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PHENONIP

Health Concerns of the Ingredient:
Overall Hazard
 
 
Cancer
 
 
 
 

About PHENONIP: According to website information provided by Clariant, the manufacturer of phenonip, this ingredient is a mix of preservatives phenoxyethanol, methylparaben, ethylparaben, butylparaben, propylparaben, ... read more

Allergies/immunotoxicity

Concern Reference
Human skin toxicant or allergen - strong evidenceCosmetic Ingredient Review Assessments
Human skin toxicant or allergen - strong evidence
Human skin toxicant or allergen - strong evidenceNagel JE, Fuscaldo JT, Fireman P

Use restrictions

Concern Reference
Restricted in cosmetics (recommendations or requirements) - use, concentration, or manufacturing restrictions - Japan - restricted for use in cosmetics (concentration limit)Japan's Standards for Cosmetics

Developmental/reproductive toxicity

Concern Reference
One or more animal studies show effects at very low dosesOishi S
One or more animal studies show effects at low dosesOishi S, 2002
Limited evidence of developmental toxicityChapin, R
Limited evidence of reproductive toxicityChapin, R

Occupational hazards

Concern Reference
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to low dosesEuropean Union - Classification & Labelling

Endocrine disruption

Concern Reference
One or more animal studies show endocrine disruption at moderate dosesDarbre PD, Byford JR, Shaw LE, Horton RA, Pope GS, Sauer MJ
One or more studies show weak endocrine disruptionRoutledge EJ, Parker J, Odum J, Ashby J, Sumpter JP, 1998
One or more animal studies show endocrine disruption at high dosesVo TT, Jeung EB

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

Concern Reference
Classified as toxic or harmful (only for products for use around the mouth; products for use on the lips)European Union - Classification & Labelling
Classified as not expected to be potentially toxic or harmfulEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List
Classified as a low human health priorityEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)

Concern Reference
Classified as irritantEuropean Union - Classification & Labelling

Biochemical or cellular level changes

Concern Reference
Interferes with gene expresionPugazhendhi D, Sadler AJ, Darbre PD, 2007

Ecotoxicology

Concern Reference
Wildlife and environmental toxicityMikula P, Dobsikova R, Svobodova Z, Jarkovsky J, 2006
Not suspected to be an environmental toxinEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Data gaps

Concern Reference
Risk assessment method deficiencies and data gaps - Maximum reported "as used" concentration is basis of safety assessment by industry safety panel (Cosmetic Ingredient Review, CIR) - implicit safe concentration limit in productCosmetic Ingredient Review Assessments
Safety assessment was based on related chemicalCosmetic Ingredient Review Assessments
3 studies in PubMed science library may include information on the toxicity of this chemical see search results ->NLM PubMed

Multiple, additive exposure sources

Concern Reference
Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in foodFDA Food Additive Status

Persistence and bioaccumulation

Concern Reference
Not suspected to be persistentEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List
Not suspected to be bioaccumulativeEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Data Sources

CIR (Cosmetic Ingredient Review). 2006. CIR Compendium, containing abstracts, discussions, and conclusions of CIR cosmetic ingredient safety assessments. Washington DC.
CPS&Q (Consumer Products Safety & Quality) formely known as ECB (European Chemicals Bureau). 2008. Classification and Labelling: Chemicals: Annex VI of Directive 67/548/EEC through the 31st ATP.
Calafat AM, Ye X, Wong LY, Bishop AM, Needham LL. 2010. Urinary concentrations of four parabens in the U.S. population: NHANES 2005-2006. Environ Health Perspect 118(5): 679-85.
Chapin, R.E. and R.A. Sloane. NIEHS/NTP Reproductive Assessment by Continuous Breeding: Evolving Study Design and Summaries of Ninety Studies. Environmental Health Perspectives 105, Supplement 1: 199-394. 1997. http://ehpnet1.niehs.nih.gov/docs/1997/Suppl-1/chapin.html
Chapin, R.E. and R.A. Sloane. NIEHS/NTP Reproductive Assessment by Continuous Breeding: Evolving Study Design and Summaries of Ninety Studies. Environmental Health Perspectives 105, Supplement 1: 199-394. 1997. http://ehpnet1.niehs.nih.gov/docs/1997/Suppl-1/chapin.html
Cosmetics Ingredient Review
Darbre PD, Aljarrah A, Miller WR, Coldham NG, Sauer MJ, Pope GS. 2004. Concentrations of parabens in human breast tumours. J Appl Toxicol 24(1): 5-13.
Darbre PD, Byford JR, Shaw LE, Horton RA, Pope GS, Sauer MJ. 2002. Oestrogenic activity of isobutylparaben in vitro and in vivo. J Appl Toxicol 22(4): 219-26.
Darbre PD, Byford JR, Shaw LE, Horton RA, Pope GS, Sauer MJ. 2002. Oestrogenic activity of isobutylparaben in vitro and in vivo. J Appl Toxicol 22(4): 219-26.
EC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
EU (European Union)- Community Strategy for Endocrine Disrupters 2007. Commission on endocrine disruption requested by the European Parliament in 1998. SEC (2007) 1635.
FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration) 2006. Food Additive Status List. Downloaded from http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/%7Edms/opa-appa.html, Oct 16, 2006.
Japan Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. 2006. Standards for Cosmetics. Evaluation and Licensing Division. Pharmaceutical and Food Safety Bureau.
Mikula P, Dobsikova R, Svobodova Z, Jarkovsky J, 2006. "Evaluation of xenoestrogenic potential of propylparaben in zebrafish (Danio rerio)." Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2006 Dec;27 Suppl 2:104-7.
NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2012. PubMed online scientific bibliography data. http://www.pubmed.gov.
Nagel JE, Fuscaldo JT, Fireman P. Paraben allergy. JAMA. 1977, Apr 11; 237(15):1594-5.
Oishi S, 2002. "Effects of propyl paraben on the male reproductive system." Food Chem Toxicol. 2002 Dec;40(12):1807-13.
Oishi S., 2002. "Effects of butyl paraben on the male reproductive system in mice," Arch Toxicol. 2002 Jul;76(7):423-9.
Pugazhendhi D, Sadler AJ, Darbre PD, 2007. "Comparison of the global gene expression profiles produced by methylparaben, n-butylparaben and 17beta-oestradiol in MCF7 human breast cancer cells," J Appl Toxicol. 2007 Jan-Feb;27(1):67-77.
Pugazhendhi D, Sadler AJ, Darbre PD, 2007. "Comparison of the global gene expression profiles produced by methylparaben, n-butylparaben and 17beta-oestradiol in MCF7 human breast cancer cells," J Appl Toxicol. 2007 Jan-Feb;27(1):67-77.
Routledge EJ, Parker J, Odum J, Ashby J, Sumpter JP, 1998. "Some alkyl hydroxy benzoate preservatives (parabens) are estrogenic.," Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1998 Nov;153(1):12-9.
Routledge EJ, Parker J, Odum J, Ashby J, Sumpter JP, 1998. "Some alkyl hydroxy benzoate preservatives (parabens) are estrogenic.," Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1998 Nov;153(1):12-9.
Routledge EJ, Parker J, Odum J, Ashby J, Sumpter JP, 1998. "Some alkyl hydroxy benzoate preservatives (parabens) are estrogenic.," Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1998 Nov;153(1):12-9.
Schamberg, 1967;Soni, 2001
Vo TT, Jeung EB. 2009. An evaluation of estrogenic activity of parabens using uterine calbindin-d9k gene in an immature rat model. Toxicol Sci 112(1): 68-77.
Vo TT, Yoo YM, Choi KC, Jeung EB. 2010. Potential estrogenic effect(s) of parabens at the prepubertal stage of a postnatal female rat model. Reprod Toxicol 29(3): 306-16.

About the ratings

EWG provides information on personal care product ingredients from the published scientific literature, to supplement incomplete data available from companies and the government. The ratings below indicate the relative level of concern posed by exposure to the ingredients in this product - not the product itself - compared to other product formulations. The ratings reflect potential health hazards but do not account for the level of exposure or individual susceptibility, factors which determine actual health risks, if any. Learn more | Legal Disclaimer