Close

Advanced Search

Close
Find your sunscreen
Filter your search

Limit Results

Sort results






X
 
 

References

AAD (American Academy of Dermatology). Position Statement on Vitamin D. Approved by the Board of Directors November 1, 2008; Amended by the Board of Directors June 19, 2009. Available at www.aad.org/forms/policies/uploads/ps/ps-vitamin%20d.pdf

AAP (American Academy of Pediatrics). Healthy Children. Safety & Prevention: Sun Safety. 2008. Available at www.healthychildren.org/english/safety-prevention/at-play/pages/Sun-Safety.aspx

ACS (American Cancer Society). Key Statistics for Basal and Squamous Cell Skin Cancers. 2017. Available at www.cancer.org/cancer/basal-and-squamous-cell-skin-cancer/about/key-statistics.html

J.S. Adams and M. Hewison. Update in Vitamin D. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 2010, 95(2):471-478.

AMA (American Medical Association). Report 4 of the Council on Science and Public Health (A-09): Appropriate Supplementation of Vitamin D, Resolution 425, A-08, Reference Committee D. 2009.

Antaria, United States Patent Application Publication, US 2010/0310871. Mesoporous Zinc Oxide Powder and Method for Production Thereof. 2010.

Antaria, Review of ZinClear-IM™ Product Range in Line with the European Union Cosmetic Products Regulation (EC 1223/2009). 2012. Available at www.antaria.com/news/ANO_Review_of_ZinClear_20Dec2012.pdf

J. Ashby et al., Lack of Binding to Isolated Estrogen or Androgen Receptors, and Inactivity in the Immature Rat Uterotrophic Assay, of the Ultraviolet Sunscreen Filters Tinosorb M-Active and Tinosorb S. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, 2001, 34(3):287-291.

P. Autier et al., Melanoma and Use of Sunscreens: An EORTC Case-Control Study in Germany, Belgium and France. The EORTC Melanoma Cooperative Group. International Journal of Cancer, 1995, 61:749-755.

P. Autier and J.F. Dore, Influence of Sun Exposures During Childhood and During Adulthood on Melanoma Risk. EPIMEL and EORTC Melanoma Cooperative Group. European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer. International Journal of Cancer, 1998, 77:533-537.

P. Autier et al., Sunscreen Use and Duration of Sun Exposure: A Double-Blind, Randomized Trial. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 1999, 91(15):1304-1309.

P. Autier et al., Sunscreen Use and Intentional Exposure to Ultraviolet A and B Radiation: A Double Blind Randomized Trial Using Personal Dosimeters. British Journal of Cancer, 2000, 83(9):1243-1248.

P. Autier, Sunscreen Abuse for Intentional Sun Exposure. British Journal of Dermatology, 2009, 161 Suppl. 3:40-45.

P. Autier et al., Epidemiological Evidence that UVA Radiation is Involved in the Genesis of Cutaneous Melanoma. Current Opinion in Oncology, 2011(2):189-196. DOI: 10.1097/CCO.0b013e3283436e5d.

P.J. Barker and A. Branch, The Interaction of Modern Sunscreen Formulations with Surface Coatings. Progress in Organic Coatings, 2008, 62(3):313-320.

BASF, Z-Cote Microfine Zinc Oxide. 2000. Available at www.solsunguard.com/zcote_brochure.pdf

BASF, Technical Information: Uvinul, T-Lite and Z-COTE Grades. 2006.

BASF, Z-COTE Grades – Statement on Particle Size Distribution and Safety. 2010.

BASF, Sunscreen Simulator: An efficient Tool to Predict UVB and UVA Protection. 2013. Available at www.sunscreensimulator.basf.com/Sunscreen_Simulator/

A. Beeby and A.E. Jones, The Photophysical Properties of Menthyl Anthranilate: A UV-A Sunscreen. Photochemistry and Photobiology, 2000, 72(1):10-15.

H. Beitner et al., Malignant Melanoma: Aetiological Importance of Individual Pigmentation and Sun Exposure. British Journal of Dermatology, 1990, 122(1):43-51.

F. Benech-Kieffer et al., Percutaneous Absorption of Sunscreens in Vitro: Interspecies Comparison, Skin Models and Reproducibility Aspects. Skin Pharmacology and Applied Skin Physiology, 2000, 13(6):324-335.

F. Benech-Kieffer et al., Percutaneous Absorption of Mexoryl SX in Human Volunteers: Comparison with In Vitro Data. Skin Pharmacology and Applied Skin Physiology, 2003, 16(6):343-355.

C.A. Bonda, The Photostability of Organic Sunscreen Actives: A Review. In Ed. N.A. Shaath, Sunscreens: Regulations and Commercial Development, 3rd edition. Taylor & Francis, 2005.

P.J. Börm et al., The Potential Risks of Nanomaterials: A Review Carried Out for ECETOC. Particle and Fibre Toxicology, 2006, 3:11.

T. Branna, Recent FDA Action Draws Big Crowd in Florida. Happi, Household and Personal Products Industry, 2011. Available at www.happi.com/issues/2011-10/view_features/recent-fda-action-draws-big-crowd-in-florida/

A.M. Bryden et al., Photopatch Testing of 1155 Patients: Results of the U.K. Multicentre Photopatch Study Group. British Journal of Dermatology, 2006, 155:737–747.

G.M. Buck Louis et al., Urinary Concentrations of Benzophenone-Type Ultraviolet Radiation Filters and Couples’ Fecundity. American Journal of Epidemiology, 2014, 180(2):1168-1175.

H.R. Buser et al., Occurrence of UV Filters 4-Methylbenzylidene Camphor and Octocrylene in Fish from Various Swiss Rivers with Input from Wastewater Treatment Plants. Environmental Science & Technology, 2006, 40(5):1427-1431.

J. Cadet et al., Sensitized Formation of Oxidatively Generated Damage to Cellular DNA by UVA Radiation. Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences, 2009, 8(7):903-911.

A.M. Calafat et al., Concentration of the Sunscreen Agent, Benzophenone-3, in Residents of the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2004. Environmental Health Perspectives, 2008, 116(7):893-897.

Health Canada, Sunscreen Monograph Version 2.0. 2013. Available at webprod.hc-sc.gc.ca/nhpid-bdipsn/atReq.do?atid=sunscreen-ecransolaire&lang=eng

A. Cantrell et al., Laser Flash Photolysis Studies of the UVA Sunscreen Mexoryl SX. Photochemistry and Photobiology, 1999, 70:292-297.

CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention), Vitamin D Status: United States, 2001-2006. NCHS Data Brief. No. 59, 2011. Available at www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/databriefs/db59.pdf

CDC, Skin Cancer Trends. 2016. Available at www.cdc.gov/cancer/skin/statistics/trends.htm and Risk Factors available at www.cdc.gov/cancer/skin/basic_info/risk_factors.htm

E. Chatelain and B. Gabard, Photostabilization of Butyl Methoxydibenzoylmethane (Avobenzone) and Ethylhexyl Methoxycinnamate by bis-Ethylhexyloxyphenol Methoxyphenyl Triazine (Tinosorb S), a New UV Broadband Filter. Photochemistry and Photobiology, 2001, 74(3):401-406.

R. Chowdhury et al., Vitamin D and Risk of Cause Specific Death: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Observational Cohort and Randomised Intervention Studies. BMJ, 2014, 348:g1903.

Ciba Specialty Chemicals Corporation, Time and Extent Application for Bisoctrizole. Prepared to Support the Inclusion of Bisoctrizole into FDA’s Monograph for Sunscreen Drug Products for Over-the-Counter Human Use. 2005a, 64 FR 27666-27693, as amended by 66 FR 6748567487, Docket No. 78N-0038.

Ciba Specialty Chemicals Corporation, Time and Extent Application for Bemotrizinol. Prepared to support the Inclusion of Bemotrizinol into FDA’s Monograph for Sunscreen Drug Products for Over-the-Counter Human Use. 2005b, 64 FR 27666-27693, as amended by 66 FR 6748567487, Docket No. 78N-0038.

CIE (Commission Internationale de l´Eclairage), Erythema Reference Action Spectrum and Standard Erythema Dose. Joint ISO/CIE Standard, 1998, ISO 17166:1999/CIE S 007-1998. Available at www.cie.co.at/index.php/Publications/index.php?i_ca_id=469

CIR (Cosmetics Ingredient Review), Amended Safety Assessment of Methylisothiazolinone as Used in Cosmetics. Final Amended Report, 2014. Accessed May 2017. Available at online.personalcarecouncil.org/ctfa-static/online/lists/cir-pdfs/FR646.pdf

CIR, CIR Findings, Chemicals Unsafe in Cosmetics. 2017. Available at www.cir-safety.org/sites/default/files/U-092016posted022017.pdf

S.G. Coleho and V.J. Hearing, UVA Tanning is Involved in the Increased Incidence of Skin Cancers in Fair-Skinned Young Women. Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research, 2010, 23(1):57-63.

Colipa, Guidelines: Method for In-Vitro Determination of UVA Protection. Colipa – The European Cosmetics Association, Prepared by the COLIPA In Vitro UV Protection Method Task Force, 2009.

Consumers Union, Sunscreens: Some Are Short on Protection. Consumer Reports, 2007, 72(7):6.

Cosmetics Europe, Guidelines: Method for In Vitro Determination of UVA Protection. 2011. Available at www.cosmeticseurope.eu/downloads/3306.html

C. Couteau et al., Study of the Persistence of the Anti-Inflammatory Effect Observed After Application of Preparations Containing Organic Ultraviolet Filters. International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 2014, 476(1):160-163.

C. Couteau et al., Influence of Certain Ingredients on the SPF Determined In Vivo. Archives of Dermatological Research, 2012, 304(10):817-821.

E. Damiani et al., UV-Filter Combinations Under UV-A Exposure: Concomitant Quantification of Over-All Spectral Stability and Molecular Integrity. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B, 2007, 87(2):95-104.

E. Damiani et al., Assessment of the Photo-Degradation of UV-Filters and Radical-Induced Peroxidation in Cosmetic Sunscreen Formulations. Free Radical Research, 2010, 44(3):304-312.

R. Danovaro, Sunscreens Cause Coral Bleaching by Promoting Viral Infections. Environmental Health Perspectives, 2008, 116(4):441-447.

A. Deflandre and G. Lang, Photostability Assessment of Sunscreens: Benzylidene Camphor and Dibenzoylmethane Derivatives. International Journal of Cosmetic Science, 1988, 10:53-62.

L.K. Dennis et al., Sunscreen Use and the Risk for Melanoma: A Quantitative Review. Annals of Internal Medicine, 2003, 139:966-978.

A. Diaz, The Children and Sunscreen Study. Archives of Dermatology, 2012, E1-E7.

B.L. Diffey, A Method for Broad Spectrum Classification of Sunscreens. International Journal of Cosmetic Science, 1994, 16:47-52.

B.L. Diffey, When Should Sunscreen Be Reapplied? Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, 2001, 45(6):882-885.

B.L. Diffey, Sunscreens as a Preventative Measure in Melanoma: An Evidence-Based Approach or the Precautionary Principle? British Journal of Dermatology, 2009, 161 Suppl. 3:25-27.

B.L. Diffey, The FDA Final Rule on Labeling and Effectiveness Testing of Sunscreens: Too Little, Too Late? Letter to Editor. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, 2012, 66(1):162-63.

B.L. Diffey, New Sunscreens and the Precautionary Principle. JAMA Dermatology, 2016. DOI: 10.1001/jamadermatol.2015.6069.

Z.D. Draelos, Are Sunscreens Safe? Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology, 2010, 9:1-2.

A. Dupuy et al., Randomized Controlled Trial Testing the Impact of High-Protection Sunscreens on Sun-Exposure Behavior. Archives of Dermatology, 2005, 141(8):950-956.

S. Durrer et al., Estrogen Sensitivity of Target Genes and Expression of Nuclear Receptor Co-Regulators in Rat Prostate After Pre- and Postnatal Exposure to the Ultraviolet Filter 4-Methylbenzylidene Camphor. Environmental Health Perspectives, 2007, 115 Suppl. 1, 42-50.

Endocrine Society, Some Sunscreen Ingredients May Disrupt Sperm Cell Function. Press Release, 2016. Available at www.endocrine.org/news-room/current-press-releases/some-sunscreen-ingredients-may-disrupt-sperm-cell-function

European Commission, Recommendation on the Efficacy of Sunscreen Products and the Claims Made Relating Thereto. 2006, OJ L265, 2006 ⁄7647 ⁄EC, 39-43.

European SCCS (Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety), Opinion on ZnO (nano form). European Union, 2012.

European SCCS, Opinion on Vitamin A (Retinol, Retinyl Acetate, Retinyl Palmitate). Adopted Oct. 6, 2016. Available at ec.europa.eu/health/sites/health/files/scientific_committees/consumer_safety/docs/sccs_o_199.pdf

EWG, Comments from Environmental Working Group on the U.S. Food and Drug Administration’s Proposed Amendment of Final Monograph for Sunscreens Docket: Sunscreen Drug Products for Over-the-Counter Human Use; Proposed Amendment of Final Monograph. 2007, Docket No. 1978N-0038, RIN: 0910-AF43

EWG, Unpublished Test Results. 2010.

EWG, Comments from Environmental Working Group on the U.S. Food and Drug Administration’s Draft Guidance on Nanotechnology. 2011, Docket No. FDA-2010-D-0530. Available at static.ewg.org/pdf/EWG-FDA-Comments-Nano-Guidance-August-2011.pdf

EWG, EWG’s Skin Deep Cosmetics Safety Database. 2015. Available at www.ewg.org/skindeep/

FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration), Sunscreen Drug Products for Over-the-Counter Human Use; Proposed Amendment of Final Monograph; Proposed Rule. In: 21 CFR Parts 347 and 352. Federal Register: U.S. Food and Drug Administration, 2007. Available at www.fda.gov/OHRMS/DOCKETS/98fr/07-4131.htm

FDA, About the National Center for Toxicological Research. Biochemical Toxicology, 2009. Available at www.fda.gov/AboutFDA/CentersOffices/NCTR/WhatWeDo/ResearchDivisions/ucm078482.htm

FDA, Sunscreen Drug Products for Over-the-Counter Human Use, 76 Fed. Reg. 35,672. 2011a.

FDA Draft, Not for Implementation: Guidance for Industry. Enforcement Policy – OTC Sunscreen Drug Products Marketed Without an Approved Application. 2011b. Available at www.fda.gov/downloads/Drugs/GuidanceComplianceRegulatoryInformation/Guidances/UCM259001.pdf

FDA Retinyl Palmitate Press Statement. 2011c.

FDA, Sunscreen Drug Products for Over-the-Counter Human Use; Request for Data and Information Regarding Dosage Forms. 2011d, RIN 0910-ZA40, [Docket No FDA-1978-N-0018], 21 CFR Part 352, 4160-01-P.

FDA, Revised Effectiveness Determination; Sunscreen Drug Products for Over-the-Counter Human Use. 2011e, RIN 0910-AF43, [Docket No FDA-1978-N-0018], 21 CFR Part 201, 4160-01-P.

FDA, Labeling and Effectiveness Testing; Sunscreen Drug Products for Over-the-Counter Human Use; Delay of Compliance Dates. Department of Health and Human Services, 2012, 4160-01-P. 21 CFR Parts 201 and 310, [Docket No. FDA-1978-N-0018] (formerly Docket No. 1978N-0038), RIN 0910-AF43.

FDA, Sunscreen Innovation Act (SIA). 2014. Available at www.fda.gov/drugs/guidancecomplianceregulatoryinformation/ucm434782.htm

FDA, Shedding Some Light on FDA’s Review of Sunscreen Ingredients and the Sunscreen Innovation Act. 2015a. Available at blogs.fda.gov/fdavoice/index.php/2015/02/shedding-some-light-on-fdas-review-of-sunscreen-ingredients-and-the-sunscreen-innovation-act/

FDA, FDALabel: Full-Text Search of Product Labeling. 2016. Accessed May 2017. Available at www.fda.gov/scienceresearch/bioinformaticstools/ucm289739.htm

L. Ferrero et al., Efficiency of a Continuous Height Distribution Model of Sunscreen Film Geometry to Predict a Realistic Sun Protection Factor. Journal of Cosmetic Science, 2003, 54:463-481.

S. Field and J.A. Newton-Bishop, Melanoma and Vitamin D. Molecular Oncology, 2011(2):197-214.

S. Field et al., Vitamin D and Melanoma. Dermato-endocrinology, 2013, 5(1):121-129.

J.E. Fielding and S.M. Teutsch, Skin Cancer Prevention: Sunnyside Up or Scrambled? Editorial. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 2010, 102(7):445-447. Available at jnci.oxfordjournals.org/content/102/7/445.full.pdf+html

N.M. Franklin et al., 2007. Comparative Toxicity of Nanoparticulate ZnO, bulk ZnO, and ZnCl2 to a Freshwater Microalga (Pseudokirchneriella Subcapitata): The Importance of Particle Solubility. Environmental Science and Technology, 41(24): 8484-8490.

FOE (Friends of the Earth), Nanotechnology and Sunscreens: A Consumer Guide for Avoiding Nano-Sunscreens. 2009. Available at www.foe.org/healthy-people/nanotechnology-and-sunscreens.

FOE, Sunscreen Scandal Questions and Answers. 2012. Accessed April 2013. Available at nano.foe.org.au/sunscreen-scandal-questions-and-answers

Future Markets Inc., The World Market for Nanoparticle Titanium Dioxide. 2011. Available at www.futuremarketsinc.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=38&Itemid=75

A.O. Gamer et al., The In Vitro Absorption of Microfine Zinc Oxide and Titanium Dioxide Through Porcine Skin. Toxicology In Vitro, 2006, 20(3):301-307.

C.F. Garland et al., Epidemiologic Evidence for Different Roles of Ultraviolet A and B Radiation in Melanoma Mortality Rates. Annals of Epidemiology, 2003, 13(6):395-404.

F. Gasparro, Sunscreen Photobiology: Molecular, Cellular, and Physiological Aspects. Springer, 1997.

E. Gilbert et al., Commonly Used UV Filter Toxicity on Biological Functions: Review of Last Decade Studies. International Journal of Cosmetic Science, 2013. DOI: 10.1111/ics.12030.

German BfR, Vitamin A: Intake via Cosmetic Products Should Be Restricted. Bundesinstitu für Risikobewertung, 2014. Available at www.bfr.bund.de/cm/343/vitamin-a-aufnahme-ueber-kosmetische-mittel-sollte-begrenzt-werden.pdf

D.L. Giokas et al., UV Filters: From Sunscreens to Human Body and the Environment. Trends in Analytical Chemistry, 2007, 26(5):360-374.

P.A. Gimotty and K. Glanz, Sunscreen and Melanoma: What is the Evidence? Journal of Clinical Oncology, 2011, 29(3):249-250.

A.A. Ginde et al., Association Between Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Level and Upper Respiratory Tract Infection in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Archives of Internal Medicine, 2009, 169(4):384-390.

D.E. Godar et al., Increased UVA Exposures and Decreased Cutaneous Vitamin D(3) Levels May Be Responsible for the Increasing Incidence of Melanoma. Medical Hypotheses, 2009, 72(4):434-443.

D.E. Godar, Worldwide Increasing Incidences of Cutaneous Malignant Melanoma. Journal of Skin Cancer, 2011. DOI: 10.1155/2011/858425 Available at www.hindawi.com/journals/jsc/2011/858425/

H.G. Gonzalez et al., Percutaneous Absorption of Benzophenone-3, a Common Component of Topical Sunscreens. Clinical and Experimental Dermatology, 2002, 27(8):691-694.

H. Gonzalez, Percutaneous Absorption of the Sunscreen Benzophenone-3 After Repeated Whole-Body Applications, With and Without Ultraviolet Irradiation. British Journal of Dermatology, 2006, 154(2):337-340.

L.G. Gordon et al., Regular Sunscreen Use is a Cost-Effective Approach to Skin Cancer Prevention in Subtropical Settings. Journal of Investigative Dermatology, 2009, 129(12):2766-2771.

E.D. Gorham et al., Do Sunscreens Increase Risk of Melanoma in Populations Residing at Higher Latitudes? Annals of Epidemiology, 2007, 17(12):956-963.

A. Green et al., Daily Sunscreen Application and Betacarotene Supplementation in Prevention of Basal-Cell and Squamous-Cell Carcinomas of the Skin: A Randomised Controlled Trial. Lancet, 1999, 354(9180):723-729.

A.C. Green et al., Reduced Melanoma After Regular Sunscreen Use: Randomized Trial Follow-Up. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 2011, 29(3):257-263.

T. Grosick and P. Tanner, Efficacy As Used, Not As Tested, Is True Measure of Sunscreen Performance. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, 2004, 50:P31.

A.C. de-Groot and D.W. Roberts, Contact and Photocontact Allergy to Octocrylene: A Review. Contact Dermatitis, 2014, 70(14):193-204.

B. Gulson et al., Comparison of Dermal Absorption of Zinc from Different Sunscreen Formulations and Differing UV Exposure Based on Stable Isotope Tracing. 2012, 420:313-318. Available at dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2011.12.046

G.P. Guy Jr. et al., Prevalence and Costs of Skin Cancer Treatment in the U.S., 2002-2006 and 2007-2011. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 2015, 48(2):183-187.

C. Han et al., Ten-Year Trends in Urinary Concentrations of Triclosan and Benzophenone-3 in the General U.S. Population from 2003 to 2012. Environmental Pollution, 2016, 208, Part B:803-810.

K.M. Hanson et al., Sunscreen Enhancement of UV-Induced Reactive Oxygen Species in the Skin. Free Radical Biology & Medicine, 2006, 41(8):1205-1212.

K.G. Harley et al., Reducing Phthalate, Paraben, and Phenol Exposure from Personal Care Products in Adolescent Girls: Findings from the HERMOSA Intervention Study. Environmental Health Perspectives, 2016. DOI: 10.1289/ehp.1510514

C.G.J. Hayden et al., Sunscreen Penetration of Human Skin and Related Keratinocyte Toxicity After Topical Application. Skin Pharmacology and Physiology, 2005, 18(4):170-174.

R. Haywood et al., Sunscreens Inadequately Protect Against Ultraviolet-A-Induced Free Radicals in Skin: Implications for Skin Aging and Melanoma? Journal of Investigative Dermatology, 2003, 121(4):862-868.

R. Haywood et al., Measuring Sunscreen Protection Against Solar-Simulated Radiation-Induced Structural Radical Damage to Skin Using ESR/Spin Trapping: Development of an Ex Vivo Test Method. Free Radical Research, 2012, 46(3):265-275. DOI: 10.3109/10715762.2011.651719

B. Herzog et al., In Vivo and In Vitro Assessment of UVA Protection by Sunscreen Formulations Containing Either Butyl Methoxy Dibenzoyl Methane, Methylene Bis-Benzotriazoyl Tetramethybutylphenol, or Microfine Zno. International Journal of Cosmetic Science, 2002, 24:170-185.

B. Herzog, Prediction of Sun Protection Factors by Calculation of Transmissions with a Calibrated Step Film Model. Journal of Cosmetic Science, 2002, 53(1):11-26.

B. Herzog, Prediction of Sun Protection Factors and UV-A Parameters. In Ed. N.A. Shaath, Sunscreens: Regulations and Commercial Development. Taylor and Francis Group, 2005, 954.

B. Herzog et al., Photostability of UV Absorber Systems in Sunscreens. Photochemistry and Photobiology, 2009, 85:869-878.

Z. Huang et al., Toxicological Effect of ZnO Nanoparticles Based on Bacteria. Langmuir, 2008, 24(8):4140-4144.

D.J. Hunter et al., Risk Factors for Basal Cell Carcinoma in a Prospective Cohort of Women. Annals of Epidemiology, 1990, 1(1):13-23.

IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer). IARC Handbooks of Cancer Prevention, Vol. 5, Sunscreens. IARC Press, 2001a.

IARC, IARC Summary Recommendations for Public Health Action. 2001b. Available at www.who.int/uv/resources/recommendations/en/IARCSum.pdf

IARC, Monograph No. 2 Titanium Dioxide (Group 2B): International Agency for Research on Cancer. 2006. Available at monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Meetings/93-titaniumdioxide.pdf.

IARC, Sunbeds and UV Radiation. Press Release, 2009. Available at www.iarc.fr/en/media-centre/iarcnews/2009/sunbeds_uvradiation.php

IBISWorld. Sunscreen Manufacturing in the US: Market Research Report. 2016. Accessed April 2017. Available at www.ibisworld.com/industry/sunscreen-manufacturing.html

J. Inbaraj et al., Photophysical and Photochemical Studies of 2-Phenylbenzimadazole and UVB Sunscreen 2-Phenylbenzimidazole-5-Sulfonic Acid. Photochemistry and Photobiology, 2002, 75(2):107-116.

IOM (Institute of Medicine), Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin D and Calcium. 2010. Available at www.iom.edu/Activities/Nutrition/DRIVitDCalcium.aspx

N.R. Janjua et al., Systemic Absorption of the Sunscreens Benzophenone-3, Octyl-Methoxycinnamate, and 3-(4-methyl-benzylidene) camphor After Whole-Body Topical Application and Reproductive Hormone Levels in Humans. Journal of Investigative Dermatology, 2004, 123(1):57-61.

N.R. Janjua et al., Sunscreens in Human Plasma and Urine After Repeated Whole-Body Topical Application. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology, 2008, 22(4):456-461.

R. Jiang et al., Absorption of Sunscreens Across Human Skin: An Evaluation of Commercial Products for Children and Adults. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 1999, 48(4):635-637.

S.J. Kang et al., Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles Trigger p53-Mediated Damage Response in Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes. Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis, 2008, 49(5):399-405.

J. Kockler et al., Photostability of Sunscreens. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology C: Photochemistry Reviews, 2012, 13:91-110.

B. Køster et al., Prevalence of Sunburn and Sun-Related Behaviour in the Danish Population: A Cross-Sectional Study. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 2010, 38(5):548-552.

K. Klein and I. Palefsky, Formulating Sunscreen Products. In Ed. N.A. Shaath, Sunscreens: Regulations and Commercial Development, 3rd edition. Taylor & Francis, 2005.

P. Klinubol et al., Transdermal Penetration of UV Filters. Skin Pharmacology and Physiology, 2008, 21(1):23-29.

KOBO, Attenuation Grade TiO2 Dispersions. KOBO Products, 2011a. Available at www.koboproductsinc.com/Downloads/Kobo-TiO2Dispersions.pdf

KOBO, Attenuation Grade ZnO Dispersions. KOBO Products, 2011b. Available at www.koboproductsinc.com/Downloads/Kobo-ZnODispersions.pdf

KOBO, Practical Tools for Boosting Sunscreen Efficacy. In Eds. Yun Shao et al., Sunscreen Symposium 2015. Accessed May 2016. Available at www.koboproductsinc.com/Downloads/Practical-tools-for-boosting-sunscreen-efficacy.pdf

M. Krause et al., Sunscreens: Are They Beneficial for Health? An Overview of Endocrine Disrupting Properties of UV-Filters. International Journal of Andrology, 2012, 35:424-436.

T. Kunisue et al., Urinary Concentrations of Benzophenone-type UV Filters in US Women and Their Association with Endometriosis. Environmental Science and Technology, 2012, 46(8):4624-4632. DOI: 10.1021/es204415a

P.Y. Kunz et al., Assessment of Hormonal Activity of UV Filters in Tadpoles of Frog Xenopus laevis at Environmental Concentrations. Marine Environmental Research, 2004, 58:431-435.

P.Y. Kunz et al., Comparison of In Vitro and In Vivo Estrogenic Activity of UV Filters in Fish. Toxicological Sciences, 2006, 90(2):349-361.

S. Lautenschlager et al., Photoprotection. Lancet, 2007, 370(9586):528-537.

D. Lazovitch et al., Melanoma Risk in Relation to Use of Sunscreen or Other Sun Protection Methods. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention, 2011, 20:2583-2593. DOI: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-11-0705

Z.A. Lewicka et al., The Structure, Composition, and Dimensions of TiO2 and ZnO Nanomaterials in Commercial Sunscreens. Journal of Nanoparticle Research, 2011, 13:3607-3617.

E. Linos et al., Hat, Shade, Long Sleeves, or Sunscreen? Rethinking US Sun Protection Messages Based on their Relative Effectiveness. Cancer Causes Control, 2011, 22:1067-1071.

A.C. Looker et al., Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Status of the US Population: 1988-1994 Compared with 2000-2004. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2008, 88(6):1519-1527.

G.M. Louis, Urinary Concentrations of Benzophenone-Type Ultraviolet Light Filters and Semen Quality. Fertility and Sterility, 2015, 104(4):989-996.

R.M. Lucas et al., Is the Current Public Health Message on UV Exposure Correct? Bull World Health Organ, 2006, 84(6):485-491.

W.N. Maceachern and O.F. Jillson, A Practical Sunscreen–”Red Vet Pet”. Archives of Dermatology, 1964, 89:147-150.

L. Marrot et al., Importance of UVA Photoprotection As Shown by Genotoxic Related Endpoints: DNA Damage and p53 Status. Mutation Research, 2005, 571:175-184.

E. Manová et al., Aggregate Consumer Exposure to UV Filter Ethylhexyl Methoxycinnamage via Personal Care Products. Environment International, 2015, 74:249-257.

A. Mavon et al., In Vitro Percutaneous Absorption and In Vivo Stratum Corneum Distribution of an Organic and a Mineral Sunscreen. Skin Pharmacology and Physiology, 2007, 20(1):10-20.

A. McKinlay and B. Diffey, A Reference Action Spectrum for Ultraviolet-Induced Erythema in Human Skin. CIE Journal, 1987, 6:17-22.

L. Montenegro et al., In Vitro Skin Permeation of Sunscreen Agents from O/W Emulsions. International Journal of Cosmetic Science, 2008, 30(1):57-65.

T.E. Moon et al., Effect of Retinol in Preventing Squamous Cell Skin Cancer in Moderate-Risk Subjects: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Controlled Trial. Southwest Skin Cancer Prevention Study Group. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention, 1997, 6:949.

P.J. Moos et al., ZnO Particulate Matter Requires Cell Contact for Toxicity in Human Colon Cancer Cells. Chemical Research in Toxicology. Chemical Research in Toxicology, 2010, 23(4):733-739.

NanoDerm et al., Quality of Skin As a Barrier to Ultra-Fine Particles, Final Report QLK4-CT-2002-02678. 2007. Available at www.uni-leipzig.de/~nanoderm/Downloads/Nanoderm_Final_Report.pdf

J.F. Nash and P.R. Tanner, Relevance of UV Filter/Sunscreen Product Photostability to Human Safety. Photodermatology, Photoimmunology & Photomedicine, 2014, 30:x88-95.

M.F. Naylor et al., High Sun Protection Factor Sunscreens in the Suppression of Actinic Neoplasia. Archives of Dermatology, 1995, 131(2):170-175.

NCI (National Cancer Institute), General Information about Skin Cancer. 2007. Available at www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/treatment/skin/patient

NCI, SEER Stat Fact Sheets: Melanoma of the Skin. Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results. See also: SEER Cancer Statistics Review 1975-2016. 2017. Available at seer.cancer.gov/statfacts/html/melan.html

NCI, Sun-Protective Behavior. Cancer Trends Progress Report, 2017. Available at progressreport.cancer.gov/prevention/sun_protection

J.A. Newton-Bishop et al., Relationship Between Sun Exposure and Melanoma Risk for Tumours in Different Body Sites in a Large Case-Control Study in a Temperate Climate. European Journal of Cancer, 2011, 47(5):732-741. DOI: 10.1016/j.ejca.2010.10.008

NIH (National Institutes of Health), Office of Dietary Supplements. Fact Sheet: Vitamin D. 2012. Accessed May 2017. Available at ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/vitamind-HealthProfessional/

G.J. Nohynek et al., Repeated Topical Treatment, in Contrast to Single Oral Doses, with Vitamin A-Containing Preparations Does Not Affect Plasma Concentrations of Retinol, Retinyl Esters or Retinoic Acids in Female Subjects of Child-Bearing Age. Toxicology Letters, 2006, 163:65-76.

G.J. Nohynek et al., Grey Goo on the Skin? Nanotechnology, Cosmetic and Sunscreen Safety. Critical Reviews in Toxicology, 2007, 37(3):251-277.

M. Norval and H.C. Wulf, Does Chronic Sunscreen Use Reduce Vitamin D Production to Insufficient Levels? British Journal of Dermatology, 2009, 161(4):732-736.

Norwegian SCFS, Risk Assessment of Vitamin A (Retinol and Retinyl Palmitate Esters) in Cosmetics. Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety (Vitenskapskomiteen for Mattrygghet), 2012a. Available at english.vkm.no/eway/default.aspx?pid=278&trg=Content_6575&Main_6359=6575:0:31,2558&Content_6575=6393:1851790::0:6464:3:::0:0 and english.vkm.no/dav/14cb22350b.pdf

Norwegian SCFS, Risk Profile: Retinaldehyde. Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety (Vitenskapskomiteen for Mattrygghet), 2012b. Available at www.mattilsynet.no/kosmetikk/stoffer_i_kosmetikk/risk_profile_retinal.9960/binary/Risk%20Profile%20Retinal

NTP (National Toxicology Program), All-Trans-Retinyl Palmitate [CASRN 79-81-2]. Nomination for National Toxicology Program Testing. 2000. Available at ntp.niehs.nih.gov/ntp/htdocs/Chem_Background/ExSumPdf/RetinylPalmitate.pdf

NTP, Pathology Tables, Survival and Growth Curves from NTP Long-Term Studies. TR-568 All-Trans-Retinyl Palmitate. National Toxicology Program, 2009. Available at ntp.niehs.nih.gov/index.cfm?objectid=555571BB-F1F6-975E-76F2BC5E369EB6F7

NTP, Draft Technical Report on the Photococarcinogenesis Study of Retinoic Acid and Retinyl Palmitate [CAS Nos. 302-79-4 (All-Trans-Retinoic Acid) and 79-81-2 (All-Trans-Retinyl Palmitate)] in SKH-1 Mice (Simulated Solar Light And Topical Application Study). NTP TR 568, NIH Publication No. 11-5910, 2010.

NTP, Findings of NTP Board of Scientific Counselors on Retinoic Acid and Retinyl Palmitate – TR 568. Meeting. Research Triangle, North Carolina, 2011. Available at ntp.niehs.nih.gov/?objectid=BD2CA47D-F1F6-975E-74AA99197B7CB205

NTP, NTP Technical Report on the Photococarcinogenesis Study of Retinoic Acid and Retinyl Palmitate [CAS Nos. 302-79-4 (All-Trans-Retinoic Acid) and 79-81-2 (All-Trans-Retinyl Palmitate)] in SKH-1 Mice (Simulated Solar Light And Topical Application Study). NTP TR 568, National Institutes of Health, 2012. Available at ntp.niehs.nih.gov/ntp/htdocs/LT_rpts/TR568_508.pdf

J.J. O’Neill, Effect of Film Irregularities on Sunscreen Efficacy. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 1984,73(7):888-891.

M.J. Osmond and M.J. McCall, Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles in Modern Sunscreens: An Analysis of Potential Exposure and Hazard. Nanotoxicology, 2010, 4(1):15-41.

M. Osmond-McLeod et al., Dermal Absorption and Short-Term Biological Impact in Hairless Mice from Sunscreens Containing Zinc Oxide Nano- or Larger Particles. Nanotoxicology, 2013, Epub ahead of print.

U. Osterwalder, Understanding Sunscreens: The Proposed US Food and Drug Administration Rule on Ultraviolet A Light Assessment and Labeling will Drive US Sunscreen Towards the Ideal Ultraviolet B/Ultraviolet A Light Protection Profile. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, 2009a, 60(3, Suppl. 1):AB152.

U. Osterwalder and B. Herzog, Sun Protection Factors: World Wide Confusion. British Journal of Dermatology, 2009b, 161 Suppl. 3:13-24.

U. Osterwalder and B. Herzog, The Long Way Towards the Ideal Sunscreen—Where We Stand and What Still Needs to Be Done. Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences, 2010, 9:470-481.

H. Ou-Yang et al., High-SPF Sunscreens (SPF >=70) May Provide Ultraviolet Protection Above Minimal Recommended Levels by Adequately Compensating for Lower Sunscreen User Application Amounts. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, 2012. DOI: 10.1016/j.jaad.2012.02.029

P&G (The Procter & Gamble Company), Comments on the Revised Effectiveness Determination; Sunscreen Drug Products for Over-the-Counter Human Use. 2011, [Docket No. FDA-1978-N-0018, RIN 0910-AF43].

Z. Pan et al., Adverse Effects of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles on Human Dermal Fibroblasts and How to Protect Cells. Small, 2009, 5(4):511-520.

N. Pandeya et al., Repeated Occurrence of Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Skin and Multifailure Survival Analysis: Follow-Up Data from the Nambour Skin Cancer Prevention Trial. American Journal of Epidemiology, 2005, 161(8):748-754.

D. Papandreou et al., Possible Health Implications and Low Vitamin D Status During Childhood and Adolescence: An Updated Mini Review. International Journal of Endocrinology, 2010. Article ID 472173. DOI: 10.1155/2010/472173

M. Planta, Sunscreen and Melanoma: Is Our Prevention Message Correct? JABFM November–December 2011, 24(6):735-739.

A.P. Popov et al., Effect of Size of TiO(2) Nanoparticles Applied onto Glass Slide and Porcine Skin on Generation of Free Radicals Under Ultraviolet Irradiation. Journal of Biomedical Optics, 2009, 14(2):021011.

M. Radespiel-Troger et al., Outdoor Work and Skin Cancer Incidence: A Registry-Based Study in Bavaria. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 2009, 82(3):357-363.

C. Rainey, Animals Can Get Sunburned, Too. McClatchy Newspapers, 2009. Available at www.dallasnews.com/sharedcontent/dws/fea/lifetravel/stories/DN-petsunburn_0705gd.ART.State.Edition1.4c024fd.html

J. Reichrath, Skin Cancer Prevention and UV-Protection: How to Avoid Vitamin D-Deficiency? British Journal of Dermatology, 2009, 161, Suppl. 3:54-60.

Regulations.gov, Ciba Specialty Chemicals Corporation [Bemotrizinol] Supplement. 2008a, [Docket No. FDA-2005-N-0453-0333.] Available at www.regulations.gov/#!documentDetail;D=FDA-2005-N-0453-0003

Regulations.gov, Ciba Specialty Chemicals Corporation [Bisoctrizol] Supplement. 2008b, [Docket No. FDA-2005-N-0453-0333.] Available at www.regulations.gov/#!documentDetail;D=FDA-2005-N-0453-0002

E. Rodriguez et al., Causal Agents of Photoallergic Contact Dermatitis Diagnosed in the National Institute of Dermatology of Colombia. Photodermatology, Photoimmunology & Photomedicine, 2006, 22(4):189-192.

Y.E. Rodvall et al., Factors Related to Being Sunburnt in 7-Year-Old Children in Sweden. European Journal of Cancer. 2010, 46(3): 566-572.

N. Roscher et al., Photodecomposition of Several Compounds Commonly Used As Sunscreen Agents. Journal Photochemistry and Photobiology A, 1994, 80:417-421.

B.S. Rosenstein et al., p53 Mutations in Basal Cell Carcinomas Arising in Routine Users of Sunscreens. Photochemistry and Photobiology, 1999, 70(5):798-806.

A.I. Rubin et al., Basal-Cell Carcinoma. New England Journal of Medicine, 2005, 353(21):2262-2269.

N. Sadrieh et al., Lack of Significant Dermal Penetration of Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) from Sunscreen Formulations Containing Nano- and Sub-Micron-Size TiO2 Particles. Toxicological Sciences, 2010.

C. Sánchez and J. Cuesta, Materias Primas de Perfumería y de Cosmética. Filtros Solares, 2005. Accessed June 20, 2006. Available at www.abacovital.com/fichastecnicas/filtros/filtros.htm

V. Sarveiya et al., Liquid Chromatographic Assay for Common Sunscreen Agents: Application to In Vivo Assessment of Skin Penetration and Systemic Absorption in Human Volunteers. Journal of Chromatography B-Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences, 2004, 803(2): 225-231.

R.M. Sayre et al., Unexpected Photolysis of the Sunscreen Octinoxate in the Presence of the Sunscreen Avobenzone. Photochemistry and Photobiology, 2005, 81(2):452-456.

SCCNFP (Scientific Committee on Cosmetic Products and Non-Food Products Intended for Consumers). Opinion Concerning 2,4-BIS-{[4-(2-ETHYL-HEXYLOXY)-2-HYDROXY]-PHENYL}-6-(4-METHOXYPHENYL)-(1,3,5)-TRIAZINE. Colipa n° S81. European Union Scientific Committee on Cosmetic Products and Non-Food Products Intended for Consumers. SCCS/1443/11, 1999.

SCCNFP, Opinion Concerning Titanium Dioxide. Opinion: European Commission – The Scientific Committee on Cosmetic Products and Non-Food Products Intended for Consumers. 2000.

SCCNFP, Opinion Concerning Homosalate. 2006.

SCCS (Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety), Opinion on ZnO (nano form). European Union, 2012.

SCCS, Draft Opinion on 2,2’-Methylene-bis-(6-(2H-benzotriazol-2-yl)-4-(1,1,3,3-tetramethylbutyl)phenol). COLIPA n° S79, European Union Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety. SCCS/1443/11, 2013a.

SCCS, Opinion on Titanium Dioxide (nano form). European Union, SCCS/1516/13, 2013b.

SCCS, Addendum to the Opinion SCCS/1489/12. European Union, SCCS/1518/13, 2014.

D. Schlossman and Y. Shao, Inorganic Ultraviolet Filters. In Ed. N.A. Shaath, Sunscreens: Regulations and Commercial Development. Taylor and Francis Group, 2005, 251-253.

M. Schlumpf et al., In vitro and In Vivo Estrogenicity of UV Screens. Environmental Health Perspectives, 2001, 109(3):239-244.

M. Schlumpf et al., Endocrine Activity and Developmental Toxicity of Cosmetic UV Filters–An Update. Toxicology, 2004, 205(1-2):113-122.

M. Schlumpf et al., Endocrine Active UV Filters: Developmental Toxicity and Exposure Through Breast Milk. Chimia, 2008, 62:1-7.

W. Schwack and T. Rudolph, Photochemistry of Dibenzoyl Methane UVA Filters Part I. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology, 1995, 28:229-234.

F. Scinicariello and M.C. Buser, Serum Testosterone Concentrations and Urinary Bisphenol A, Benzophenone-3, Triclosan, and Paraben Levels in Male and Female Children and Adolescents: NHANES 2011–2012. Environmental Health Perspectives, 2016, 124:1898-1904; Available at dx.doi. org/10.1289/EHP150

N. Serpone et al., An In Vitro Systematic Spectroscopic Examination of the Photostabilities of a Random Set of Commercial Sunscreen Lotions and their Chemical UVB/UVA Active Agents. Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences, 2002, 1(12): 970-981.

R.B. Setlow et al., Wavelengths Effective in Induction of Malignant Melanoma. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 1993, 90(14):6666-6670.

N. Shaath, Photodegradation of Sunscreen Chemicals: Solvent Considerations. Cosmetics & Toiletries, 1990, 105:41-44.

N. Shaath, The Encyclopedia of UV Filters. Allured Publishing, 2007.

N.A. Shaath, Sunscreen Evolution. In Ed. N.A. Shaath, Sunscreens: Regulation and Commercial Development, 3rd edition. Taylor & Francis, 2005.

D.W. Shaw, Allergic Contact Dermatitis from Octisalate and cis-3-Hexenyl Salicylate. Dermatitis, 2006, 17(3):152-155.

M. Singh and M.H. Beck, Octyl Salicylate: A New Contact Sensitivity. Contact Dermatitis, 2007, 56(1):48.

J.W. Stanfield, In Vitro Techniques in Sunscreen Development. In Ed. N.A. Shaath, Sunscreens: Regulations and Commercial Development. Taylor and Francis, 2005, 807-825.

R.S. Stern, Prevalence of a History of Skin Cancer in 2007: Results of an Incidence-Based Model. Archives of Dermatology, 2010, 146(3):279-282.

J.Y. Tang et al., 2010. Inverse Association Between Serum 25(OH) Vitamin D Levels and Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer in Elderly Men. Cancer Causes Control, 21(3):387-391. DOI: 10.1007/s10552-009-9470-4

S.C. Thompson et al., Reduction of Solar Keratoses by Regular Sunscreen Use. New England Journal of Medicine, 1993, 329(16):1147-1151.

P. Turner et al., xmGrace Modeling Software. 2004.

J.C. van der Pols et al., Prolonged Prevention of Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Skin by Regular Sunscreen Use. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention, 2006, 15(12):2546-2548.

V. Vanquerp et al., High-Performance Liquid Chromatographic Method for the Comparison of the Photostability of Five Sunscreen Agents. Journal of Chromatography A, 1999, 832:273-277.

Vitamin D Council, How Do I Get the Vitamin D My Body Needs? 2013. Accessed April 2017. Available at www.vitamindcouncil.org/about-vitamin-d/how-do-i-get-the-vitamin-d-my-body-needs/

A.K. von Thaler et al., The Role of Ultraviolet Radiation in Melanomagenesis. Experimental Dermatology, 2010, 19(2):81-88.

C. Wagner et al., Circulating 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels in Fully Breastfed Infants on Oral Vitamin D Supplementation. International Journal of Endocrinology, 2010. DOI: 10.1155/2010/235035

K.A. Walters et al., Percutaneous Penetration of Octyl Salicylate from Representative Sunscreen Formulations Through Human Skin In Vitro. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 1997, 35(12):1219-1225.

S.Q. Wang et al., Commentary: Safety of Retinyl Palmitate in Sunscreens: A Critical Analysis. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, 2010, 63(5):903-906.

S.Q. Wang et al., Reduction of Ultraviolet Transmission Through Cotton T-Shirt Fabrics with Low Ultraviolet Protection by Various Laundering Methods and Dyeing: Clinical Implications. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, 2001, 44(5):767-774.

S.Q. Wang et al., Ex Vivo Evaluation of Radical Sun Protection Factor in Popular Sunscreens with Antioxidants. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, 2011a, 65(3):525-530.

S.Q. Wang et al., Lack of UV-A Protection in Daily Moisturizing Creams. Archives of Dermatology, 2011b, 147(5):618-620.

S.Q. Wang et al., The Evolution of Sunscreen Products in the United States – A 12 Year Cross Sectional Study. Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences, 2012, 12(1):197-202. DOI: 10.1039/c2pp25112d

S.Q. Wang et al., Comparison of Ultraviolet A Light Protection Standards in the United States and European Union Through In Vitro Measurements of Commercially Available Sunscreens. Article in press, 2017. DOI: dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaad.2017.01.017

T. Wang et al., In Vitro Permeation of Repellent DEET and Sunscreen Oxybenzone Across Three Artificial Membranes. International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 2006, 310:110-117.

T. Wang and X. Gu, In Vitro Percutaneous Permeation of the Repellent DEET and the Sunscreen Oxybenzone Across Human Skin. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2007, 10(1):17-25.

A. Weir et al., Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles in Food and Personal Care Products. 2012, 46(4):2242-2250. DOI: 10.1021/es204168d

C.J. Weisbrod et al., Effects of the UV Filter Benzophenone-2 on Reproduction in Fish. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 2007, 225(3):255-266.

J. Westerdahl et al., Sunscreen Use and Malignant Melanoma. International Journal of Cancer, 2000, 87(1):145-150.

M. Wlaschek et al., Solar UV Irradiation and Dermal Photoaging. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B, 2001, 63(1-3):41-51.

P. Wolf et al., Phenotypic Markers, Sunlight-Related Factors and Sunscreen Use in Patients with Cutaneous Melanoma: An Austrian Case-Control Study. Melanoma Research, 1998, 8(4):370-378.

M.S. Wolff et al., Prenatal Phenol and Phthalate Exposures and Birth Outcomes. Environmental Health Perspectives, 2008, 116(8):1092.

J.R. Wong et al., Incidence of Childhood and Adolescent Melanoma in the United States: 1973-2009. Pediatrics, 2013, 113(5), 846-854.

J. Wu et al., Toxicity and Penetration of TiO(2) Nanoparticles in Hairless Mice and Porcine Skin After Subchronic Dermal Exposure. Toxicology Letters, 2009, 191(1):1-8.

R.D. Zamoiski et al., Self-Reported Sunscreen Use and Urinary Benzophenone-3 Concentrations in the United States: NHANES 2003-2006 and 2009-2012. Environmental Research, 2015, 142(Oct.):563-567.

 

Get the App

EWG's Skin Deep® Mobile App

Take EWG's Sunscreen Guide with you! Download the Healthy Living App Today

Take EWG's Sunscreen Guide with you! Download the Healthy Living App Today

Get the App Download App

About the ratings

EWG provides information on sunscreen products from the published scientific literature, to supplement incomplete data available from companies and the government. The ratings indicate both efficacy and the relative level of concern posed by exposure to the ingredients in this product - not the product itself - compared to other sunscreens. The ratings reflect potential health hazards but do not account for the level of exposure or individual susceptibility, factors which determine actual health risks, if any. Methodology | Privacy Policy | Terms & Conditions

Learn more
Get the Guide