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SD ALCOHOL

Health Concerns of the Ingredient:
Overall Hazard
 
 
 
 
 
Allergies & immunotoxicity
 
 
Use restrictions
 
 
Other HIGH concerns: Multiple, additive exposure sources, Persistence and bioaccumulation; Other LOW concerns: Enhanced skin absorption, Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive), Occupational hazards

About SD ALCOHOL: Ethanol is grain alcohol, considered broadly toxic and linked to birth defects. Potential risks from ethanol in personal care products, however, are dwarfed by risks posed from the consumption of alc ... read more

Developmental/reproductive toxicity

Concern Reference
Limited evidence of reproductive toxicityNational Library of Medicine HazMap
Limited evidence of reproductive toxicityFrazier , L
Limited evidence of developmental toxicityJankovic, J

Multiple, additive exposure sources

Concern Reference
Used in food or as an additive with limited or no toxicity information availableFDA Everything Added to Food

Cancer

Concern Reference
Cancer - limited evidenceA Relational Database of Hazardous Chemicals and Occupational Diseases

Persistence and bioaccumulation

Concern Reference
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlifeCanada PBTs - Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics (ARET)

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

Concern Reference
Limited evidence of gastrointestinal or liver toxicityNational Library of Medicine HazMap
Limited evidence of sense organ toxicityHarvell, J
Limited evidence of gastrointestinal or liver toxicityKlaassen, C
reproductive - weight of evidence unknown/unassessed/unreview: published lit review or major tox studyNational Library of Medicine HazMap

Data gaps

Concern Reference

Enhanced skin absorption

Concern Reference
Penetration enhancerMutalik S, Udupa N

Miscellaneous

Concern Reference
Occupational hazards related to handlingEuropean Union - Classification & Labelling

Neurotoxicity

Concern Reference
nervous system - weight of evidence unknown/unassessed/unreview: published lit review or major tox studyNational Library of Medicine HazMap

Data Sources

A Relational Database of Hazardous Chemicals and Occupational Diseases. Browse Haz-Map by Adverse Effects http://hazmap.nlm.nih.gov/hazmapadv.html; National Toxicology Program. 10th Report on Carcinogens (2002). http://ehis.niehs.nih.gov/roc/toc10.html
AOEC (Association of Occupational and Environmental Clinics). 2009. AEOC exposures codes and asthmagen designation.
CPS&Q (Consumer Products Safety & Quality) formely known as ECB (European Chemicals Bureau). 2008. Classification and Labelling: Chemicals: Annex VI of Directive 67/548/EEC through the 31st ATP.
EC (Environment Canada). 1994. Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics (ARET). ARET substance list of persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic chemicals.
FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration). 2008. EAFUS [Everything Added to Food]: A Food Additive Database. FDA Office of Food Safety and Applied Nutrition.
Frazier , L. and M. L. Hage (eds.). Reproductive Hazards of the Workplace, Wiley Europe, 1998. Table 10 (Partial List of Reproductive Toxicants) available at http://www.pharmacy.ohio-state.edu/homepage/safety/chemhygiene_table_repro.pdf.
Harvell, J., M. Bason and H. Maibach. Contact Urticaria and its Mechanisms. Food Chemistry and Toxicology 32(2): 103-112. 1994. (Table 2: Substances identified as capable of causing contact urticaria).
Jankovic, J. A Screening Method for Occupational Reproductive Health Risk. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal. 57: 641-649. 1996.
Klaassen, C., M. Amdur and J. Doull (eds.). Casarett and Doull
Mutalik S, Udupa N. "Effect of some penetration enhancers on the permeation of glibenclamide and glipizide through mouse skin." Pharmazie. 2003 Dec;58(12):891-4. ; Brand RM, Jendrzejewski JL, Henery EM, Charron AR. A single oral dose of ethanol can alter transdermal absorption of topically applied chemicals in rats. Toxicol Sci. 2006 Aug;92(2):349-55. Epub 2006 May 5.
NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2012. PubMed online scientific bibliography data. http://www.pubmed.gov.

About the ratings

EWG provides information on personal care product ingredients from the published scientific literature, to supplement incomplete data available from companies and the government. The ratings below indicate the relative level of concern posed by exposure to the ingredients in this product - not the product itself - compared to other product formulations. The ratings reflect potential health hazards but do not account for the level of exposure or individual susceptibility, factors which determine actual health risks, if any. Learn more | Legal Disclaimer