ewg.org | About SkinDeep®/Methodology | Terms & Conditions | Build Your Own Report | FAQ
 

BENZENE


image source: PubChem
Health Concerns of the Ingredient:
Overall Hazard
 
 
 
 
 
 

Possible impurity in: see all ingredients | products

Synoym(s): (6) ANNULENE; BENZEEN (DUTCH) ; BENZEN (POLISH) ; BENZENE (ACGIH:OSHA) ; BENZIN (OBS.) ; BENZINE (OBS.) ; BENZOL (OSHA) ; BENZOLE; BENZOLENE; BENZOLO (ITALIAN) ; BICARBURET OF HYDROGEN

Cancer

Concern Reference
Known human carcinogenEuropean Union - Classification & Labelling
Known human carcinogenAmer Conf of Gov't Industrial Hygienists - Carcinogens
Known human carcinogenEPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)
Known human carcinogenInt'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - Carcinogens
Known human carcinogenNTP Report on Carcinogens, 11th Edition
Possible human carcinogenEuropean Union - Classification & Labelling
Possible human carcinogenNTP - Tumor Induction in Mammary Gland
Cancer - strong evidenceProposition 65 List of Carcinogens (July 2004) can be obtained from http://www
Limited evidence of carcinogenicityNIOSH Occupational Carcinogens
Possible mutagenEuropean Union - Classification & Labelling
One or more human case studies show possible cancer findingsNTP - Tumor Induction in Mammary Gland
Cancer - limited evidenceSilent Spring's Mammary Carcinogens Reviews Database

Use restrictions

Concern Reference
Violation of government restrictions - Banned or found unsafe for use in cosmeticsCanada - Prohibited and Restricted Cosmetics Ingredients
Violation of government restrictions - Banned or found unsafe for use in cosmeticsEuropean Union - Banned or Restricted in Cosmetics
Violation of industry recommendations - Unsafe for use in cosmeticsInternational Fragrance Association Codes & Standards

Developmental/reproductive toxicity

Concern Reference
Possible human developmental toxicantCalifornia EPA Proposition 65
Human developmental toxicant - strong evidenceProposition 65 List of Carcinogens (July 2004) can be obtained from http://www
Human reproductive toxicant - strong evidenceProposition 65 List of Carcinogens (July 2004) can be obtained from http://www
Limited evidence of reproductive toxicityNational Library of Medicine HazMap

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

Concern Reference
Known human respiratory toxicantEPA Hazardous Air Pollutants
One or more animal studies show classified as toxic effects at low dosesEPA Categorized List of Inert Pesticide Ingredients
Classified as toxic or harmful (only for products for use on skin; products for use around the mouth; products for use on the lips; products that may be aerosolized (airborne))European Union - Classification & Labelling
Limited evidence of cardiovascular or blood toxicityNational Library of Medicine HazMap
Limited evidence of cardiovascular or blood toxicityUS EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center
Limited evidence of respiratory toxicityUS EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center
Limited evidence of sense organ toxicityUS EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center
One or more animal studies show classified as toxic effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient)EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs
Classified as potentially toxic or harmful (only for products for use around the mouth; products for use on the lips)European Union - Classification & Labelling
reproductive - weight of evidence unknown/unassessed/unreview: published lit review or major tox studyNational Library of Medicine HazMap
Classified as not expected to be potentially toxic or harmfulEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List
Classified as a low human health priorityEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Multiple, additive exposure sources

Concern Reference
Used in food or as an additive with limited or no toxicity information availableFDA Everything Added to Food
Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in foodFDA Food Additive Status

Allergies/immunotoxicity

Concern Reference
Limited evidence of immune system toxicity or allergiesAgency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry

Occupational hazards

Concern Reference
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to low dosesEuropean Union - Classification & Labelling

Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)

Concern Reference
Classified as irritantEuropean Union - Classification & Labelling

Ecotoxicology

Concern Reference
Wildlife and environmental toxicityEPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants
Wildlife and environmental toxicityEuropean Union - Water Framework Directive
Not suspected to be an environmental toxinEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Neurotoxicity

Concern Reference
nervous system - weight of evidence unknown/unassessed/unreview: published lit review or major tox studyNational Library of Medicine HazMap

Miscellaneous

Concern Reference
Occupational hazards related to handlingEuropean Union - Classification & Labelling

Data gaps

Concern Reference
32,754 studies in PubMed science library may include information on the toxicity of this chemical see search results ->NLM PubMed

Persistence and bioaccumulation

Concern Reference
Not suspected to be bioaccumulativeEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Data Sources

ACGIH (American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists) 2008. ACGIH cancer classification system. www.acgih.org.
AOEC (Association of Occupational and Environmental Clinics). 2009. AEOC exposures codes and asthmagen designation.
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Minimal risk Levels for Hazardous Substances. January 2004. http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/mrls.html, nternational Programme of Chemical Safety Environmental Health Criteria 180. Principles and Methods for Assessing Direct Immunotoxicity Associated with Exposure to Chemicals. World Health Organization. Geneva, 1996. (Table 1: Examples of compounds that are immunotoxic for humans or rodents).
CPS&Q (Consumer Products Safety & Quality) formely known as ECB (European Chemicals Bureau). 2008. Classification and Labelling: Chemicals: Annex VI of Directive 67/548/EEC through the 31st ATP.
California EPA (California Environmental Protection Agency). 9/2008. Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act of 1986. Chemicals known to the State to cause cancer or reproductive toxicity.
EC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
EC (European Commission of the European Union). 1999-2006. Enterprise Directorate-General Pharmaceuticals and Cosmetics. The rules governing cosmetic products in the European Union, Volume 1, "Cosmetics legislation."
EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1987 & 2005. Office of Pesticide Programs. Inert (other) Pesticide Ingredients in Pesticide Products - Categorized List of Inert (other) Pesticide Ingredients.
EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1999. Toxics Release Inventory Program. PBT Chemical Rule.
EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2005. Office of Air. The 112(b)1 Hazardous Air Pollutants List (as modified). Last modified: 12 Dec 2005.
EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2008. Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Evidence for human carcinogenicity based on 1986-2005 guidelines.
EU (European Union). 2000. Water Framework Directive (Directive 2000/60/EC ) - integrated river basin management for Europe. List of priority substances.
European Commission. 2013. Cosing, the European Commission database with information on cosmetic substances and ingredients. Accessed on March 1, 2013 at http://ec.europa.eu/consumers/cosmetics/cosing/ .
FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration) 2006. Food Additive Status List. Downloaded from http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/%7Edms/opa-appa.html, Oct 16, 2006.
FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration). 2008. EAFUS [Everything Added to Food]: A Food Additive Database. FDA Office of Food Safety and Applied Nutrition.
Health Canada. 2007. List of Prohibited and Restricted Cosmetic Ingredients. Canada's Cosmetic Ingredient Hotlist. March 2007.
IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer). 2008. Overall Evaluations of Carcinogenicity to Humans, as evaluated in IARC Monographs Volumes 1-99 (a total of 935 agents, mixtures and exposures).
IFRA (International Fragrance Association). 2006. Codes and Standards.
NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health). 2006. NIOSH Carcinogens List (Potential occupational carcinogens). http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/npotocca.html.
NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2012. PubMed online scientific bibliography data. http://www.pubmed.gov.
NTP (National Toxicology Program) 2006. Chemicals Associated with Site-Specific Tumor Induction in Mammary Gland.
NTP (National Toxicology Program). 2005. Report on Carcinogens, Eleventh Edition; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Toxicology Program.
Proposition 65 List of Carcinogens (July 2004) can be obtained from http://www.oehha.ca.gov/prop65/prop65_list/Newlist.html.
Proposition 65 List of Carcinogens (July 2004) can be obtained from http://www.oehha.ca.gov/prop65/prop65_list/Newlist.html.
Proposition 65 List of Carcinogens (July 2004) can be obtained from http://www.oehha.ca.gov/prop65/prop65_list/Newlist.html.
Rudel RA, KR Attfield, JN Schifano and JG Brody. Chemicals Causing Mammary Gland Tumors in Animals Signal New Directions for Epidemiology, Chemicals Testing, and Risk Assessment for Breast Cancer Prevention. CANCER Supplement. 2007 Jun 15;109(12):2635-2666.
US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center. Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants. http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/hapindex.html, A Relational Database of Hazardous Chemicals and Occupational Diseases. Browse Haz-Map by Adverse Effects http://hazmap.nlm.nih.gov/hazmapadv.html, LaDou, J. (ed.). Occupational Medicine. Appleton & Lange, Norwalk, CN. 1990., Malachowsky, M.J. Health Effects of Toxic Substances. Government Institutes. Rockville, MD 1995., California EPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Air Toxics Hot Spots Program Risk Assessment Guidelines, Part III: Technical Support Document 'Determination of Noncancer Chronic Reference Exposure Levels'. Includes all Chronic Reference Exposure Levels (CRELs) adopted by OEHHA as of August 2003 (http://www.oehha.ca.gov/air/chronic_rels/AllChrels.html, plus draft CRELS proposed through March 2004 (http://www.oehha.ca.gov/air/chronic_rels/index.html., National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances. See Environmental Defense's Suspect Hazard Identification documentation., Stacey, N.H. Occupational Toxicology. Taylor & Francis. 1995.
US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center. Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants. http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/hapindex.html, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances. See Environmental Defense's Suspect Hazard Identification documentation.
US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center. Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants. http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/hapindex.html, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances. See Environmental Defense's Suspect Hazard Identification documentation.

About the ratings

EWG provides information on personal care product ingredients from the published scientific literature, to supplement incomplete data available from companies and the government. The ratings below indicate the relative level of concern posed by exposure to the ingredients in this product - not the product itself - compared to other product formulations. The ratings reflect potential health hazards but do not account for the level of exposure or individual susceptibility, factors which determine actual health risks, if any. Learn more | Legal Disclaimer