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TITANIUM DIOXIDE (sunscreen grade)


image source: PubChem
Health Concerns of the Ingredient:
Overall Hazard
 
 
 
 
Developmental &
reproductive toxicity
 
 
 
Use restrictions
 
 
Other HIGH concerns: Biochemical or cellular level changes, Occupational hazards; Other MODERATE concerns: Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs), Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive); Other LOW concerns: Enhanced skin absorption, Ecotoxicology

About TITANIUM DIOXIDE (sunscreen grade): Titanium dioxide has a long history of use as a sunscreen agent. Nano TiO2 offers greater sun protection than larger titanium particles. Comparatively little is known regarding potential health effect ... read more

Synoym(s): TITANIUM DIOXIDE, MICRONIZED TITANIUM DIOXIDE; MICROTIO2; NANO TIO2; NANO TITANIUM DIOXIDE; TITANIUM DIOXIDE (NANO)

Cancer

Concern Reference
Limited evidence of carcinogenicity (only for products that may be aerosolized (airborne))Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - Carcinogens
Limited evidence of carcinogenicity (only for products that may be aerosolized (airborne))NIOSH Occupational Carcinogens
Cancer - limited evidence (only for products that may be aerosolized (airborne))California EPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation resultsWang JJ, Sanderson BJ, Wang H

Biochemical or cellular level changes

Concern Reference
Produces excess reactive oxygen species that can interfere with cellular signaling, cause mutations, lead to cell death and may be implicated in cardiovascular disease.
Produces excess reactive oxygen species that can interfere with cellular signaling, cause mutations, lead to cell death and may be implicated in cardiovascular disease.Sayes CM, Wahi R, Kurian PA, Liu Y, West JL, Ausman KD, et al
Produces excess reactive oxygen species that can interfere with cellular signaling, cause mutations, lead to cell death and may be implicated in cardiovascular disease.Kang SJ, Kim BM, Lee YJ et al
Produces excess reactive oxygen species that can interfere with cellular signaling, cause mutations, lead to cell death and may be implicated in cardiovascular disease.Long TC, Tajuba J, Sama P et al
Produces excess reactive oxygen species that can interfere with cellular signaling, cause mutations, lead to cell death and may be implicated in cardiovascular disease.Brezová V, Gabčová S, Dvoranová D et al
One or more animal studies show organ changes at moderate doses where the human health implications are not yet well understoodWu J, Liu W, Xue C, Zhou S, Lan F, Bi L, et al

Occupational hazards

Concern Reference
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to low dosesNational Library of Medicine HazMap

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

Concern Reference
One or more animal studies show respiratory effects at very low doses (only for products that may be aerosolized (airborne))Chen HW, Su SF, Chien CT, Lin WH, Yu SL, Chou CC, et al
Classified as expected to be toxic or harmfulEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List
Classified as medium human health priorityEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List
Associated with toxicityEPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs
Associated with respiratory toxicity (only for products that may be aerosolized (airborne))Sayes CM, Wahi R, Kurian PA, Liu Y, West JL, Ausman KD, et al

Allergies/immunotoxicity

Concern Reference
Associated with immunotoxicity or allergiesAhn MH, Kang CM, Park CS, Park SJ, Rhim T, Yoon PO, Chang HS, Kim SH, Kyono H, Kim KC

Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)

Concern Reference
One or more animal studies show significant but moderate pulmonary irritation at low doses

Ecotoxicology

Concern Reference
Wildlife and environmental toxicityBaun A, Hartmann NB, Grieger K, Kusk KO
Not suspected to be an environmental toxinEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Multiple, additive exposure sources

Concern Reference
Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in foodFDA Everything Added to Food

Enhanced skin absorption

Concern Reference
Nano-scale ingredients with potential to absorb into the skinNanomaterial Database
Suspected nano-scale ingredients with potential to absorb into the skinNanomaterial Database
Does not cause enhanced penetration

Decreased skin absorption

Concern Reference
No absorption into intact skin
No absorption into intact skinGamer AO, Leibold E, et al
No absorption into intact skinMavon A, Miquel C, Lejeune O, Payre B, Moretto P

Persistence and bioaccumulation

Concern Reference
Not suspected to be bioaccumulativeEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Data gaps

Concern Reference
7,357 studies in PubMed science library may include information on the toxicity of this chemical see search results ->NLM PubMed

Data Sources

Ahn MH, Kang CM, Park CS, Park SJ, Rhim T, Yoon PO, Chang HS, Kim SH, Kyono H, Kim KC. 2005. Titanium dioxide particle-induced goblet cell hyperplasia: association with mast cells and IL-13. Respir Res. 2005 Apr 13;6:34
Baun A, Hartmann NB, Grieger K, Kusk KO. 2008. Ecotoxicity of engineered nanoparticles to aquatic invertebrates: a brief review and recommendations for future toxicity testing. Ecotoxicology. 2008 Jul;17(5):387-95. Epub 2008 Apr 19.
Brezová V, Gabčová S, Dvoranová D et al. Reactive oxygen species produced upon photoexcitation of sunscreens containing titanium dioxide (an EPR study). Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology 2005; 79 (2):121-34.
CTFA (Cosmetic, Toiletry and Fragrance Association). 2006. International Cosmetic Ingredient Dictionary and Handbook, 11th Edition. Color Additive Information. Washington, DC.
California EPA (California Environmental Protection Agency). 2012. Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act of 1986. Chemicals known to the State to cause cancer or reproductive toxicity. Updated July 2012.
California EPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Prioritization Notices. http://www.oehha.org/prop65/CRNR_notices/state_listing/prioritization_notices/index.html. Chemicals on Candidate List for consideration under Proposition 65 due to high carcinogenicity concern (through March 2004). Chemicals under consideration for listing via the authoritative bodies mechanisms (through July 2004).
Chen HW, Su SF, Chien CT, Lin WH, Yu SL, Chou CC, et al. 2006. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles induce emphysema-like lung injury in mice. Faseb J 20(13): 2393-2395.
EC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1999. Toxics Release Inventory Program. PBT Chemical Rule.
European Commission. 2013. Cosing, the European Commission database with information on cosmetic substances and ingredients. Accessed on March 1, 2013 at http://ec.europa.eu/consumers/cosmetics/cosing/ .
FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration) 2006. Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. Color Additive Status List. September 2006.
FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration). 2008. EAFUS [Everything Added to Food]: A Food Additive Database. FDA Office of Food Safety and Applied Nutrition.
Gamer AO, Leibold E, et al. (2006). "The in vitro absorption of microfine zinc oxide and titanium dioxide through porcine skin." Toxicology in Vitro 20: 301-307.
Grassian VH, O
IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer). 2008. Overall Evaluations of Carcinogenicity to Humans, as evaluated in IARC Monographs Volumes 1-99 (a total of 935 agents, mixtures and exposures).
IFRA (International Fragrance Assocication). 2010. IFRA Fragrance Ingredient List based on 2008 Use Survey. Accessed online 01/04/2010: http://www.ifraorg.org/Home/News/Latest-News/page.aspx/66?xf_itemId=43&xf_selectionDatapartId=25
Kang SJ, Kim BM, Lee YJ et al. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles trigger p53-mediated damage response in peripheral blood lymphocytes. Environ Mol Mutagen 2008.
Long TC, Tajuba J, Sama P et al. Nanosize titanium dioxide stimulates reactive oxygen species in brain microglia and damages neurons in vitro. Environ Health Perspect 2007; 115 (11):1631-7.
Mavon A, Miquel C, Lejeune O, Payre B, Moretto P. 2007. In vitro percutaneous absorption and in vivo stratum corneum distribution of an organic and a mineral sunscreen. Skin Pharmacol Physiol 20(1): 10-20.
NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health). 2006. NIOSH Carcinogens List (Potential occupational carcinogens). http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/npotocca.html.
NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2012. PubMed online scientific bibliography data. http://www.pubmed.gov.
NanoWerk. 2007. Nanomaterial Database. Available online: http://www.nanowerk.com/phpscripts/n_dbsearch.php
Opinion of the Scientific Committee on Cosmetic Products and non-food products intended for consumers concerning Titanium Dioxide. Colipa n° S75. Adopted by the SCCNFP during the 14th plenary meeting of 24 October 2000
Sayes CM, Wahi R, Kurian PA, Liu Y, West JL, Ausman KD, et al. 2006. Correlating nanoscale titania structure with toxicity: a cytotoxicity and inflammatory response study with human dermal fibroblasts and human lung epithelial cells. Toxicol Sci 92(1): 174-185.
Sayes CM, Wahi R, Kurian PA, Liu Y, West JL, Ausman KD, et al. 2006. Correlating nanoscale titania structure with toxicity: a cytotoxicity and inflammatory response study with human dermal fibroblasts and human lung epithelial cells. Toxicol Sci 92(1): 174-85.
Wang JJ, Sanderson BJ, Wang H. Cyto- and genotoxicity of ultrafine TiO2 particles in cultured human lymphoblastoid cells. Mutat Res 2007; 628 (2):99-106.
Wu J, Liu W, Xue C, Zhou S, Lan F, Bi L, et al. 2009. Toxicity and penetration of TiO(2) nanoparticles in hairless mice and porcine skin after subchronic dermal exposure. Toxicol Lett 191(1): 1-8.
{Alvarez-Roman, 2004}
{Brunner, 2006}
{Degussa, 1994}
{Gamer, 2005}
{Jue-Chen, 1990}
{Kertesz, 2005}
{Lademann, 1999}
{Long, 2006}
{Menzel, 2004}
{Pflucker, 1999}
{Pflucker, 2001}
{Popov, 2005}
{R-Christ, 1994}
{R-Christ, 1995}
{Schaefer, 2001}
{Schultz, 2002}
{Spruce, 1993}
{Sterry, 1997}
{Weisse, 1994}

About the ratings

EWG provides information on personal care product ingredients from the published scientific literature, to supplement incomplete data available from companies and the government. The ratings below indicate the relative level of concern posed by exposure to the ingredients in this product - not the product itself - compared to other product formulations. The ratings reflect potential health hazards but do not account for the level of exposure or individual susceptibility, factors which determine actual health risks, if any. Learn more | Legal Disclaimer