ewg.org | About SkinDeep®/Methodology | Terms & Conditions | Build Your Own Report | FAQ
 
Score:
Data available:
 
Fair

Double your impact!

Donate $20 or more and get an e-copy of EWG's new cookbook: EWG EATS
plus EWG's consumer guides.
Your gift will be matched!

Sign Up!

TITANIUM DIOXIDE


image source: PubChem
Health Concerns of the Ingredient:
Overall Hazard
 
 
 
 
Developmental &
reproductive toxicity
 
 
Allergies & immunotoxicity
 
 
Use restrictions
 
 
Other HIGH concerns: Occupational hazards; Other MODERATE concerns: Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

About TITANIUM DIOXIDE: Titanium dioxide is an inorganic compound used in a range of body care products such as sunscreens and makeup. It appears to have low skin penetration but inhalation is a concern.

Function(s): Colorant; Opacifying Agent; Sunscreen Agent; Ultraviolet Light Absorber

Synonym(s): 1385RN 59; 1700 WHITE; 234DA; 500HD; 63B1 WHITE; A 200 (PIGMENT) ; A 330 (PIGMENT) ; A-FIL; A-FIL CREAM; A-FN 3; AEROLYST 7710

Cancer

Concern Reference
Possible human carcinogen (only for inhalation AND products that may be aerosolized (airborne))California EPA (California Environmental Protection Agency)
Limited evidence of carcinogenicity (only for products that may be aerosolized (airborne))Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - Carcinogens
Limited evidence of carcinogenicity (only for products that may be aerosolized (airborne))NIOSH Occupational Carcinogens

Occupational hazards

Concern Reference
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to low dosesNational Library of Medicine HazMap

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

Concern Reference
Classified as expected to be toxic or harmfulEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List
Classified as medium human health priorityEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Multiple, additive exposure sources

Concern Reference
Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in foodFDA Everything Added to Food

Decreased skin absorption

Concern Reference
No absorption into intact skinGamer AO, Leibold E, et al

Persistence and bioaccumulation

Concern Reference
Not suspected to be bioaccumulativeEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Ecotoxicology

Concern Reference
Not suspected to be an environmental toxinEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Data gaps

Concern Reference
16,423 studies in PubMed science library may include information on the toxicity of this chemical see search results ->NLM PubMed

Data Sources

CTFA (Cosmetic, Toiletry and Fragrance Association). 2006. International Cosmetic Ingredient Dictionary and Handbook, 11th Edition. Color Additive Information. Washington, DC.
California EPA (California Environmental Protection Agency). 2012. Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act of 1986. Chemicals known to the State to cause cancer or reproductive toxicity. Updated July 2012.
EC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
European Commission. 2013. Cosing, the European Commission database with information on cosmetic substances and ingredients. Accessed on March 1, 2013 at http://ec.europa.eu/consumers/cosmetics/cosing/ .
FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration) 2006. Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. Color Additive Status List. September 2006.
FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration). 2008. EAFUS [Everything Added to Food]: A Food Additive Database. FDA Office of Food Safety and Applied Nutrition.
Gamer AO, Leibold E, et al. (2006). "The in vitro absorption of microfine zinc oxide and titanium dioxide through porcine skin." Toxicology in Vitro 20: 301-307.
IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer). 2008. Overall Evaluations of Carcinogenicity to Humans, as evaluated in IARC Monographs Volumes 1-99 (a total of 935 agents, mixtures and exposures).
IFRA (International Fragrance Assocication). 2010. IFRA Fragrance Ingredient List based on 2008 Use Survey. Accessed online 01/04/2010: http://www.ifraorg.org/Home/News/Latest-News/page.aspx/66?xf_itemId=43&xf_selectionDatapartId=25
NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health). 2006. NIOSH Carcinogens List (Potential occupational carcinogens). http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/npotocca.html.
NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2012. PubMed online scientific bibliography data. http://www.pubmed.gov.
Opinion of the Scientific Committee on Cosmetic Products and non-food products intended for consumers concerning Titanium Dioxide. Colipa n° S75. Adopted by the SCCNFP during the 14th plenary meeting of 24 October 2000

About the ratings

EWG provides information on personal care product ingredients from the published scientific literature, to supplement incomplete data available from companies and the government. The ratings below indicate the relative level of concern posed by exposure to the ingredients in this product - not the product itself - compared to other product formulations. The ratings reflect potential health hazards but do not account for the level of exposure or individual susceptibility, factors which determine actual health risks, if any. Learn more | Legal Disclaimer