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Health Concerns of the Ingredient:
Overall Hazard
Developmental &
reproductive toxicity
Allergies & immunotoxicity
Use restrictions
Other HIGH concerns: Occupational hazards; Other LOW concerns: Enhanced skin absorption

About TITANIUM/TITANIUM DIOXIDE: Titanium/Titanium Dioxide is a composite of titanium and titanium dioxide.

Function(s): Colorant; Opacifying Agent



Concern Reference
Possible human carcinogen (only for inhalation AND products that may be aerosolized (airborne))California EPA (California Environmental Protection Agency)
Limited evidence of carcinogenicity (only for products that may be aerosolized (airborne))Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - Carcinogens
Limited evidence of carcinogenicity (only for products that may be aerosolized (airborne))NIOSH Occupational Carcinogens
Cancer - limited evidence (only for products that may be aerosolized (airborne))California EPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment

Occupational hazards

Concern Reference
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to low dosesNational Library of Medicine HazMap

Decreased skin absorption

Concern Reference
No absorption into intact skinGamer AO, Leibold E, et al

Enhanced skin absorption

Concern Reference
Suspected nano-scale ingredients with potential to absorb into the skinNanomaterial Database

Multiple, additive exposure sources

Concern Reference
Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in foodFDA Everything Added to Food

Data gaps

Concern Reference

Data Sources

California EPA (California Environmental Protection Agency). 2012. Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act of 1986. Chemicals known to the State to cause cancer or reproductive toxicity. Updated July 2012.
California EPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Prioritization Notices. http://www.oehha.org/prop65/CRNR_notices/state_listing/prioritization_notices/index.html. Chemicals on Candidate List for consideration under Proposition 65 due to high carcinogenicity concern (through March 2004). Chemicals under consideration for listing via the authoritative bodies mechanisms (through July 2004).
FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration) 2006. Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. Color Additive Status List. September 2006.
FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration). 2008. EAFUS [Everything Added to Food]: A Food Additive Database. FDA Office of Food Safety and Applied Nutrition.
Gamer AO, Leibold E, et al. (2006). "The in vitro absorption of microfine zinc oxide and titanium dioxide through porcine skin." Toxicology in Vitro 20: 301-307.
IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer). 2008. Overall Evaluations of Carcinogenicity to Humans, as evaluated in IARC Monographs Volumes 1-99 (a total of 935 agents, mixtures and exposures).
NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health). 2006. NIOSH Carcinogens List (Potential occupational carcinogens). http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/npotocca.html.
NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2012. PubMed online scientific bibliography data. http://www.pubmed.gov.
NanoWerk. 2007. Nanomaterial Database. Available online: http://www.nanowerk.com/phpscripts/n_dbsearch.php

About the Skin Deep® ratings

EWG provides information on personal care product ingredients from the published scientific literature, to supplement incomplete data available from companies and the government. The ratings below indicate the relative level of concern posed by exposure to the ingredients in this product - not the product itself - compared to other product formulations. The ratings reflect potential health hazards but do not account for the level of exposure or individual susceptibility, factors which determine actual health risks, if any. Learn more | Legal Disclaimer


Beyond providing Skin Deep® as an educational tool for consumers, EWG offers its EWG VERIFIED™ mark as a quick and easily identifiable way of conveying personal care products that meet EWG's strict health criteria. Before a company can use EWG VERIFIEDTM on such products, the company must show that it fully discloses the products' ingredients on their labels or packaging, they do not contain EWG ingredients of concern, and are made with good manufacturing practices, among other criteria. Note that EWG receives licensing fees from all EWG VERIFIED member companies that help to support the important work we do. Learn more | Legal Disclaimer