305,379
Washington11263,122
Delaware5240,284
Illinois12195,931
Connecticut10195,150
Indiana6134,846
Florida593,637
Minnesota479,528
Iowa271,012
Oregon130,500
Ohio927,602
Nebraska223,200
Maine315,130
New Hampshire55,266
North Carolina24,875
Maryland14,000
Alabama13,600
New Mexico23,001
Missouri12,779
Virginia42,548
Michigan12,350
Alaska3818
Arkansas1778
Texas2296
Wyoming1254
Vermont1110
Nevada292
Total2576,855,222

The Most Polluted Communities

257 water utilities reported detecting 1,1,1-Trichloroethane in tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies

Ranked by highest average 1,1,1-Trichloroethane level

RankSystem Population Served Positive test results of total reported tests Average Level
(Range)
1Bets Water System
Oak Harbor, WA
5010 of 1050 ppb
(39 to 61 ppb)
2Village of Malta
Malta, OH
6973 of 529.1 ppb
(0 to 61 ppb)
3Grafton Water District
Grafton, MA
9,80019 of 279.37 ppb
(0 to 58.2 ppb)
4Valley View Mobile Home Park
King Of Prussia, PA
7508 of 88.21 ppb
(6.3 to 11.6 ppb)
5North Glen Water Association
Colbert, WA
1047 of 75.39 ppb
(4.8 to 6 ppb)
6Hillview Village
Hinsdale, NY
1382 of 25.38 ppb
(0.75 to 10 ppb)
7City of Milford
Milford, OH
6,40018 of 245.08 ppb
(0 to 18.03 ppb)
8Franklin Water Dept
MA
28,8029 of 115.04 ppb
(0 to 9.8 ppb)
9Witches Brook Water Company
Townsend, MA
1,9848 of 94.41 ppb
(0 to 12.5 ppb)
10Grafton Waterworks
Grafton, WI
13,31023 of 304.21 ppb
(0 to 17.68 ppb)

Health Based Limits for 1,1,1-Trichloroethane

StandardDescriptionLevel
Maximum Contaminant Limit (MCL)The enforceable standard which defines the highest level of a contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. MCLs are set as close to health-based limits (Maximum Contaminant Level Goals, or MCLGs) as feasible using the best available analytical and treatment technologies and taking cost into consideration. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.200 ppb
Maximum Contaminant Limit Goal (MCLG)A non-enforceable health goal that is set at a level at which no known or anticipated adverse effect on the health of persons occurs and which allows an adequate margin of safety. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.200 ppb
Lifetime health-based limit, non-cancer riskConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects for a lifetime of exposure. The Lifetime health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is based on exposure for a a 70-kg adult consuming 2 liters of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.200 ppb
California Public Health GoalsDefined by the State of California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA) as the level of contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. For acutely toxic substances, levels are set at which scientific evidence indicates that no known or anticipated adverse effects on health will occur, plus an adequate margin-of safety. PHGs for carcinogens or other substances which can cause chronic disease shall be based solely on health effects without regard to cost impacts and shall be set at levels which OEHHA has determined do not pose any significant risk to health.1000 ppb
Drinking Water Equivalent LevelA lifetime exposure concentration protective of adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects, that assumes all of the exposure to a contaminant is from drinking water. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.1000 ppb
Children's health-based limit for 10-day exposureConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic effects for up to ten days of exposure. The Ten-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.40000 ppb
Children's health-based limit for 1-day exposureConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects for up to one day of exposure. The One-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.100000 ppb

Testing Summary for 1,1,1-Trichloroethane

Are tests routinely required for 1,1,1-Trichloroethane by federal law?Yes
Water suppliers reporting tests for 1,1,1-Trichloroethane (2004-2009):33,972 of 47,576
Average testing rate for water supplier reporting tests (2004-2009):0.6 per year

Violation Summary for 1,1,1-Trichloroethane

Data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency includes the following violations of federal standards for 1,1,1-Trichloroethane since 2004

Maximum Contaminant Level Exceedance Violations0
Monitoring Violations4,300
Reporting Violations0

Neurotoxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
Strong evidence of human neurotoxicity Chemicals known to be neurotoxic to humans
Limited evidence of nervous system toxicity CHE Toxicant and Disease Database

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

Type of concern: Reference:
Known human respiratory toxicant EPA Hazardous Air Pollutants
Known human gastrointestinal toxicant CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
One or more animal studies show sense organ effects at very low doses RTECS®- "Prehled Prumyslove Toxikologie; Organicke Latky," Marhold, J 1986
Possible human musculoskeletal toxicant CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Possible human gastrointestinal toxicant CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Possible human cardiovascular toxicant CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Limited evidence of cardiovascular or blood toxicity US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center, 1996
Limited evidence of gastrointestinal toxicity CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Limited evidence of gastrointestinal or liver toxicity National Library of Medicine HazMap
One or more animal studies show sense organ effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) RTECS®- American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal 1958
One or more animal studies show classified as toxic effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs
One or more animal studies show effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) EPA Categorized List of Inert Pesticide Ingredients
One or more animal studies show gastrointestinal effects at high doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) RTECS®- National Technical Information Service
One or more animal studies show kidney or renal system effects at high doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) RTECS®- National Toxicology Program Technical Report Series 4402
Classified as not expected to be potentially toxic or harmful Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
Classified as a low human health priority Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Developmental/reproductive toxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
Human developmental toxicant - moderate evidence CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Human nervous system toxicant - moderate evidence Chemicals known to be neurotoxic to humans
Limited evidence of developmental toxicity US EPA, 9204
Limited evidence of reproductive toxicity US EPA, 9204
One or more animal studies show reproductive effects at moderate doses RTECS®- Teratology, The International Journal of Abnormal Development 1984

Occupational hazards

Type of concern: Reference:
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to low doses European Union - Classification & Labelling
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- MSHA STANDARD-air: 3,161,1971
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Gen Indu): 29,1910 1994
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2006
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Construc): 29,1926 1994
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Shipyard): 29,1915 1993
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Fed Cont): 41,50-204 1994

Cancer

Type of concern: Reference:
Cancer - limited evidence CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Cancer - limited evidence Proposition 65 List of Carcinogens
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 1988
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Cancer Letters (Shannon, Ireland) 1985
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- In Vitro 1978
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Progress in Mutation Research 1981
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Environmental Science Research 1982
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 1987
Cancer - not classifiable/not likely to be human carcinogen EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry 1987
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1998
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Progress in Mutation Research 1981
Cancer - not classifiable/not likely to be human carcinogen Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - Carcinogens

Allergies/immunotoxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
Limited evidence of immune toxicity or allergies CHE Toxicant and Disease Database

Biochemical or cellular level changes

Type of concern: Reference:
Cancer - moderate evidence - immune system CHE Toxicant and Disease Database

Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)

Type of concern: Reference:
One or more animal studies show skin irritation at low doses RTECS®- "Prehled Prumyslove Toxikologie; Organicke Latky," Marhold, J 1986
One or more animal studies show skin irritation at moderate doses RTECS®- American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal 1958

Ecotoxicology

Type of concern: Reference:
Wildlife and environmental toxicity European Union - Classification & Labelling
Wildlife and environmental toxicity EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants
Not suspected to be an environmental toxin Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Persistence and bioaccumulation

Type of concern: Reference:
Not suspected to be bioaccumulative Environment Canada Domestic Substance List



Government, industry, academic studies and classifications

government/industry list/academic study appears on list as classification(s)
European Union - Classification & Labelling1,1,1-TRICHLOROETHANE•Harmful
•Harmful by inhalation
•Dangerous for the environment
•Dangerous for the ozone layer
Association of Occupational and Environmental ClinicsMETHYL CHLOROFORM• S
Association of Occupational and Environmental ClinicsMETHYL CHLOROFORM• S
Cosmetic Ingredient Review AssessmentsTRICHLOROETHANE•Safe for use in cosmetics with some qualifications
EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants1,1,1-TRICHLOROETHANE•Priority water pollutant under the Clean Water Act
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListETHANE, 1,1,1-TRICHLORO-•This chemical was deemed a low human health priority and was NOT flagged by CEPA for further attention. The chemical was flagged for suspected persistence.
EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)1,1,1-TRICHLOROETHANE•Group D: Not classifiable as to human carcinogenicity (EPA classification)
EPA Hazardous Air PollutantsMETHYL CHLOROFORM (1,1,1-TRICHLOROETHANE)•Hazardous air pollutant under Clean Air Act
National Library of Medicine HazMap1,1,1-TRICHLOROETHANE•Restricted - Regulations that have banned or restricted the use of the agent: 'Because 1,1,1-trichloroethane damages the ozone layer, production in the United States was phased out in 1996, but supplies as a raw material will be available until the year 2002.' [ATSDR Medical Management];
•Hepatotoxin: Hepatotoxin, Secondary;NT: CNS
Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - Carcinogens1,1,1-TRICHLOROETHANE•IARC Group 3 (no cancer link)
EPA Categorized List of Inert Pesticide Ingredients1,1,1-TRICHLOROETHANE•Pesticide inerts: potentially toxic, testing priority, according to EPA (Environmental Protection Agency)
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs1,1,1TRICHLOROETHANE•Toxic, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Toxics Release Inventory programs
DiPalma, J, 11071,1,1-TRICHLOROETHANE•Gastrointestinal or liver toxicity hazards: suspected
US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center, 19961,1,1-TRICHLOROETHANE•Cardiovascular or blood toxicity hazards: suspected
US EPA, 92041,1,1-TRICHLOROETHANE•Developmental toxicity hazards: suspected
US EPA, 92041,1,1-TRICHLOROETHANE•Reproductive toxicity hazards: suspected
Proposition 65 List of CarcinogensTRICHLOROETHANE (ALL ISOMERS)•Cancer hazards: suspected
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2006TRICHLOROETHANE• occupationally related - ACGIH TLV (human TWA)
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007TRICHLOROETHANE• occupationally related - ACGIH TLV (human TWA)
RTECS®- "Prehled Prumyslove Toxikologie; Organicke Latky," Marhold, J 1986TRICHLOROETHANE• sense organ - Primary eye irritant (rabbit )
• skin - Primary skin irritant (rabbit )
RTECS®- American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal 1958TRICHLOROETHANE• sense organ - Primary eye irritant (rabbit )
• skin - Primary skin irritant (rabbit )
RTECS®- American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal 1958TRICHLOROETHANE• sense organ - Primary eye irritant (rabbit )
• skin - Primary skin irritant (rabbit )
RTECS®- Cancer Letters (Shannon, Ireland) 1985TRICHLOROETHANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Morphological Transform (mouse emb)
RTECS®- Cancer Letters (Shannon, Ireland) 1985TRICHLOROETHANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Morphological Transform (mouse emb)
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 1987TRICHLOROETHANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis (hamster ovr)
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 1988TRICHLOROETHANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (mouse lym)
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 1987TRICHLOROETHANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis (hamster ovr)
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 1988TRICHLOROETHANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (mouse lym)
RTECS®- Environmental Science Research 1982TRICHLOROETHANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Morphological Transform (hamster emb)
RTECS®- Environmental Science Research 1982TRICHLOROETHANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Morphological Transform (hamster emb)
RTECS®- In Vitro 1978TRICHLOROETHANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Morphological Transform (rat emb)
RTECS®- MSHA STANDARD-air: 3,161,1971TRICHLOROETHANE• occupationally related - MSHA STANDARD-air (human TWA)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1998TRICHLOROETHANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Gene Conversion and Mitotic Recombination (Saccharomyces cerevisiae )
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1998TRICHLOROETHANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Gene Conversion and Mitotic Recombination (Saccharomyces cerevisiae )
RTECS®- National Technical Information Service TRICHLOROETHANE• gastrointestinal - Hypermotility, diarrhea ( human TDLo)
• gastrointestinal - Nausea or vomiting ( human TDLo)
• gastrointestinal - Other changes ( human TDLo)
RTECS®- National Toxicology Program Technical Report Series 4402TRICHLOROETHANE• kidney or renal system - Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular (rat TDLo)
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Construc): 29,1926 1994TRICHLOROETHANE• occupationally related - OSHA PEL (Construc) (human TWA)
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Fed Cont): 41,50-204 1994TRICHLOROETHANE• occupationally related - OSHA PEL (Fed Cont) (human TWA)
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Gen Indu): 29,1910 1994TRICHLOROETHANE• occupationally related - OSHA PEL (Gen Indu) (human TWA)
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Shipyard): 29,1915 1993TRICHLOROETHANE• occupationally related - OSHA PEL (Shipyard) (human TWA)
RTECS®- Progress in Mutation Research 1981TRICHLOROETHANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA repair (Escherichia coli )
RTECS®- Progress in Mutation Research 1981TRICHLOROETHANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Morphological Transform (hamster kdy)
RTECS®- Progress in Mutation Research 1981TRICHLOROETHANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA repair (Escherichia coli )
RTECS®- Progress in Mutation Research 1981TRICHLOROETHANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Morphological Transform (hamster kdy)
RTECS®- Teratology, The International Journal of Abnormal Development 1984TRICHLOROETHANE• reproductive - Cardiovascular (rat TDLo)
RTECS®- Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry 1987TRICHLOROETHANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (Salmonella typhimurium )
RTECS®- Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry 1987TRICHLOROETHANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (Salmonella typhimurium )



references

government/industry list/academic study reference
European Union - Classification & LabellingCPS&Q (Consumer Products Safety & Quality) formely known as ECB (European Chemicals Bureau). 2008. Classification and Labelling: Chemicals: Annex VI of Directive 67/548/EEC through the 31st ATP.
Association of Occupational and Environmental ClinicsAOEC (Association of Occupational and Environmental Clinics). 2009. AEOC exposures codes and asthmagen designation.
Cosmetic Ingredient Review AssessmentsCIR (Cosmetic Ingredient Review). 2006. CIR Compendium, containing abstracts, discussions, and conclusions of CIR cosmetic ingredient safety assessments. Washington DC.
EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListEC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2008. Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Evidence for human carcinogenicity based on 1986-2005 guidelines.
EPA Hazardous Air PollutantsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2005. Office of Air. The 112(b)1 Hazardous Air Pollutants List (as modified). Last modified: 12 Dec 2005.
National Library of Medicine HazMapNLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - CarcinogensIARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer). 2008. Overall Evaluations of Carcinogenicity to Humans, as evaluated in IARC Monographs Volumes 1-99 (a total of 935 agents, mixtures and exposures).
EPA Categorized List of Inert Pesticide IngredientsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1987 & 2005. Office of Pesticide Programs. Inert (other) Pesticide Ingredients in Pesticide Products - Categorized List of Inert (other) Pesticide Ingredients.
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1999. Toxics Release Inventory Program. PBT Chemical Rule.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationDiPalma, J.A., J. Cunningham, J. Herrera, T. McCaffery, and D. Wolf. Occupational and Industrial Toxin Exposures and the Gastrointestinal Tract. American Journal of Gastroenterology. 86(9): 1107-1117. 1991. (Table 2: Selected Agents with Purported Digestive System Injury)., US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center. Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants. http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/hapindex.html, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances. See Environmental Defense's Suspect Hazard Identification documentation.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationUS EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center. Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants. http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/hapindex.html, Klaassen, C., M. Amdur and J. Doull (eds.). Casarett and Doull's Toxicology. The Basic Science of Poisons, 5th Ed. Pergamon Press, NY. 1996., LaDou, J. (ed.). Occupational Medicine. Appleton & Lange, Norwalk, CN. 1990., National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances. See Environmental Defense's Suspect Hazard Identification documentation.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationUS EPA. Roadmaps to Sources of Information on Chemicals Listed in the Emergency Planning Community and Community Right-to-Know Act (Also Known as SARA Title 3), Section 313 Toxic Release Inventory (for Microcomputers). (Report Number EPADFDK92040). 1991. Data file distributed in 2 diskettes by Office of Pollution, Prevention, and Toxics, Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. NOTE: Datasource no longer being maintained by EPA; not currently available online.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationUS EPA. Roadmaps to Sources of Information on Chemicals Listed in the Emergency Planning Community and Community Right-to-Know Act (Also Known as SARA Title 3), Section 313 Toxic Release Inventory (for Microcomputers). (Report Number EPADFDK92040). 1991. Data file distributed in 2 diskettes by Office of Pollution, Prevention, and Toxics, Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. NOTE: Datasource no longer being maintained by EPA; not currently available online., Frazier , L. and M. L. Hage (eds.). Reproductive Hazards of the Workplace, Wiley Europe, 1998. Table 10 (Partial List of Reproductive Toxicants) available at http://www.pharmacy.ohio-state.edu/homepage/safety/chemhygiene_table_repro.pdf.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationProposition 65 List of Carcinogens (July 2004) can be obtained from http://www.oehha.ca.gov/prop65/prop65_list/Newlist.html.-MC
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