ewg.org | About SkinDeep®/Methodology | Terms & Conditions | Build Your Own Report | FAQ
 
Score:
Data available:
 
Limited

Double your impact!

Donate $20 or more and get an e-copy of EWG's new cookbook: EWG EATS
plus EWG's consumer guides.
Your gift will be matched!

Sign Up!

MALEIC ANHYDRIDE


image source: PubChem
Health Concerns of the Ingredient:
Overall Hazard
 
 
Cancer
 
 
Developmental &
reproductive toxicity
 
 
 
Use restrictions
 
 
Other HIGH concerns: Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive), Occupational hazards; Other LOW concerns: Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)

Function(s): Artificial Nail Builder; FILM FORMING

Synonym(s): 2,5-FURANDIONE; 2,5FURANDIONE; 2,5-FURANDIONE; ANHYDRID KYSELINY MALEINOVE (CZECH) ; CIS-BUTENEDIOIC ANHYDRIDE; MALEIC ACID ANHYDRIDE; MALEIC ANHYDRIDE (ACGIH:OSHA) ; MALEINANHYDRID (CZECH) ; RCRA WASTE NUMBER U147; TOXILIC ANHYDRIDE

Allergies/immunotoxicity

Concern Reference
Human immune and respiratory toxicant or allergen - strong evidence (only for )Association of Occupational and Environmental Clinics
Limited evidence of immune system toxicity or allergies (only for products that may be aerosolized (airborne); products for use on skin)European Union - Classification & Labelling
Limited evidence of immune system toxicity or allergiesEuropean Economic Community
Limited evidence of immune system toxicity or allergiesNational Library of Medicine HazMap

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

Concern Reference
Known human respiratory toxicantEPA Hazardous Air Pollutants
Classified as expected to be toxic or harmfulEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List
Classified as medium human health priorityEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List
Classified as toxic or harmful (only for products for use around the mouth; products for use on the lips)European Union - Classification & Labelling
Limited evidence of respiratory toxicityNational Library of Medicine HazMap
Limited evidence of respiratory toxicityEuropean Economic Community
One or more animal studies show classified as toxic effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient)EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs

Occupational hazards

Concern Reference
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to low dosesEuropean Union - Classification & Labelling

Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)

Concern Reference
Limited evidence of skin irritationNational Library of Medicine HazMap

Miscellaneous

Concern Reference
Occupational hazards related to handlingEuropean Union - Classification & Labelling

Data gaps

Concern Reference
913 studies in PubMed science library may include information on the toxicity of this chemical see search results ->NLM PubMed

Ecotoxicology

Concern Reference
Not suspected to be an environmental toxinEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Persistence and bioaccumulation

Concern Reference
Not suspected to be bioaccumulativeEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Data Sources

AOEC (Association of Occupational and Environmental Clinics). 2009. AEOC exposures codes and asthmagen designation.
CPS&Q (Consumer Products Safety & Quality) formely known as ECB (European Chemicals Bureau). 2008. Classification and Labelling: Chemicals: Annex VI of Directive 67/548/EEC through the 31st ATP.
EC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1999. Toxics Release Inventory Program. PBT Chemical Rule.
EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2005. Office of Air. The 112(b)1 Hazardous Air Pollutants List (as modified). Last modified: 12 Dec 2005.
European Economic Community. Sensitizing Substances in the EEC List of Dangerous Substances. Annex I to Council Directive 67/548/EEC. http://www.kemi.se/default_eng.cfm?page=klass_mark/klasshem_eng.htm, US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center. Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants. http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/hapindex.html, A Relational Database of Hazardous Chemicals and Occupational Diseases. Browse Haz-Map by Adverse Effects http://hazmap.nlm.nih.gov/hazmapadv.html, California EPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Air Toxics Hot Spots Program Risk Assessment Guidelines, Part III: Technical Support Document 'Determination of Noncancer Chronic Reference Exposure Levels'. Includes all Chronic Reference Exposure Levels (CRELs) adopted by OEHHA as of August 2003 (http://www.oehha.ca.gov/air/chronic_rels/AllChrels.html, plus draft CRELS proposed through March 2004 (http://www.oehha.ca.gov/air/chronic_rels/index.html.
European Economic Community. Sensitizing Substances in the EEC List of Dangerous Substances. Annex I to Council Directive 67/548/EEC. http://www.kemi.se/default_eng.cfm?page=klass_mark/klasshem_eng.htm, US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center. Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants. http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/hapindex.html, A Relational Database of Hazardous Chemicals and Occupational Diseases. Browse Haz-Map by Adverse Effects http://hazmap.nlm.nih.gov/hazmapadv.html, Nordic Council of Ministers (Nordic Allergy Project). Kriteriedokumenter fra nordisk allergiprojekt - vurdering af 50 kemiske stoffers evne til at forarsage allergi, en litteraturgennemgang. Nord 1991:51. Copenhagen, 1991., Swedish National Chemicals Inspectorate. Labelling of chemical products, Swedish regulations and general advice with regard to the classification and labelling of chemical products hazardous to health, flammables and explosives. List of Allergenic Substances. National Chemicals Inspectorate, Solna, Sweden. 1987, 1990-1992.
NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2012. PubMed online scientific bibliography data. http://www.pubmed.gov.

About the ratings

EWG provides information on personal care product ingredients from the published scientific literature, to supplement incomplete data available from companies and the government. The ratings below indicate the relative level of concern posed by exposure to the ingredients in this product - not the product itself - compared to other product formulations. The ratings reflect potential health hazards but do not account for the level of exposure or individual susceptibility, factors which determine actual health risks, if any. Learn more | Legal Disclaimer