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PERFLUOROOCTANOIC ACID


image source: PubChem
Health Concerns of the Ingredient:
Overall Hazard
 
 
 
 
 
 
Use restrictions
 
 
Other HIGH concerns: Multiple, additive exposure sources, Persistence and bioaccumulation; Other MODERATE concerns: Endocrine disruption, Neurotoxicity, Occupational hazards; Other LOW concerns: Ecotoxicology

Possible impurity in: PTFE (TEFLON) (309 products), POLYPERFLUOROMETHYLISOPROPYL ETHER (15 products), DEA-C8-18 PERFLUOROALKYLETHYL PHOSPHATE (7 products), C8-18 PERFLUOROALKYLETHYL PHOSPHATE , see all ingredients | products

Synonym(s): PFOA; PENTADECAFLUORO-N-OCTANOIC ACID; PENTADECAFLUOROOCTANOIC ACID; PERFLUOROCAPRYLIC ACID; PERFLUOROCTANOIC ACID; PERFLUOROHEPTANECARBOXYLIC ACID; PFOA

Cancer

Concern Reference
Possible human carcinogenSAB
One or more human case studies show significant cancer findingsLeonard RC, Kreckmann KH, Sakr CJ, Symons JM
Cancer - limited evidenceSilent Spring's Mammary Carcinogens Reviews Database

Persistence and bioaccumulation

Concern Reference
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife and humansOECD
Ingredient is suspected or measured to accumulate in peopleCalafat AM, Wong LY, Kuklenyik Z, Reidy JA, Needham LL

Allergies/immunotoxicity

Concern Reference
One or more human case studies show significant immune system or allergenic effectsFrisbee S
One or more animal studies show immune and allergic or allergenic effects at moderate dosesFairley KJ, Purdy R, Kearns S, Anderson SE, Meade B

Multiple, additive exposure sources

Concern Reference
In other consumer products besides personal care productsBegley TH, White K, Honigfort P, Twaroski ML, Neches R, Walker RA
Environmental releases by industryUS EPA

Developmental/reproductive toxicity

Concern Reference
One or more human case studies show significant developmental effectsApelberg BJ, Witter FR, Herbstman JB, Calafat AM, Halden RU, Needham L, et al
One or more human case studies show significant developmental effectsFei C, McLaughlin JK, Tarone RE, Olsen J
One or more animal studies show developmental effects at low dosesLau C, Anitole K, Hodes C, Lai D, Pfahles-Hutchens A, Seed J

Endocrine disruption

Concern Reference
One or more studies show moderate endocrine disruptionOlsen GW, Zobel LR

Neurotoxicity

Concern Reference
One or more animal studies show nervous effects at low dosesJohansson N, Fredriksson A, Eriksson P

Occupational hazards

Concern Reference
Multi-year epidemilogical study of occupational hazardsSakr CJ, Kreckmann KH, Green JW, Gillies PJ, Reynolds JL, Leonard RC
Multi-year epidemilogical study of occupational hazardsLundin JI, Alexander BH

Ecotoxicology

Concern Reference
Wildlife and environmental toxicitySinclair E, Mayack DT, Roblee K, Yamashita N, Kannan K

Data gaps

Concern Reference
1,247 studies in PubMed science library may include information on the toxicity of this chemical see search results ->NLM PubMed

Data Sources

Apelberg BJ, Witter FR, Herbstman JB, Calafat AM, Halden RU, Needham L, et al. 2007. Cord Serum Concentrations of Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS) and Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) in Relation to Weight and Size at Birth. Environ Health Perspect 115(11): 1670-6.
Begley TH, White K, Honigfort P, Twaroski ML, Neches R, Walker RA. 2005. Perfluorochemicals: potential sources of and migration from food packaging. Food Addit Contam 22(10): 1023-31.
Begley TH, White K, Honigfort P, Twaroski ML, Neches R, Walker RA. 2005. Perfluorochemicals: potential sources of and migration from food packaging. Food Addit Contam 22(10): 1023-31.
Calafat AM, Wong LY, Kuklenyik Z, Reidy JA, Needham LL. 2007. Polyfluoroalkyl chemicals in the U.S. population: data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2004 and comparisons with NHANES 1999-2000. Environ Health Perspect 115(11): 1596-602.
Fairley KJ, Purdy R, Kearns S, Anderson SE, Meade B. 2007. Exposure to the Immunosuppresant, Perfluorooctanoic Acid, Enhances the Murine IgE and Airway Hyperreactivity Response to Ovalbumin. Toxicol Sci 97(2): 375-83.
Fei C, McLaughlin JK, Tarone RE, Olsen J. 2007. Perfluorinated Chemicals and Fetal Growth: A Study within the Danish National Birth Cohort. Environmental Health Perspectives 115(11): 1677-82.
Frisbee S. 2008. The C8 Health Project: How a Class Action Lawsuit Can Interact with Public Health - History of Events. Available: http://www.hsc.wvu.edu/som/cmed/ophp/grandRoundsWebcast.as
Johansson N, Fredriksson A, Eriksson P. 2008. Neonatal exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) causes neurobehavioural defects in adult mice. Neurotoxicology 29(1): 160-9.
Lau C, Anitole K, Hodes C, Lai D, Pfahles-Hutchens A, Seed J. 2007. Perfluoroalkyl acids: a review of monitoring and toxicological findings. Toxicol Sci 99(2): 366-94.
Leonard RC, Kreckmann KH, Sakr CJ, Symons JM. 2007. Retrospective Cohort Mortality Study of Workers in a Polymer Production Plant Including a Reference Population of Regional Workers. Ann Epidemiol 18(1): 15-22.
Lundin JI, Alexander BH. 2007. Mortality of Employees of an Ammonium Perfluorooctanoate Production facility. Final Report to US EPA Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics (OPPT) Docket No AR-226.
NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2012. PubMed online scientific bibliography data. http://www.pubmed.gov.
OECD, 2006
OECD. 2007. Report of an OECD Workshop on Perfluorocarboxylic Acids (PFCAs) and Precursors. In: OECD Workshop on Perfluorocarboxylic Acids (PFCAs) and Precursors. Stockholm, Sweden: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 82.
Olsen GW, Zobel LR. 2007. Assessment of lipid, hepatic, and thyroid parameters with serum perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) concentrations in fluorochemical production workers. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 81(2): 231-46.
Rudel RA, KR Attfield, JN Schifano and JG Brody. Chemicals Causing Mammary Gland Tumors in Animals Signal New Directions for Epidemiology, Chemicals Testing, and Risk Assessment for Breast Cancer Prevention. CANCER Supplement. 2007 Jun 15;109(12):2635-2666.
SAB. 2006. US EPA Science Advisory Board Review of EPA
Sakr CJ, Kreckmann KH, Green JW, Gillies PJ, Reynolds JL, Leonard RC. 2007. Cross-sectional study of lipids and liver enzymes related to a serum biomarker of exposure (ammonium perfluorooctanoate or APFO) as part of a general health survey in a cohort of occupationally exposed workers. J Occup Environ Med 49(10): 1086-96.
Sinclair E, Mayack DT, Roblee K, Yamashita N, Kannan K. 2006. Occurrence of perfluoroalkyl surfactants in water, fish, and birds from New York State. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 50(3): 398-410.
US EPA. 2006. 2010/15 PFOA Stewardship Program. Available: http://www.epa.gov/oppt/pfoa/pubs/pfoastewardship.htm.

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EWG provides information on personal care product ingredients from the published scientific literature, to supplement incomplete data available from companies and the government. The ratings below indicate the relative level of concern posed by exposure to the ingredients in this product - not the product itself - compared to other product formulations. The ratings reflect potential health hazards but do not account for the level of exposure or individual susceptibility, factors which determine actual health risks, if any. Learn more | Legal Disclaimer

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