ewg.org | About SkinDeep®/Methodology | Terms & Conditions | Build Your Own Report | FAQ
 
Score:
Data available:
 
Fair

Get The Guide!

Want a free Cosmetics Guide? Donate $5 to EWG today!

Sign Up!

GOLD (CI 77480)

Use restrictions

Concern Reference
Violation of government restrictions - Banned or found unsafe for use in cosmeticsCTFA International Cosmetic Ingredient Dictionary and Handbook

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

Concern Reference
Limited evidence of kidney toxicityKlaassen, C
Limited evidence of respiratory toxicity (only for products that may be aerosolized (airborne))Nemery, B
Limited evidence of cardiovascular or blood toxicityMalachowsky, M
Limited evidence of kidney toxicityMerck & Co
Classified as not expected to be potentially toxic or harmfulEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Enhanced skin absorption

Concern Reference
Suspected nano-scale ingredients with potential to absorb into the skinNanomaterial Database

Ecotoxicology

Concern Reference
Not suspected to be an environmental toxinEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Persistence and bioaccumulation

Concern Reference
Not suspected to be bioaccumulativeEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Data gaps

Concern Reference
90,086 studies in PubMed science library may include information on the toxicity of this chemical see search results ->NLM PubMed

Occupational hazards

Concern Reference
Single case study detailing occupational hazardsNational Library of Medicine HazMap

Data Sources

AOEC (Association of Occupational and Environmental Clinics). 2009. AEOC exposures codes and asthmagen designation.
CTFA (Cosmetic, Toiletry and Fragrance Association). 2006. International Cosmetic Ingredient Dictionary and Handbook, 11th Edition. Color Additive Information. Washington, DC.
EC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
European Commission. 2013. Cosing, the European Commission database with information on cosmetic substances and ingredients. Accessed on March 1, 2013 at http://ec.europa.eu/consumers/cosmetics/cosing/ .
Klaassen, C., M. Amdur and J. Doull (eds.). Casarett and Doull
Malachowsky, M.J. Health Effects of Toxic Substances. Government Institutes. Rockville, MD 1995.
Merck & Co. The Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy. TABLE 226-1. Common Nephrotoxic Agents http://www.merck.com/pubs/mmanual/tables/226tb1.htm
NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2012. PubMed online scientific bibliography data. http://www.pubmed.gov.
NanoWerk. 2007. Nanomaterial Database. Available online: http://www.nanowerk.com/phpscripts/n_dbsearch.php
Nemery, B. Metal Toxicity and the Respiratory Tract. European Respiratory Journal. 3(2): 202-219. 1990.(Table 1: Summary of pulmonary toxicity of metals).

About the ratings

EWG provides information on personal care product ingredients from the published scientific literature, to supplement incomplete data available from companies and the government. The ratings below indicate the relative level of concern posed by exposure to the ingredients in this product - not the product itself - compared to other product formulations. The ratings reflect potential health hazards but do not account for the level of exposure or individual susceptibility, factors which determine actual health risks, if any. Learn more | Legal Disclaimer