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BENZO[A]PYRENE


image source: PubChem
Health Concerns of the Ingredient:
Overall Hazard
 
 
 
 
 
 
Use restrictions
 
 
Other HIGH concerns: Endocrine disruption, Persistence and bioaccumulation; Other MODERATE concerns: Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive); Other LOW concerns: Ecotoxicology

Possible impurity in: HYDROGENATED PALM OIL (168 products), HYDROGENATED PALM KERNEL OIL (111 products), COAL TAR (27 products), PINUS PALUSTRIS (PITCH PINE) (2 products), see all ingredients | products

Synonym(s): 3,4-BENZ (A) PYRENE; 3,4-BENZOPIRENE (ITALIAN) ; 3,4-BENZOPYRENE; 3,4-BENZPYREN (GERMAN) ; 3,4-BENZPYRENE; 3,4-BENZYPYRENE; 3,4-BP; 6,7-BENZOPYRENE; B (A) P; BAP; BENZ (A) PYRENE

Cancer

Concern Reference
Known human carcinogenInt'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - Carcinogens
Possible human carcinogenEuropean Union - Classification & Labelling
Possible human carcinogenAmer Conf of Gov't Industrial Hygienists - Carcinogens
Possible human carcinogenEPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)
Possible human carcinogenCalifornia EPA Proposition 65
Cancer - strong evidenceProposition 65 List of Carcinogens (July 2004) can be obtained from http://www
Possible mutagenEuropean Union - Classification & Labelling
Cancer - limited evidenceSilent Spring's Mammary Carcinogens Reviews Database

Endocrine disruption

Concern Reference
Human endocrine disruptor - strong evidenceEuropean Commission on Endocrine Disruption
Limited evidence of wildlife and the environment disruptionEuropean Commission on Endocrine Disruption
Limited evidence of endocrine disruptionKeith, L
endocrine - weight of evidence unknown/unassessed/unreview: published lit review or major tox studyOur Stolen Future Endocrine Disruptors

Persistence and bioaccumulation

Concern Reference
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife and humansEPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs
Persistent or bioaccumulative and moderate to high toxicity concern in humansEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlifeCanada PBTs - Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics (ARET)
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlifeGreat Lakes BTS (Binational Toxics Strategy) PBTs
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlifeOSPAR PBTs - Substances of Possible Concern
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlifeEmerging PBTs from peer-reviewed literature
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlifeEPA PBTs - Waste Minimization Program (RCRA)
Not suspected to be bioaccumulativeEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Developmental/reproductive toxicity

Concern Reference
Limited evidence of reproductive toxicityEuropean Union - Classification & Labelling
Limited evidence of developmental toxicityJankovic, J

Allergies/immunotoxicity

Concern Reference
Limited evidence of immune system toxicity or allergies (only for products for use on skin)European Union - Classification & Labelling
Limited evidence of immune system toxicity or allergiesnternational Programme of Chemical Safety Environmental Health Criteria 180

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

Concern Reference
Classified as expected to be toxic or harmfulEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List
Limited evidence of respiratory toxicityUS EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center
Limited evidence of sense organ toxicityLaDou, J
Classified as a low human health priorityEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Ecotoxicology

Concern Reference
Wildlife and environmental toxicityEuropean Union - Classification & Labelling
Wildlife and environmental toxicityEPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants
Wildlife and environmental toxicityEuropean Union - Water Framework Directive
Suspected to be an environmental toxin and be persistent or bioaccumulativeEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List
Suspected to be an environmental toxinEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Data gaps

Concern Reference
122,031 studies in PubMed science library may include information on the toxicity of this chemical see search results ->NLM PubMed

Data Sources

ACGIH (American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists) 2008. ACGIH cancer classification system. www.acgih.org.
Aarhus LRTAP. 1998. Aarhus Protocol on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs). Geneva Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, United Nations Environment Program.
CPS&Q (Consumer Products Safety & Quality) formely known as ECB (European Chemicals Bureau). 2008. Classification and Labelling: Chemicals: Annex VI of Directive 67/548/EEC through the 31st ATP.
California EPA (California Environmental Protection Agency). 9/2008. Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act of 1986. Chemicals known to the State to cause cancer or reproductive toxicity.
Colborn T, D Dumanoski, JP Myers. 2006. Widespread Pollutants with Endocrine-disrupting Effects. Updated from original listing in "Our Stolen Future" (1996).
EC (Environment Canada). 1994. Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics (ARET). ARET substance list of persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic chemicals.
EC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1998. Resource Conservatin and Recovery Act (RCRA) Waste Minimization Program - priority chemicals for elimination or reduction.
EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1999. Toxics Release Inventory Program. PBT Chemical Rule.
EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2008. Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Evidence for human carcinogenicity based on 1986-2005 guidelines.
EU (European Union)- Strategy for Endocrine Disrupters 2007. Commision on endocrin disruption requested by the European Parliament in 1998.
EU (European Union). 2000. Water Framework Directive (Directive 2000/60/EC ) - integrated river basin management for Europe. List of priority substances.
Emerging PBTs from peer-reviewed literature
European Commission. 2013. Cosing, the European Commission database with information on cosmetic substances and ingredients. Accessed on March 1, 2013 at http://ec.europa.eu/consumers/cosmetics/cosing/ .
Great Lakes BTS (Binational Toxics Strategy). 1997. Canada-United States Strategy for the Virtual Elimination of Persistent Toxic Substances in the Great Lakes. Appendix I - Level 1 and Level 2 substances.
IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer). 2008. Overall Evaluations of Carcinogenicity to Humans, as evaluated in IARC Monographs Volumes 1-99 (a total of 935 agents, mixtures and exposures).
Jankovic, J. A Screening Method for Occupational Reproductive Health Risk. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal. 57: 641-649. 1996., Proposition 65 List of Carcinogens (July 2004) can be obtained from http://www.oehha.ca.gov/prop65/prop65_list/Newlist.html.-PEND
Keith, L.H. (ed.). Environmental Endocrine Disruptors. John Wiley & Sons, NY. 1997. http://www.wileyeurope.com/cda/product/0,,0471191450%7Cdesc%7C3037,00.html, World Wildlife Fund. Our Stolen Future. Widespread Pollutants with Endocrine-disrupting Effects. http://www.ourstolenfuture.org/Basics/chemlist.htm. The WWF list is derived from references detailed at http://www.ourstolenfuture.org/Sources/chemsources.htm and was originally published in: Colborn, T., F.S. vom Saal, and A.M. Soto. Developmental Effects of Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals In Wildlife and Humans. Environmental Health Perspectives 101(5): 378-384. 1993.
LaDou, J. (ed.). Occupational Medicine. Appleton & Lange, Norwalk, CN. 1990., National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances. See Environmental Defense's Suspect Hazard Identification documentation.
NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2012. PubMed online scientific bibliography data. http://www.pubmed.gov.
OSPAR (Oslo-Paris). 2002. OSPAR List of Substances of Possible Concern. Secondary OSPAR List of Substances of Possible Concern. Secondary OSPAR. Place Published, OSPAR Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environement of North-East Atlanic.
Proposition 65 List of Carcinogens (July 2004) can be obtained from http://www.oehha.ca.gov/prop65/prop65_list/Newlist.html.
Rudel RA, KR Attfield, JN Schifano and JG Brody. Chemicals Causing Mammary Gland Tumors in Animals Signal New Directions for Epidemiology, Chemicals Testing, and Risk Assessment for Breast Cancer Prevention. CANCER Supplement. 2007 Jun 15;109(12):2635-2666.
US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center. Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants. http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/hapindex.html, Foth, H. Role of the Lung in Accumulation and Metabolism of Xenobiotic compounds - Implications for Chemically Induced Toxicity. Critical Reviews in Toxicology. 25(2): 165-205. 1995. (Table 1:Toxic Damage of Lung by Foreign Compounds)., National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances. See Environmental Defense's Suspect Hazard Identification documentation.
nternational Programme of Chemical Safety Environmental Health Criteria 180. Principles and Methods for Assessing Direct Immunotoxicity Associated with Exposure to Chemicals. World Health Organization. Geneva, 1996. (Table 1: Examples of compounds that are immunotoxic for humans or rodents).

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