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Data available:

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Health Concerns of the Ingredient:
Overall Hazard
Developmental &
reproductive toxicity
Other HIGH concerns: Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs); Other MODERATE concerns: Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive); Other LOW concerns: Enhanced skin absorption, Data gaps

About GERMABEN II: Propylene Glycol: Diazolidinyl Urea; Methylparaben; Propylparaben


Concern Reference
Human skin toxicant or allergen - strong evidenceCosmetic Ingredient Review Assessments
Human skin toxicant or allergen - strong evidence
Human skin toxicant or allergen - strong evidenceNagel JE, Fuscaldo JT, Fireman P
Limited evidence of immune system toxicity or allergiesNational Library of Medicine HazMap

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

Concern Reference
Limited evidence of respiratory toxicityAgency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry

Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)

Concern Reference
Classified as skin irritantNational Library of Medicine HazMap

Use restrictions

Concern Reference
Determined safe for use in cosmetics, subject to concentration or use limitations - Safe for use in cosmetics with some qualificationsCosmetic Ingredient Review Assessments

Enhanced skin absorption

Concern Reference
Penetration enhancerCosmetic Ingredient Review Assessments

Developmental/reproductive toxicity

Concern Reference
Not likely to be a toxicant in humansNTP - Risks to Human Reproduction

Data gaps

Concern Reference
Risk assessment method deficiencies and data gaps - Maximum reported "as used" concentration is basis of safety assessment by industry safety panel (Cosmetic Ingredient Review, CIR) - implicit safe concentration limit in productCosmetic Ingredient Review Assessments
Safety assessment was based on related chemicalCosmetic Ingredient Review Assessments

Multiple, additive exposure sources

Concern Reference
Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in foodFDA Food Additive Status
Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in foodFDA Everything Added to Food

Data Sources

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Minimal risk Levels for Hazardous Substances. January 2004. http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/mrls.html, 2004
CIR (Cosmetic Ingredient Review). 2006. CIR Compendium, containing abstracts, discussions, and conclusions of CIR cosmetic ingredient safety assessments. Washington DC.
Cosmetics Ingredient Review
FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration) 2006. Food Additive Status List. Downloaded from http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/%7Edms/opa-appa.html, Oct 16, 2006.
FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration). 2008. EAFUS [Everything Added to Food]: A Food Additive Database. FDA Office of Food Safety and Applied Nutrition.
Formaldehyde - Global Harmonized System (GHS) Hazard Codes
NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2012. PubMed online scientific bibliography data. http://www.pubmed.gov.
NTP (National Toxicology Program). 2006. NTP Center for the Evaluation fo Risks to Human Reproduction (CERHR). NTP-CERHR Reports and Monographs.
Nagel JE, Fuscaldo JT, Fireman P. Paraben allergy. JAMA. 1977, Apr 11; 237(15):1594-5.

About the ratings

EWG provides information on personal care product ingredients from the published scientific literature, to supplement incomplete data available from companies and the government. The ratings below indicate the relative level of concern posed by exposure to the ingredients in this product - not the product itself - compared to other product formulations. The ratings reflect potential health hazards but do not account for the level of exposure or individual susceptibility, factors which determine actual health risks, if any. Learn more | Legal Disclaimer