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TRIPHENYL PHOSPHATE


image source: PubChem
Health Concerns of the Ingredient:
Overall Hazard
 
 
Cancer
 
 
 
 
Use restrictions
 
 
Other HIGH concerns: Multiple, additive exposure sources; Other MODERATE concerns: Endocrine disruption, Neurotoxicity; Other LOW concerns: Ecotoxicology

Function(s): Plasticizer; PLASTICISER

Synonym(s): PHOSPHORIC ACID, TRIPHENYL ESTER; TRIPHENYL ESTER PHOSPHORIC ACID; CELLUFLEX TPP; DISFLAMOLL TP; PHOSFLEX TPP; REOLUBE TPP; REOMOL TPP; TPP; TRIFENYLFOSFAT (CZECH) ; TRIPHENYL PHOSPHATE (ACGIH:OSHA)

Developmental/reproductive toxicity

Concern Reference
Possible human reproductive toxicantMeeker JD, Stapleton HM
Possible human reproductive and endocrine toxicantMeeker JD, Cooper EM, Stapleton HM, Hauser R
One or more animal studies show reproductive and endocrine effects at low dosesLiu X, Ji K, Jo A, Moon HB, Choi K
One or more animal studies show developmental cardiotoxicity effects at low dosesZhongkun Du, Guowei Wang, Shixiang Gao & Zunyao Wang

Neurotoxicity

Concern Reference
One or more animal studies show neurodevelopmental effects at very low dosesOliveri AN, Bailey JM, Levin ED

Endocrine disruption

Concern Reference
One or more studies show endocrine disruption at low dosesChunsheng Liu, Qiangwei Wang, Kang Liang, Jingfu Liu, Bingsheng Zhou, Xiaowei Zhang, Hongling Liu, John P
One or more animal studies show endocrine disruption at moderate dosesGregory M
Human case studies indicate endocrine disruption effectMeeker JD, Stapleton HM
Associated with endocrine disruption (only for A peer-reviewed study reports that TPP affects endocrine signaling.)Belcher SM, Cookman CJ, Patisaul HB, Stapleton HM

Multiple, additive exposure sources

Concern Reference
In other consumer products besides personal care products Stapleton HM, Allen JG, Kelly SM, Konstantinov A, Klosterhaus S, Watkins D, McClean MD, Webster TF

Allergies/immunotoxicity

Concern Reference
Limited evidence of immune system toxicity or allergiesNational Library of Medicine HazMap

Ecotoxicology

Concern Reference
Suspected to be an environmental toxinEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Data gaps

Concern Reference
3,015 studies in PubMed science library may include information on the toxicity of this chemical see search results ->NLM PubMed

Persistence and bioaccumulation

Concern Reference
Not suspected to be persistentEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List
Not suspected to be bioaccumulativeEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

Concern Reference
Classified as not expected to be potentially toxic or harmfulEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Data Sources

Stapleton HM, Allen JG, Kelly SM, Konstantinov A, Klosterhaus S, Watkins D, McClean MD, Webster TF. Alternate and new brominated flame retardants detected in U.S. house dust. Environ Sci Technol. 2008 Sep 15;42(18):6910-6.
Belcher SM, Cookman CJ, Patisaul HB, Stapleton HM. In vitro assessment of human nuclear hormone receptor activity and cytotoxicity of the flame retardant mixture FM 550 and its triarylphosphate and brominated components. Toxicol Lett. 2014 Jul 15;228(2):93-102. doi: 10.1016/j.toxlet.2014.04.017.
Chunsheng Liu, Qiangwei Wang, Kang Liang, Jingfu Liu, Bingsheng Zhou, Xiaowei Zhang, Hongling Liu, John P. Giesy & Hongxia Yu. 2013. Effects of tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate and triphenyl phosphate on receptor-associated mRNA expression in zebrafish embryos/larvae. Aquatic toxicology (Amsterdam, Netherlands) 128-129, 147-57.
EC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
Gregory M. Isales, Rachel A. Hipszer, Tara D. Raftery, Albert Chen, Heather M. Stapleton & David C. Volz. 2015. Triphenyl phosphate-induced developmental toxicity in zebrafish: potential role of the retinoic acid receptor. Aquatic toxicology (Amsterdam, Netherlands) 161, 221-30.
Liu X, Ji K, Jo A, Moon HB, Choi K. Effects of TDCPP or TPP on gene transcriptions and hormones of HPG axis, and their consequences on reproduction in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio). Aquat Toxicol. 2013 Jun 15;134-135:104-11. doi: 10.1016
Meeker JD, Cooper EM, Stapleton HM, Hauser R. Exploratory analysis of urinary metabolites of phosphorus-containing flame retardants in relation to markers of male reproductive health. Endocr Disruptors (Austin). 2013 Oct 1;1(1):e26306.
Meeker JD, Stapleton HM. House dust concentrations of organophosphate flame retardants in relation to hormone levels and semen quality parameters. Environ Health Perspect. 2010 Mar;118(3):318-23. doi: 10.1289/ehp.0901332.
Meeker JD, Stapleton HM. House dust concentrations of organophosphate flame retardants in relation to hormone levels and semen quality parameters. Environ Health Perspect. 2010 Mar;118(3):318-23. doi: 10.1289/ehp.0901332.
NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2012. PubMed online scientific bibliography data. http://www.pubmed.gov.
Oliveri AN, Bailey JM, Levin ED. Developmental exposure to organophosphate flame retardants causes behavioral effects in larval and adult zebrafish. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2015 Sep 5.
Zhongkun Du, Guowei Wang, Shixiang Gao & Zunyao Wang. 2015. Aryl organophosphate flame retardants induced cardiotoxicity during zebrafish embryogenesis: by disturbing expression of the transcriptional regulators. Aquatic toxicology. 161, 25-32.

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