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Data available:
 
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RETINAL


image source: PubChem
Health Concerns of the Ingredient:
Overall Hazard
 
 
 
 
 
Allergies & immunotoxicity
 
 
Other HIGH concerns: Biochemical or cellular level changes; Other MODERATE concerns: Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive); Other LOW concerns: Data gaps, Ecotoxicology

Function(s): Skin-Conditioning Agent - Miscellaneous; SKIN CONDITIONING

Synonym(s): RETINALDEHYDE; TRANS-RETINAL; VITAMIN A ALDEHYDE; ALL-E-RETINAL; ALL-TRANS-RETINAL; ALPHA-RETINENE; AXEROPHTHAL; E-RETINAL; RETINAL (9CI) ; RETINALDEHYDE; RETINENE

Use restrictions

Concern Reference
Restricted in cosmetics (recommendations or requirements) - use, concentration, or manufacturing restrictions - Use is restricted in Canadian cosmeticsCanada - Prohibited and Restricted Cosmetics Ingredients

Biochemical or cellular level changes

Concern Reference
Produces excess reactive oxygen species that can interfere with cellular signaling, cause mutations, lead to cell death and may be implicated in cardiovascular disease.Cherng SH, Xia Q, Blankenship LR, Freeman JP, Wamer WG, Howard PC, et al
Produces excess reactive oxygen species that can interfere with cellular signaling, cause mutations, lead to cell death and may be implicated in cardiovascular disease.Xia Q, Yin JJ, Cherng SH, Wamer WG, Boudreau M, Howard PC, et al

Cancer

Concern Reference
One or more animal studies show tumor formation at very low dosesNational Toxicology Program (NTP)
Cancer - limited evidenceNTP
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation resultsMei N, Xia Q, Chen L, Moore MM, Fu PP, Chen T
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation resultsYan J, Xia Q, Cherng SH, Wamer WG, Howard PC, Yu H, et al

Developmental/reproductive toxicity

Concern Reference
Limited evidence of reproductive toxicity (only for Cosmetics use over entire body could theoretically result in Vitamin A exposures that exceed FDA and)Yourick JJ, Jung CT, Bronaugh RL

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

Concern Reference
Classified as expected to be toxic or harmfulEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List
Limited evidence of skin toxicityDuell EA, Kang S, Voorhees JJ
Limited evidence of skin toxicityKang S, Duell EA, Fisher GJ, Datta SC, Wang ZQ, Reddy AP, et al

Ecotoxicology

Concern Reference
Suspected to be an environmental toxin and be persistent or bioaccumulativeEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List
Suspected to be an environmental toxinEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Data gaps

Concern Reference
Risk assessment method deficiencies and data gaps - Maximum reported "as used" concentration is basis of safety assessment by industry safety panel (Cosmetic Ingredient Review, CIR) - implicit safe concentration limit in productCosmetic Ingredient Review Assessments
161,053 studies in PubMed science library may include information on the toxicity of this chemical see search results ->NLM PubMed

Enhanced skin absorption

Concern Reference
Absorbs into the skinBoehnlein J, Sakr A, Lichtin JL, Bronaugh RL

Persistence and bioaccumulation

Concern Reference
Not suspected to be persistentEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Data Sources

Boehnlein J, Sakr A, Lichtin JL, Bronaugh RL. 1994. Characterization of esterase and alcohol dehydrogenase activity in skin. Metabolism of retinyl palmitate to retinol (vitamin A) during percutaneous absorption. Pharm Res 11(8): 1155-9.
CIR (Cosmetic Ingredient Review). 2006. CIR Compendium, containing abstracts, discussions, and conclusions of CIR cosmetic ingredient safety assessments. Washington DC.
Cherng SH, Xia Q, Blankenship LR, Freeman JP, Wamer WG, Howard PC, et al. 2005. Photodecomposition of retinyl palmitate in ethanol by UVA light-formation of photodecomposition products, reactive oxygen species, and lipid peroxides. Chem Res Toxicol 18(2): 129-38
Duell EA, Kang S, Voorhees JJ. 1997. Unoccluded retinol penetrates human skin in vivo more effectively than unoccluded retinyl palmitate or retinoic acid. J Invest Dermatol 109(3): 301-5.
EC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
Health Canada. 2007. List of Prohibited and Restricted Cosmetic Ingredients. Canada's Cosmetic Ingredient Hotlist. March 2007.
Kang S, Duell EA, Fisher GJ, Datta SC, Wang ZQ, Reddy AP, et al. 1995. Application of retinol to human skin in vivo induces epidermal hyperplasia and cellular retinoid binding proteins characteristic of retinoic acid but without measurable retinoic acid levels or irritation. J Invest Dermatol 105(4): 549-56.
Mei N, Xia Q, Chen L, Moore MM, Fu PP, Chen T. 2005. Photomutagenicity of retinyl palmitate by ultraviolet a irradiation in mouse lymphoma cells. Toxicol Sci 88(1): 142-9.
NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2012. PubMed online scientific bibliography data. http://www.pubmed.gov.
NTP. 2000. All-Trans-Retinyl Palmitate [CASRN 79-81-2]. http://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/ntp/htdocs/Chem_Background/ExSumPdf/RetinylPalmitate.pdf
National Toxicology Program (NTP). 2012. Photocarcinogenesis Studies of Retinoic Acid and Retinyl Palmitate [CAS Nos. 302-79-4 (All-trans-retinoic acid) and 79-81-2 (All-trans-retinyl palmitate)] in SKH-1 Mice (simulated solar light and topical application study). Report TR-568.
Xia Q, Yin JJ, Cherng SH, Wamer WG, Boudreau M, Howard PC, et al. 2006. UVA photoirradiation of retinyl palmitate--formation of singlet oxygen and superoxide, and their role in induction of lipid peroxidation. Toxicol Lett 163(1): 30-43
Yan J, Xia Q, Cherng SH, Wamer WG, Howard PC, Yu H, et al. 2005. Photo-induced DNA damage and photocytotoxicity of retinyl palmitate and its photodecomposition products. Toxicol Ind Health 21(7-8): 167-75
Yourick JJ, Jung CT, Bronaugh RL. 2008. In vitro and in vivo percutaneous absorption of retinol from cosmetic formulations: significance of the skin reservoir and prediction of systemic absorption. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 231(1): 117-21

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