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HEAVY METALS

Cancer

Concern Reference
Known human carcinogenInt'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - Carcinogens
Cancer - strong evidenceProposition 65 List of Carcinogens (July 2004) can be obtained from http://www
Limited evidence of carcinogenicityInt'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - Carcinogens

Use restrictions

Concern Reference
Violation of government restrictions - Banned or found unsafe for use in cosmeticsCanada - Prohibited and Restricted Cosmetics Ingredients
Restricted in cosmetics (recommendations or requirements) - use, concentration, or manufacturing restrictions - Use is restricted in Canadian cosmeticsCanada - Prohibited and Restricted Cosmetics Ingredients

Developmental/reproductive toxicity

Concern Reference
Possible human developmental toxicantCalifornia EPA Proposition 65
Human developmental toxicant - strong evidenceProposition 65 List of Carcinogens (July 2004) can be obtained from http://www
Human reproductive toxicant - strong evidenceProposition 65 List of Carcinogens (July 2004) can be obtained from http://www
Limited evidence of reproductive toxicityEuropean Union - Classification & Labelling
Limited evidence of reproductive toxicityNational Library of Medicine HazMap
Limited evidence of reproductive toxicityFrazier , L
Limited evidence of reproductive toxicityUS EPA

Allergies/immunotoxicity

Concern Reference
Limited evidence of immune system toxicity or allergiesnternational Programme of Chemical Safety Environmental Health Criteria 180
Limited evidence of immune system toxicity or allergiesA Relational Database of Hazardous Chemicals and Occupational Diseases
Limited evidence of immune system toxicity or allergiesNational Library of Medicine HazMap

Occupational hazards

Concern Reference
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to low dosesEuropean Union - Classification & Labelling

Endocrine disruption

Concern Reference
Limited evidence of endocrine disruptionKeith, L
Limited evidence of endocrine disruptionBrucker-Davis, F
Limited evidence of endocrine disruptionIllinois EPA
endocrine - weight of evidence unknown/unassessed/unreview: published lit review or major tox studyIllinois EPA Chemicals Associated with Endocrine System
endocrine - weight of evidence unknown/unassessed/unreview: published lit review or major tox studyOur Stolen Future Endocrine Disruptors

Persistence and bioaccumulation

Concern Reference
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlifeEPA PBTs - Waste Minimization Program (RCRA)

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

Concern Reference
Classified as toxic or harmful (only for products for use around the mouth; products for use on the lips; products that may be aerosolized (airborne))European Union - Classification & Labelling
Limited evidence of kidney toxicityNational Library of Medicine HazMap
Limited evidence of cardiovascular or blood toxicityNational Library of Medicine HazMap
Limited evidence of gastrointestinal or liver toxicityAgency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry
Limited evidence of sense organ toxicityAgency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry
Limited evidence of cardiovascular or blood toxicityBenowitz, N
Limited evidence of respiratory toxicityUS EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center
Limited evidence of kidney toxicityUS EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center
Limited evidence of gastrointestinal or liver toxicityUS EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center
Limited evidence of sense organ toxicityKlaassen, C
Limited evidence of respiratory toxicityNemery, B
Limited evidence of kidney toxicityA Relational Database of Hazardous Chemicals and Occupational Diseases
Limited evidence of sense organ toxicityA Relational Database of Hazardous Chemicals and Occupational Diseases
Limited evidence of respiratory toxicityA Relational Database of Hazardous Chemicals and Occupational Diseases
Limited evidence of cardiovascular or blood toxicityKlaassen, C
Limited evidence of gastrointestinal or liver toxicityNational Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances
reproductive - weight of evidence unknown/unassessed/unreview: published lit review or major tox studyNational Library of Medicine HazMap

Ecotoxicology

Concern Reference
Wildlife and environmental toxicityEuropean Union - Classification & Labelling
Wildlife and environmental toxicityEPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants
Wildlife and environmental toxicityIllinois EPA Chemicals Associated with Endocrine System

Neurotoxicity

Concern Reference
nervous system - weight of evidence unknown/unassessed/unreview: published lit review or major tox studyNational Library of Medicine HazMap

Data gaps

Concern Reference
20,096 studies in PubMed science library may include information on the toxicity of this chemical see search results ->NLM PubMed

Multiple, additive exposure sources

Concern Reference
Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in foodFDA Food Additive Status

Data Sources

A Relational Database of Hazardous Chemicals and Occupational Diseases. Browse Haz-Map by Adverse Effects http://hazmap.nlm.nih.gov/hazmapadv.html, Klaassen, C., M. Amdur and J. Doull (eds.). Casarett and Doull's Toxicology. The Basic Science of Poisons, 5th Ed. Pergamon Press, NY. 1996., Landrigan, P.J., Goyer, R.A. Clarkson, T.W., Sandler, D.P., Smith, J.H., Thun, M.J., and R. Wedeen. The Work-Relatedness of Renal Disease. Archives of Environmental Health. 39(3): 225-230. 1984. (Table 2: Estimated Numbers of Workers in the United States with Potential Occupational Exposures to Known or Suspect Nephrotoxins)., Merck & Co. The Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy. TABLE 226-1. Common Nephrotoxic Agents http://www.merck.com/pubs/mmanual/tables/226tb1.htm, Stacey, N.H. Occupational Toxicology. Taylor & Francis. 1995.
A Relational Database of Hazardous Chemicals and Occupational Diseases. Browse Haz-Map by Adverse Effects http://hazmap.nlm.nih.gov/hazmapadv.html, Klaassen, C., M. Amdur and J. Doull (eds.). Casarett and Doull's Toxicology. The Basic Science of Poisons, 5th Ed. Pergamon Press, NY. 1996., National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances. See Environmental Defense's Suspect Hazard Identification documentation.
A Relational Database of Hazardous Chemicals and Occupational Diseases. Browse Haz-Map by Adverse Effects http://hazmap.nlm.nih.gov/hazmapadv.html, Nemery, B. Metal Toxicity and the Respiratory Tract. European Respiratory Journal. 3(2): 202-219. 1990.(Table 1: Summary of pulmonary toxicity of metals).
A Relational Database of Hazardous Chemicals and Occupational Diseases. Browse Haz-Map by Adverse Effects http://hazmap.nlm.nih.gov/hazmapadv.html, Swedish National Chemicals Inspectorate. Labelling of chemical products, Swedish regulations and general advice with regard to the classification and labelling of chemical products hazardous to health, flammables and explosives. List of Allergenic Substances. National Chemicals Inspectorate, Solna, Sweden. 1987, 1990-1992.
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Minimal risk Levels for Hazardous Substances. January 2004. http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/mrls.html, DiPalma, J.A., J. Cunningham, J. Herrera, T. McCaffery, and D. Wolf. Occupational and Industrial Toxin Exposures and the Gastrointestinal Tract. American Journal of Gastroenterology. 86(9): 1107-1117. 1991. (Table 2: Selected Agents with Purported Digestive System Injury)., US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center. Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants. http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/hapindex.html, Klaassen, C., M. Amdur and J. Doull (eds.). Casarett and Doull's Toxicology. The Basic Science of Poisons, 5th Ed. Pergamon Press, NY. 1996., LaDou, J. (ed.). Occupational Medicine. Appleton & Lange, Norwalk, CN. 1990., Malachowsky, M.J. Health Effects of Toxic Substances. Government Institutes. Rockville, MD 1995., National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances. See Environmental Defense's Suspect Hazard Identification documentation., Stacey, N.H. Occupational Toxicology. Taylor & Francis. 1995., Zimmerman, H.J. and J.H. Lewis. Chemical- and Toxin-Induced Hepatotoxicity. Gastroenterology Clinics of North America. 24(4): 1027-1045. 1995. (Table 3: Forms of environmental hepatic injury).
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Minimal risk Levels for Hazardous Substances. January 2004. http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/mrls.html, US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center. Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants. http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/hapindex.html, A Relational Database of Hazardous Chemicals and Occupational Diseases. Browse Haz-Map by Adverse Effects http://hazmap.nlm.nih.gov/hazmapadv.html, LaDou, J. (ed.). Occupational Medicine. Appleton & Lange, Norwalk, CN. 1990., National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances. See Environmental Defense's Suspect Hazard Identification documentation.
Benowitz, N.L. Cardiotoxicity in the Workplace. Occupational Medicine. 7(3): 465-477. 1992. (Table 1: Chemical Toxins and Cardiovascular Disease)., US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center. Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants. http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/hapindex.html, A Relational Database of Hazardous Chemicals and Occupational Diseases. Browse Haz-Map by Adverse Effects http://hazmap.nlm.nih.gov/hazmapadv.html, Klaassen, C., M. Amdur and J. Doull (eds.). Casarett and Doull's Toxicology. The Basic Science of Poisons, 5th Ed. Pergamon Press, NY. 1996., Kristensen, T. S. Cardiovascular Diseases and the Work Environment. Scandinavian Journal of Work and Environmental Health. 15:245-264. 1989. (Table 5: Classification of possible risk factors for cardiovascular disease in the work environment)., LaDou, J. (ed.). Occupational Medicine. Appleton & Lange, Norwalk, CN. 1990., Malachowsky, M.J. Health Effects of Toxic Substances. Government Institutes. Rockville, MD 1995., California EPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Air Toxics Hot Spots Program Risk Assessment Guidelines, Part III: Technical Support Document 'Determination of Noncancer Chronic Reference Exposure Levels'. Includes all Chronic Reference Exposure Levels (CRELs) adopted by OEHHA as of August 2003 (http://www.oehha.ca.gov/air/chronic_rels/AllChrels.html, plus draft CRELS proposed through March 2004 (http://www.oehha.ca.gov/air/chronic_rels/index.html., National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances. See Environmental Defense's Suspect Hazard Identification documentation., Stacey, N.H. Occupational Toxicology. Taylor & Francis. 1995.
Benowitz, N.L. Cardiotoxicity in the Workplace. Occupational Medicine. 7(3): 465-477. 1992. (Table 1: Chemical Toxins and Cardiovascular Disease)., US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center. Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants. http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/hapindex.html, A Relational Database of Hazardous Chemicals and Occupational Diseases. Browse Haz-Map by Adverse Effects http://hazmap.nlm.nih.gov/hazmapadv.html, Klaassen, C., M. Amdur and J. Doull (eds.). Casarett and Doull's Toxicology. The Basic Science of Poisons, 5th Ed. Pergamon Press, NY. 1996., Kristensen, T. S. Cardiovascular Diseases and the Work Environment. Scandinavian Journal of Work and Environmental Health. 15:245-264. 1989. (Table 5: Classification of possible risk factors for cardiovascular disease in the work environment)., LaDou, J. (ed.). Occupational Medicine. Appleton & Lange, Norwalk, CN. 1990., Malachowsky, M.J. Health Effects of Toxic Substances. Government Institutes. Rockville, MD 1995., Stacey, N.H. Occupational Toxicology. Taylor & Francis. 1995.
Brucker-Davis, F. Effects of Environmental Synthetic Chemicals on Thyroid Function. Thyroid. 8(9): 827-856. 1998., Illinois EPA. Endocrine Disruptors Strategy. 1997. (Table 1: Preliminary List of Chemicals Associated with Endocrine System Effects in Animals and Humans or In Vitro). http://www.nihs.go.jp/hse/environ/illiepatable.htm, Keith, L.H. (ed.). Environmental Endocrine Disruptors. John Wiley & Sons, NY. 1997. http://www.wileyeurope.com/cda/product/0,,0471191450%7Cdesc%7C3037,00.html, World Wildlife Fund. Our Stolen Future. Widespread Pollutants with Endocrine-disrupting Effects. http://www.ourstolenfuture.org/Basics/chemlist.htm. The WWF list is derived from references detailed at http://www.ourstolenfuture.org/Sources/chemsources.htm and was originally published in: Colborn, T., F.S. vom Saal, and A.M. Soto. Developmental Effects of Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals In Wildlife and Humans. Environmental Health Perspectives 101(5): 378-384. 1993.
CPS&Q (Consumer Products Safety & Quality) formely known as ECB (European Chemicals Bureau). 2008. Classification and Labelling: Chemicals: Annex VI of Directive 67/548/EEC through the 31st ATP.
California EPA (California Environmental Protection Agency). 9/2008. Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act of 1986. Chemicals known to the State to cause cancer or reproductive toxicity.
Colborn T, D Dumanoski, JP Myers. 2006. Widespread Pollutants with Endocrine-disrupting Effects. Updated from original listing in "Our Stolen Future" (1996).
EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1998. Resource Conservatin and Recovery Act (RCRA) Waste Minimization Program - priority chemicals for elimination or reduction.
FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration) 2006. Food Additive Status List. Downloaded from http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/%7Edms/opa-appa.html, Oct 16, 2006.
Frazier , L. and M. L. Hage (eds.). Reproductive Hazards of the Workplace, Wiley Europe, 1998. Table 10 (Partial List of Reproductive Toxicants) available at http://www.pharmacy.ohio-state.edu/homepage/safety/chemhygiene_table_repro.pdf., California EPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Acute Reference Exposure Levels (RELs), Averaging Times, and Toxicologic Endpoints. Includes all Acute Reference Exposure Levels (ARELs) developed by OEHHA through May 2000http://www.oehha.org/air/acute_rels/allAcRELs.html
Health Canada. 2007. List of Prohibited and Restricted Cosmetic Ingredients. Canada's Cosmetic Ingredient Hotlist. March 2007.
IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer). 2008. Overall Evaluations of Carcinogenicity to Humans, as evaluated in IARC Monographs Volumes 1-99 (a total of 935 agents, mixtures and exposures).
Illinois EPA (Illinois Environmental Protection Agency). 2000. Preliminary list of chemicals associated with endocrine system effects in animals and humans (*) or in vitro (+). In EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) 2000. Handbook for Non-Cancer Health Effects Valuation, Appendix C.
Illinois EPA. Endocrine Disruptors Strategy. 1997. (Table 1: Preliminary List of Chemicals Associated with Endocrine System Effects in Animals and Humans or In Vitro). http://www.nihs.go.jp/hse/environ/illiepatable.htm, Keith, L.H. (ed.). Environmental Endocrine Disruptors. John Wiley & Sons, NY. 1997. http://www.wileyeurope.com/cda/product/0,,0471191450%7Cdesc%7C3037,00.html, World Wildlife Fund. Our Stolen Future. Widespread Pollutants with Endocrine-disrupting Effects. http://www.ourstolenfuture.org/Basics/chemlist.htm. The WWF list is derived from references detailed at http://www.ourstolenfuture.org/Sources/chemsources.htm and was originally published in: Colborn, T., F.S. vom Saal, and A.M. Soto. Developmental Effects of Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals In Wildlife and Humans. Environmental Health Perspectives 101(5): 378-384. 1993.
Keith, L.H. (ed.). Environmental Endocrine Disruptors. John Wiley & Sons, NY. 1997. http://www.wileyeurope.com/cda/product/0,,0471191450%7Cdesc%7C3037,00.html, World Wildlife Fund. Our Stolen Future. Widespread Pollutants with Endocrine-disrupting Effects. http://www.ourstolenfuture.org/Basics/chemlist.htm. The WWF list is derived from references detailed at http://www.ourstolenfuture.org/Sources/chemsources.htm and was originally published in: Colborn, T., F.S. vom Saal, and A.M. Soto. Developmental Effects of Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals In Wildlife and Humans. Environmental Health Perspectives 101(5): 378-384. 1993.
Klaassen, C., M. Amdur and J. Doull (eds.). Casarett and Doull's Toxicology. The Basic Science of Poisons, 5th Ed. Pergamon Press, NY. 1996.
Klaassen, C., M. Amdur and J. Doull (eds.). Casarett and Doull's Toxicology. The Basic Science of Poisons, 5th Ed. Pergamon Press, NY. 1996.
NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2012. PubMed online scientific bibliography data. http://www.pubmed.gov.
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances. See Environmental Defense's Suspect Hazard Identification documentation., Stacey, N.H. Occupational Toxicology. Taylor & Francis. 1995.
Nemery, B. Metal Toxicity and the Respiratory Tract. European Respiratory Journal. 3(2): 202-219. 1990.(Table 1: Summary of pulmonary toxicity of metals).
Proposition 65 List of Carcinogens (July 2004) can be obtained from http://www.oehha.ca.gov/prop65/prop65_list/Newlist.html.
Proposition 65 List of Carcinogens (July 2004) can be obtained from http://www.oehha.ca.gov/prop65/prop65_list/Newlist.html.
Proposition 65 List of Carcinogens (July 2004) can be obtained from http://www.oehha.ca.gov/prop65/prop65_list/Newlist.html.
Proposition 65 List of Carcinogens (July 2004) can be obtained from http://www.oehha.ca.gov/prop65/prop65_list/Newlist.html.
Proposition 65 List of Carcinogens (July 2004) can be obtained from http://www.oehha.ca.gov/prop65/prop65_list/Newlist.html.-MC
Proposition 65 List of Carcinogens (July 2004) can be obtained from http://www.oehha.ca.gov/prop65/prop65_list/Newlist.html.-MC
US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center. Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants. http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/hapindex.html, A Relational Database of Hazardous Chemicals and Occupational Diseases. Browse Haz-Map by Adverse Effects http://hazmap.nlm.nih.gov/hazmapadv.html, Klaassen, C., M. Amdur and J. Doull (eds.). Casarett and Doull's Toxicology. The Basic Science of Poisons, 5th Ed. Pergamon Press, NY. 1996., LaDou, J. (ed.). Occupational Medicine. Appleton & Lange, Norwalk, CN. 1990., Lu, F.C. Basic Toxicology. 2nd Edition. 1991., Nemery, B. Metal Toxicity and the Respiratory Tract. European Respiratory Journal. 3(2): 202-219. 1990.(Table 1: Summary of pulmonary toxicity of metals).
US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center. Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants. http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/hapindex.html, A Relational Database of Hazardous Chemicals and Occupational Diseases. Browse Haz-Map by Adverse Effects http://hazmap.nlm.nih.gov/hazmapadv.html, Klaassen, C., M. Amdur and J. Doull (eds.). Casarett and Doull's Toxicology. The Basic Science of Poisons, 5th Ed. Pergamon Press, NY. 1996., Landrigan, P.J., Goyer, R.A. Clarkson, T.W., Sandler, D.P., Smith, J.H., Thun, M.J., and R. Wedeen. The Work-Relatedness of Renal Disease. Archives of Environmental Health. 39(3): 225-230. 1984. (Table 2: Estimated Numbers of Workers in the United States with Potential Occupational Exposures to Known or Suspect Nephrotoxins)., Merck & Co. The Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy. TABLE 226-1. Common Nephrotoxic Agents http://www.merck.com/pubs/mmanual/tables/226tb1.htm, Stacey, N.H. Occupational Toxicology. Taylor & Francis. 1995.
US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center. Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants. http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/hapindex.html, Landrigan, P.J., Goyer, R.A. Clarkson, T.W., Sandler, D.P., Smith, J.H., Thun, M.J., and R. Wedeen. The Work-Relatedness of Renal Disease. Archives of Environmental Health. 39(3): 225-230. 1984. (Table 2: Estimated Numbers of Workers in the United States with Potential Occupational Exposures to Known or Suspect Nephrotoxins)., Merck & Co. The Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy. TABLE 226-1. Common Nephrotoxic Agents http://www.merck.com/pubs/mmanual/tables/226tb1.htm, Stacey, N.H. Occupational Toxicology. Taylor & Francis. 1995.
US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center. Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants. http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/hapindex.html, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances. See Environmental Defense's Suspect Hazard Identification documentation., Stacey, N.H. Occupational Toxicology. Taylor & Francis. 1995.
US EPA. Roadmaps to Sources of Information on Chemicals Listed in the Emergency Planning Community and Community Right-to-Know Act (Also Known as SARA Title 3), Section 313 Toxic Release Inventory (for Microcomputers). (Report Number EPADFDK92040). 1991. Data file distributed in 2 diskettes by Office of Pollution, Prevention, and Toxics, Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. NOTE: Datasource no longer being maintained by EPA; not currently available online., Frazier , L. and M. L. Hage (eds.). Reproductive Hazards of the Workplace, Wiley Europe, 1998. Table 10 (Partial List of Reproductive Toxicants) available at http://www.pharmacy.ohio-state.edu/homepage/safety/chemhygiene_table_repro.pdf., A Relational Database of Hazardous Chemicals and Occupational Diseases. Browse Haz-Map by Adverse Effects http://hazmap.nlm.nih.gov/hazmapadv.html, California EPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Acute Reference Exposure Levels (RELs), Averaging Times, and Toxicologic Endpoints. Includes all Acute Reference Exposure Levels (ARELs) developed by OEHHA through May 2000http://www.oehha.org/air/acute_rels/allAcRELs.html
nternational Programme of Chemical Safety Environmental Health Criteria 180. Principles and Methods for Assessing Direct Immunotoxicity Associated with Exposure to Chemicals. World Health Organization. Geneva, 1996. (Table 1: Examples of compounds that are immunotoxic for humans or rodents).

About the ratings

EWG provides information on personal care product ingredients from the published scientific literature, to supplement incomplete data available from companies and the government. The ratings below indicate the relative level of concern posed by exposure to the ingredients in this product - not the product itself - compared to other product formulations. The ratings reflect potential health hazards but do not account for the level of exposure or individual susceptibility, factors which determine actual health risks, if any. Learn more | Legal Disclaimer