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National Drinking Water Database


National Drinking Water Database - Chemical Contaminants

1,1-Dichloroethane


Status: Unregulated - EPA has not established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

1,1-Dichloroethane is used in industrial chemical synthesis, as a solvent for plastics, paint, varnish, and finish removers and as an insecticide/fumigant.

 
Detected
Found above
health guidelines
Found above
legal limit
States
21
7
-
Water utilities
132
18
-
People Served
3,677,340
563,600
-

Health Concerns for 1,1-Dichloroethane:


1,1-Dichloroethane Exposure by State

Water utilities in 21 states have reported detecting 1,1-Dichloroethane in treated tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies.

StateWater Suppliers with 1,1-Dichloroethane contaminationWater suppliers reporting 1,1-Dichloroethane above health-based limits
SystemsPopulationSystemsPopulation
New York29882,7449457,639
Florida4410,851182,228
Wisconsin11110,499113,310
Massachusetts10158,53919,800
North Carolina81,1642394
New Hampshire91,4053125
Washington52,7811104
New Jersey17716,42000
California14677,74500
Delaware2237,13000
Indiana2170,40000
Minnesota4101,64600
Iowa388,60800
Nebraska453,95000
Arizona143,43300
Alabama112,83700
Missouri24,77900
Oklahoma21,73300
Virginia134800
Rhode Island232700
Texas1100
Total1323,677,34018563,600

The Most Polluted Communities

132 water utilities reported detecting 1,1-Dichloroethane in tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies

Ranked by highest average 1,1-Dichloroethane level

RankSystem Population Served Positive test results of total reported tests Average Level
(Range)
1Hillview Village
Hinsdale, NY
1381 of 114.4 ppb
(14.4 ppb)
2North Glen Water Association
Colbert, WA
1047 of 73.71 ppb
(3.3 to 4.2 ppb)
3Grafton Water District
Grafton, MA
9,80013 of 252.63 ppb
(0 to 17.5 ppb)
4Tanglewood Estates S/D
Fayetteville, NC
30910 of 112.4 ppb
(0 to 4 ppb)
5Green Hills Mobile Home Park
Barrington, NH
5013 of 192.11 ppb
(0 to 5.73 ppb)
6Grafton Waterworks
Grafton, WI
13,31020 of 302.03 ppb
(0 to 11 ppb)
7Village Square
NH
456 of 71.86 ppb
(0 to 7.4 ppb)
8Camelot Mhp
Asheville, NC
855 of 71.53 ppb
(0 to 3.35 ppb)
9Hicksville Wd
Hicksville, NY
47,810156 of 1871.52 ppb
(0 to 23.7 ppb)
10Howard Manor Condominiums
Plaistow, NH
3020 of 201.42 ppb
(<0.01 to 3.65 ppb)

Health Based Limits for 1,1-Dichloroethane

StandardDescriptionLevel
California Public Health GoalsDefined by the State of California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA) as the level of contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. For acutely toxic substances, levels are set at which scientific evidence indicates that no known or anticipated adverse effects on health will occur, plus an adequate margin-of safety. PHGs for carcinogens or other substances which can cause chronic disease shall be based solely on health effects without regard to cost impacts and shall be set at levels which OEHHA has determined do not pose any significant risk to health.3 ppb

Testing Summary for 1,1-Dichloroethane

Are tests routinely required for 1,1-Dichloroethane by federal law?No
Water suppliers reporting tests for 1,1-Dichloroethane (2004-2009):22,155 of 47,576
Average testing rate for water supplier reporting tests (2004-2009):0.6 per year

Cancer

Type of concern: Reference:
Possible human carcinogen NTP - Tumor Induction in Mammary Gland
Possible human carcinogen California EPA Proposition 65
Cancer - strong evidence CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Cancer - strong evidence Proposition 65 List of Carcinogens
Limited evidence of carcinogenicity EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)
Cancer - moderate evidence - gastrointestinal CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Possible carcinogen Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
One or more human case studies show possible cancer findings NTP - Tumor Induction in Mammary Gland
Cancer - limited evidence CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Cancer - limited evidence Silent Spring's Mammary Carcinogens Reviews Database
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1989
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1988

Developmental/reproductive toxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
Human reproductive toxicant - strong evidence CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Human developmental toxicant - strong evidence CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Human reproductive toxicant - moderate evidence CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Human nervous system toxicant - moderate evidence CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Limited evidence of developmental toxicity CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Limited evidence of musculoskeletal toxicity CHE Toxicant and Disease Database

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

Type of concern: Reference:
Known human respiratory toxicant EPA Hazardous Air Pollutants
Known human renal toxicant CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Known human cardiovascular toxicant CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Classified as a high human health priority Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
Possible human respiratory toxicant CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Possible human hematologic toxicant CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Classified as expected to be toxic or harmful Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
Classified as toxic or harmful European Union - Classification & Labelling
Limited evidence of respiratory toxicity CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Limited evidence of cardiovascular toxicity CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Limited evidence of gastrointestinal or liver toxicity National Library of Medicine HazMap
Limited evidence of cardiovascular or blood toxicity US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center
One or more animal studies show classified as toxic effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs

Allergies/immunotoxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
Human skin and immune toxicant or allergen - moderate evidence CHE Toxicant and Disease Database

Endocrine disruption

Type of concern: Reference:
Human endocrine disruptor - moderate evidence CHE Toxicant and Disease Database

Neurotoxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
Moderate evidence of human neurotoxicity CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
nervous system - weight of evidence unknown/unassessed/unreview: published lit review or major tox study National Library of Medicine HazMap

Occupational hazards

Type of concern: Reference:
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to low doses European Union - Classification & Labelling
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- MSHA STANDARD-air: 3,15,1973
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Gen Indu): 29,1910 1994
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Construc): 29,1926 1994
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Shipyard): 29,1915 1993
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Fed Cont): 41,50-204 1994

Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)

Type of concern: Reference:
Classified as irritant European Union - Classification & Labelling
Human respiratory irritant - moderate evidence CHE Toxicant and Disease Database

Ecotoxicology

Type of concern: Reference:
Wildlife and environmental toxicity European Union - Classification & Labelling
Wildlife and environmental toxicity EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants
Not suspected to be an environmental toxin Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Persistence and bioaccumulation

Type of concern: Reference:
Not suspected to be bioaccumulative Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Miscellaneous

Type of concern: Reference:
Occupational hazards related to handling European Union - Classification & Labelling



Government, industry, academic studies and classifications

government/industry list/academic study appears on list as classification(s)
European Union - Classification & Labelling1,1-DICHLOROETHANE•Highly flammable
•Highly flammable
•Harmful
•Harmful if swallowed
•Irritant (eyes, skin, or lungs)
•Irritating to eyes and respiratory system
•Harmful to aquatic organisms
EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants1,1-DICHLOROETHANE•Priority water pollutant under the Clean Water Act
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListETHANE, 1,1-DICHLORO-•This chemical was deemed a high human health priority and was flagged by CEPA for further attention. The chemical is suspected to be carcinogenic and persistent.
EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)1,1-DICHLOROETHANE•Group C: Possible human carcinogen (EPA classification)
EPA Hazardous Air PollutantsETHYLIDENE DICHLORIDE (1,1-DICHLOROETHANE)•Hazardous air pollutant under Clean Air Act
National Library of Medicine HazMap1,1-DICHLOROETHANE•Hepatotoxin: Hepatotoxin, Secondary;
•Neurotoxin: CNS Solvent Syndrome;
•PEL (OSHA) - Permissible exposure limit (OSHA): 100 ppm;
•LC50 - Lethal concentration in 50% of animals tested: 32000 ppm;
•TLV (ACGIH) - Threshold limit value (ACGIH): 100 ppm;
•Flammability (NFPA) - NFPA flammability code: 0 = will not burn; 1 = must be preheated; 2 = high ambient temp required; 3 = may ignite at ambient temp; 4 = burn readily: 3: may ignite at ambient temperature;
•IDLH (NIOSH) - Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health: 3000 ppm;
•Lacrimator - A substance that irritates the eyes and induces the flow of tears: Yes;
•Odor Threshold High - The lowest concentration at which a substance can be detected or recognized using the sense of smell: 1359 ppm;
•Odor Threshold Low - The lowest concentration at which a substance can be detected or recognized using the sense of smell: 49 ppm;
•MAK - Maximum Allowable Concentration (Federal Republic of Germany): 100 ppm;
NTP - Tumor Induction in Mammary Gland1,1-DICHLOROETHANE•Induces mammary tumors (National Toxicology Program classification)
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs1,1DICHLOROETHANE•Toxic, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Toxics Release Inventory programs
California EPA Proposition 651,1-DICHLOROETHANE•Carcinogen: California Proposition 65
US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center1,1-DICHLOROETHANE•Cardiovascular or blood toxicity hazards: suspected
Proposition 65 List of Carcinogens1,1-DICHLOROETHANE•Cancer hazards: recognized
Silent Spring's Mammary Carcinogens Reviews Database1,1-DICHLOROETHANE•Chemicals Shown to Cause Mammary Gland Tumors in Animal Studies
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,20071,1-DICHLOROETHANE• occupationally related - ACGIH TLV (human TWA)
RTECS®- MSHA STANDARD-air: 3,15,19731,1-DICHLOROETHANE• occupationally related - MSHA STANDARD-air (human TWA)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 19881,1-DICHLOROETHANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Sex Chromosome Loss and Nondisjunction ( Aspergillis nidulans )
RTECS®- Mutation Research 19891,1-DICHLOROETHANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Unscheduled DNA Synthesis (rat lvr)
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Construc): 29,1926 19941,1-DICHLOROETHANE• occupationally related - OSHA PEL (Construc) (human TWA)
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Fed Cont): 41,50-204 19941,1-DICHLOROETHANE• occupationally related - OSHA PEL (Fed Cont) (human TWA)
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Gen Indu): 29,1910 19941,1-DICHLOROETHANE• occupationally related - OSHA PEL (Gen Indu) (human TWA)
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Shipyard): 29,1915 19931,1-DICHLOROETHANE• occupationally related - OSHA PEL (Shipyard) (human TWA)



references

government/industry list/academic study reference
European Union - Classification & LabellingCPS&Q (Consumer Products Safety & Quality) formely known as ECB (European Chemicals Bureau). 2008. Classification and Labelling: Chemicals: Annex VI of Directive 67/548/EEC through the 31st ATP.
EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListEC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2008. Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Evidence for human carcinogenicity based on 1986-2005 guidelines.
EPA Hazardous Air PollutantsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2005. Office of Air. The 112(b)1 Hazardous Air Pollutants List (as modified). Last modified: 12 Dec 2005.
National Library of Medicine HazMapNLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
NTP - Tumor Induction in Mammary GlandNTP (National Toxicology Program) 2006. Chemicals Associated with Site-Specific Tumor Induction in Mammary Gland.
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1999. Toxics Release Inventory Program. PBT Chemical Rule.
California EPA Proposition 65California EPA (California Environmental Protection Agency). 9/2008. Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act of 1986. Chemicals known to the State to cause cancer or reproductive toxicity.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationUS EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center. Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants. http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/hapindex.html
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationProposition 65 List of Carcinogens (July 2004) can be obtained from http://www.oehha.ca.gov/prop65/prop65_list/Newlist.html.
Silent Spring's Mammary Carcinogens Reviews DatabaseRudel RA, KR Attfield, JN Schifano and JG Brody. Chemicals Causing Mammary Gland Tumors in Animals Signal New Directions for Epidemiology, Chemicals Testing, and Risk Assessment for Breast Cancer Prevention. CANCER Supplement. 2007 Jun 15;109(12):2635-2666.
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007
RTECS®- MSHA STANDARD-air: 3,15,1973RTECS®- MSHA STANDARD-air: 3,15,1973
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1988RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 201,401,1988
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1989RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 221,263,1989
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Construc): 29,1926 1994RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Construc): 29,1926.55,1994
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Fed Cont): 41,50-204 1994RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Fed Cont): 41,50-204.50,1994
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Gen Indu): 29,1910 1994RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Gen Indu): 29,1910.1000,1994
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Shipyard): 29,1915 1993RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Shipyard): 29,1915.1000,1993

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