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National Drinking Water Database


National Drinking Water Database - Chemical Contaminants

1,1-Dichloroethylene


Status: Regulated - EPA has established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

Industrial chemical pollutant from manufacture of adhesives, synthetic fibers, refrigerants and plastic wraps. [read more]

 
Detected
Found above
health guidelines
Found above
legal limit
States
29
5
5
Water utilities
213
15
15
People Served
12,126,878
614,455
614,455

Health Concerns for 1,1-Dichloroethylene:


1,1-Dichloroethylene Exposure by State

Water utilities in 29 states have reported detecting 1,1-Dichloroethylene in treated tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies.

StateWater Suppliers with 1,1-Dichloroethylene contaminationWater suppliers reporting 1,1-Dichloroethylene above health-based limits
SystemsPopulationSystemsPopulation
New York23936,9067363,496
California497,575,7214243,020
North Carolina1515,43723,642
Alabama6309,37813,600
Ohio37,1211697
Indiana1805,43100
New Jersey14507,96100
Florida8448,40700
Pennsylvania25271,72800
Washington4258,26600
Delaware2203,05600
Illinois2161,69500
Oregon3102,37000
Wisconsin1287,32200
Massachusetts681,09000
Oklahoma374,91000
Connecticut368,18000
Minnesota256,40600
Nebraska344,20000
Arizona243,60300
Maryland335,62000
New Hampshire1013,56600
New Mexico211,10700
Texas32,61000
Virginia52,60000
Missouri12,00000
Michigan110100
Montana14600
Nevada14000
Total21312,126,87815614,455

The Most Polluted Communities

213 water utilities reported detecting 1,1-Dichloroethylene in tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies

Ranked by highest average 1,1-Dichloroethylene level

RankSystem Population Served Positive test results of total reported tests Average Level
(Range)
1Allegan County Services Center
Allegan, MI
1011 of 14.8 ppb
(4.8 ppb)
2Middlesex Water System
Middlesex, NC
8428 of 124.42 ppb
(0 to 9.3 ppb)
3Village of Malta
Malta, OH
6973 of 54.41 ppb
(0 to 10 ppb)
4Ardmore Water System
Ardmore, AL
3,6007 of 83.3 ppb
(0 to 10 ppb)
5Page Avenue Mutual Water Company
Fullerton, CA
10427 of 272.89 ppb
(1.2 to 6.1 ppb)
6Bets Water System
Oak Harbor, WA
509 of 102.39 ppb
(0 to 4.9 ppb)
7California Water Service Co. - Ela
Montebello, CA
151,042192 of 2232.13 ppb
(0 to 5.96 ppb)
8Hicksville Wd
Hicksville, NY
47,810145 of 1862.12 ppb
(0 to 14.9 ppb)
9Pineview S/D
Gastonia, NC
5817 of 172.09 ppb
(0.85 to 3.2 ppb)
10North Glen Water Association
Colbert, WA
1047 of 72.07 ppb
(1.6 to 2.9 ppb)

Health Based Limits for 1,1-Dichloroethylene

StandardDescriptionLevel
Maximum Contaminant Limit (MCL)The enforceable standard which defines the highest level of a contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. MCLs are set as close to health-based limits (Maximum Contaminant Level Goals, or MCLGs) as feasible using the best available analytical and treatment technologies and taking cost into consideration. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.7 ppb
Maximum Contaminant Limit Goal (MCLG)A non-enforceable health goal that is set at a level at which no known or anticipated adverse effect on the health of persons occurs and which allows an adequate margin of safety. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.7 ppb
California Public Health GoalsDefined by the State of California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA) as the level of contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. For acutely toxic substances, levels are set at which scientific evidence indicates that no known or anticipated adverse effects on health will occur, plus an adequate margin-of safety. PHGs for carcinogens or other substances which can cause chronic disease shall be based solely on health effects without regard to cost impacts and shall be set at levels which OEHHA has determined do not pose any significant risk to health.10 ppb
EPA Human Health Water Quality CriteriaWater quality criteria set by the US EPA provide guidance for states and tribes authorized to establish water quality standards under the Clean Water Act (CWA) to protect human health. These are non-enforceable standards based upon exposure by both drinking water and the contribution of water contamination to other consumed foods. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.330 ppb
Children's health-based limit for 10-day exposureConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic effects for up to ten days of exposure. The Ten-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.1000 ppb
Children's health-based limit for 1-day exposureConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects for up to one day of exposure. The One-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.2000 ppb
Drinking Water Equivalent LevelA lifetime exposure concentration protective of adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects, that assumes all of the exposure to a contaminant is from drinking water. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.2000 ppb

Testing Summary for 1,1-Dichloroethylene

Are tests routinely required for 1,1-Dichloroethylene by federal law?Yes
Water suppliers reporting tests for 1,1-Dichloroethylene (2004-2009):33,968 of 47,576
Average testing rate for water supplier reporting tests (2004-2009):0.6 per year

Violation Summary for 1,1-Dichloroethylene

Data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency includes the following violations of federal standards for 1,1-Dichloroethylene since 2004

Maximum Contaminant Level Exceedance Violations2
Monitoring Violations4,298
Reporting Violations0

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

Type of concern: Reference:
Known human respiratory toxicant EPA Hazardous Air Pollutants
Classified as a high human health priority Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
Limited evidence of gastrointestinal or liver toxicity National Library of Medicine HazMap
Limited evidence of gastrointestinal or liver toxicity Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2004
Limited evidence of respiratory toxicity Foth, H, 1995
One or more animal studies show classified as toxic effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs
Classified as not expected to be potentially toxic or harmful Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Cancer

Type of concern: Reference:
Limited evidence of carcinogenicity European Union - Classification & Labelling
Limited evidence of carcinogenicity EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)
Possible carcinogen Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
Cancer - limited evidence US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center, 2002
Cancer - limited evidence Silent Spring's Mammary Carcinogens Reviews Database
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 1980
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 1991
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Toxicology 1985
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1981
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1987
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 2006
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1978
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Biochemical Pharmacology 1975
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1981
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1988
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1992
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 2005
Cancer - not classifiable/not likely to be human carcinogen Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - Carcinogens

Occupational hazards

Type of concern: Reference:
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to low doses European Union - Classification & Labelling
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to moderate doses RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007

Developmental/reproductive toxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
Limited evidence of reproductive toxicity US EPA, 9204
Limited evidence of developmental toxicity US EPA, 9204

Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)

Type of concern: Reference:
Human skin irritant - moderate evidence National Library of Medicine HazMap

Ecotoxicology

Type of concern: Reference:
Wildlife and environmental toxicity EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants
Not suspected to be an environmental toxin Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Miscellaneous

Type of concern: Reference:
Occupational hazards related to handling European Union - Classification & Labelling

Persistence and bioaccumulation

Type of concern: Reference:
Not suspected to be persistent Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
Not suspected to be bioaccumulative Environment Canada Domestic Substance List



Government, industry, academic studies and classifications

government/industry list/academic study appears on list as classification(s)
European Union - Classification & Labelling1,1-DICHLOROETHYLENE•Highly flammable
•Extremely flammable
•Limited evidence of a carcinogenic effect
•Harmful
•Harmful by inhalation
EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants1,1-DICHLOROETHYLENE•Priority water pollutant under the Clean Water Act
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListETHENE, 1,1-DICHLORO-•This chemical was deemed a high human health priority even though it did not meet the strict criteria of the categorization exercise of CEPA. The chemical was flagged for suspected carcinogenic concerns.
EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)1,1-DICHLOROETHYLENE (1,1-DCE)Suggestive evidence of carcinogenicity; but not sufficient to assess human carcinogenic potential
EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)1,1-DICHLOROETHYLENE (1,1-DCE)Data are inadequate for an assessment of human carcinogenic potential
EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)1,1-DICHLOROETHYLENE (1,1-DCE)•Group C: Possible human carcinogen (EPA classification)
EPA Hazardous Air PollutantsVINYLIDENE CHLORIDE (1,1-DICHLOROETHYLENE)•Hazardous air pollutant under Clean Air Act
National Library of Medicine HazMapVINYLIDENE CHLORIDE•Dermatotoxin: Skin Burns;
•Hepatotoxin: Hepatotoxin, Secondary;
•Nephrotoxin: Yes;
•TLV (ACGIH) - Threshold limit value (ACGIH): 5 ppm;
•Flammability (NFPA) - NFPA flammability code: 0 = will not burn; 1 = must be preheated; 2 = high ambient temp required; 3 = may ignite at ambient temp; 4 = burn readily: 4: burns readily;
•Lacrimator - A substance that irritates the eyes and induces the flow of tears: Yes;
•MAK - Maximum Allowable Concentration (Federal Republic of Germany): 2 ppm;
Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - CarcinogensVINYLIDENE CHLORIDE•IARC Group 3 (no cancer link)
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs1,1DICHLOROETHENE•Toxic, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Toxics Release Inventory programs
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 20041,1-DICHLOROETHYLENE•Gastrointestinal or liver toxicity hazards: suspected
US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center, 20021,1-DICHLOROETHYLENE•Cancer hazards: suspected
US EPA, 92041,1-DICHLOROETHYLENE•Reproductive toxicity hazards: suspected
US EPA, 92041,1-DICHLOROETHYLENE•Developmental toxicity hazards: suspected
Foth, H, 19951,1-DICHLOROETHYLENE•Respiratory toxicity hazards: suspected
Silent Spring's Mammary Carcinogens Reviews DatabaseVINYLIDENE CHLORIDE•Chemicals Shown to Cause Mammary Gland Tumors in Animal Studies
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,20071,1-DICHLOROETHYLENE• occupationally related - ACGIH TLV (human TWA)
RTECS®- Biochemical Pharmacology 19751,1-DICHLOROETHYLENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (Escherichia coli )
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 19911,1-DICHLOROETHYLENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: (mouse lym)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 19871,1-DICHLOROETHYLENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis (hamster lng)
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Sister Chromatid Exchange (hamster lng)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 19881,1-DICHLOROETHYLENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage (Saccharomyces cerevisiae )
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Sex Chromosome Loss and Nondisjunction (Saccharomyces cerevisiae )
RTECS®- Mutation Research 19921,1-DICHLOROETHYLENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Sex Chromosome Loss and Nondisjunction ( Aspergillis nidulans )
RTECS®- Mutation Research 19781,1-DICHLOROETHYLENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (Salmonella typhimurium )
RTECS®- Mutation Research 20051,1-DICHLOROETHYLENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (Salmonella typhimurium )
RTECS®- Mutation Research 19781,1-DICHLOROETHYLENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (Salmonella typhimurium )
RTECS®- Mutation Research 20061,1-DICHLOROETHYLENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: (mouse ipr)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 19811,1-DICHLOROETHYLENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (Saccharomyces cerevisiae )
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Gene Conversion and Mitotic Recombination (Saccharomyces cerevisiae )
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Host-mediated Assay (mouse )
RTECS®- Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 19801,1-DICHLOROETHYLENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage (rat ihl)
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Unscheduled DNA Synthesis (mouse ihl)
RTECS®- Toxicology 19851,1-DICHLOROETHYLENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Unscheduled DNA Synthesis (mouse orl)



references

government/industry list/academic study reference
European Union - Classification & LabellingCPS&Q (Consumer Products Safety & Quality) formely known as ECB (European Chemicals Bureau). 2008. Classification and Labelling: Chemicals: Annex VI of Directive 67/548/EEC through the 31st ATP.
EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListEC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2008. Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Evidence for human carcinogenicity based on 1986-2005 guidelines.
EPA Hazardous Air PollutantsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2005. Office of Air. The 112(b)1 Hazardous Air Pollutants List (as modified). Last modified: 12 Dec 2005.
National Library of Medicine HazMapNLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - CarcinogensIARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer). 2008. Overall Evaluations of Carcinogenicity to Humans, as evaluated in IARC Monographs Volumes 1-99 (a total of 935 agents, mixtures and exposures).
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1999. Toxics Release Inventory Program. PBT Chemical Rule.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationAgency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Minimal risk Levels for Hazardous Substances. January 2004. http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/mrls.html, US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center. Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants. http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/hapindex.html, Klaassen, C., M. Amdur and J. Doull (eds.). Casarett and Doull's Toxicology. The Basic Science of Poisons, 5th Ed. Pergamon Press, NY. 1996., California EPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Air Toxics Hot Spots Program Risk Assessment Guidelines, Part III: Technical Support Document 'Determination of Noncancer Chronic Reference Exposure Levels'. Includes all Chronic Reference Exposure Levels (CRELs) adopted by OEHHA as of August 2003 (http://www.oehha.ca.gov/air/chronic_rels/AllChrels.html, plus draft CRELS proposed through March 2004 (http://www.oehha.ca.gov/air/chronic_rels/index.html., National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances. See Environmental Defense's Suspect Hazard Identification documentation.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationUS EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center. Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants. http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/hapindex.html, US EPA, National Center for Environmental Assessment. Integrated Risk Information System. http://www.epa.gov/iriswebp/iris/index.html, US EPA, Office of Pesticide Programs. List of Chemicals Evaluated for Carcinogenic Potential (5/10/2002). OPP, Washington, DC. http://www.epi.uci.edu/valleycenter/EPAListCarcinogenicChemicals.pdf, US EPA, Office of Emergency Response and Remediation. Superfund Chemical Data Matrix. http://www.epa.gov/superfund/resources/scdm/index.htm
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationUS EPA. Roadmaps to Sources of Information on Chemicals Listed in the Emergency Planning Community and Community Right-to-Know Act (Also Known as SARA Title 3), Section 313 Toxic Release Inventory (for Microcomputers). (Report Number EPADFDK92040). 1991. Data file distributed in 2 diskettes by Office of Pollution, Prevention, and Toxics, Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. NOTE: Datasource no longer being maintained by EPA; not currently available online.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationUS EPA. Roadmaps to Sources of Information on Chemicals Listed in the Emergency Planning Community and Community Right-to-Know Act (Also Known as SARA Title 3), Section 313 Toxic Release Inventory (for Microcomputers). (Report Number EPADFDK92040). 1991. Data file distributed in 2 diskettes by Office of Pollution, Prevention, and Toxics, Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. NOTE: Datasource no longer being maintained by EPA; not currently available online., Jankovic, J. A Screening Method for Occupational Reproductive Health Risk. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal. 57: 641-649. 1996.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationFoth, H. Role of the Lung in Accumulation and Metabolism of Xenobiotic compounds - Implications for Chemically Induced Toxicity. Critical Reviews in Toxicology. 25(2): 165-205. 1995. (Table 1:Toxic Damage of Lung by Foreign Compounds).
Silent Spring's Mammary Carcinogens Reviews DatabaseRudel RA, KR Attfield, JN Schifano and JG Brody. Chemicals Causing Mammary Gland Tumors in Animals Signal New Directions for Epidemiology, Chemicals Testing, and Risk Assessment for Breast Cancer Prevention. CANCER Supplement. 2007 Jun 15;109(12):2635-2666.
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007
RTECS®- Biochemical Pharmacology 1975RTECS®- Biochemical Pharmacology. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.1- 24,2013,1975
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 1991RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.10- 17,122,1991
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1987RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 187,157,1987
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1988RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 206,209,1988
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1992RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 266,117,1992
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RTECS®- Mutation Research 2005RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 572,98,2005
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RTECS®- Mutation Research 2006RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 608,29,2006
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1981RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 89,179,1981
RTECS®- Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 1980RTECS®- Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1- 53,357,1980
RTECS®- Toxicology 1985RTECS®- Toxicology. (Elsevier Scientific Pub. Ireland, Ltd., POB 85, Limerick, Ireland) V.1- 36,199,1985

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