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P-PHENYLENEDIAMINE


image source: PubChem
Health Concerns of the Ingredient:
Overall Hazard
 
 
 
 
Developmental &
reproductive toxicity
 
 
 

About P-PHENYLENEDIAMINE: p-Phenylenediamine is an ingredient widely used in hair dyes; associated with allergic reactions.

Function(s): Hair Colorant; HAIR DYEING

Synoym(s): p-PHENYLENEDIAMINE, 1,4-BENZENEDIAMINE; 1,4-PHENYLENEDIAMINE; 1,4BENZENEDIAMINE; CI 76060; OXIDATION BASE 10; P-AMINOANILINE; P-DIAMINOBENZENE; 1,4-BENZENEDIAMINE (9CI) ; 1,4-DIAMINOBENZENE; 1,4-PHENYLENEDIAMINE; 4-AMINOANILINE

Allergies/immunotoxicity

Concern Reference
Human skin toxicant or allergen - strong evidenceCosmetic Ingredient Review Assessments
Limited evidence of immune system toxicity or allergies (only for products for use on skin)European Union - Classification & Labelling
Limited evidence of immune system toxicity or allergiesNational Library of Medicine HazMap

Use restrictions

Concern Reference
Restricted in cosmetics (recommendations or requirements) - use, concentration, or manufacturing restrictions - Use is restricted in Canadian cosmeticsCanada - Prohibited and Restricted Cosmetics Ingredients
Restricted in cosmetics (recommendations or requirements) - use, concentration, or manufacturing restrictions - CosIng
Restricted in cosmetics (recommendations or requirements) - use, concentration, or manufacturing restrictions - Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety (SCCS) OPINION ON p-Phenylenediamine, COLIPA n° A7
Restricted in cosmetics (recommendations or requirements) - use, concentration, or manufacturing restrictions - Health Canada
Determined safe for use in cosmetics, subject to concentration or use limitations - CTFA International Cosmetic Ingredient Dictionary and Handbook

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

Concern Reference
Known human respiratory toxicantEPA Hazardous Air Pollutants
Classified as toxic or harmful (only for products for use on skin; products for use around the mouth; products for use on the lips; products that may be aerosolized (airborne))European Union - Classification & Labelling
Limited evidence of gastrointestinal or liver toxicityNational Library of Medicine HazMap
One or more animal studies show classified as toxic effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient)EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs
Classified as not expected to be potentially toxic or harmfulEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Occupational hazards

Concern Reference
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to low dosesEuropean Union - Classification & Labelling

Cancer

Concern Reference
Cancer - limited evidenceCTFA International Cosmetic Ingredient Dictionary and Handbook
Cancer - not classifiable/not likely to be human carcinogenInt'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - Carcinogens

Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)

Concern Reference
Classified as irritantEuropean Union - Classification & Labelling

Ecotoxicology

Concern Reference
Wildlife and environmental toxicityEuropean Union - Classification & Labelling
Not suspected to be an environmental toxinEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Persistence and bioaccumulation

Concern Reference
Not suspected to be persistentEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List
Not suspected to be bioaccumulativeEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Data gaps

Concern Reference
Risk assessment method deficiencies and data gaps - Maximum reported "as used" concentration is basis of safety assessment by industry safety panel (Cosmetic Ingredient Review, CIR) - implicit safe concentration limit in productCosmetic Ingredient Review Assessments
Insufficient data to determine safetyCosmetic Ingredient Review Assessments
1,988 studies in PubMed science library may include information on the toxicity of this chemical see search results ->NLM PubMed

Data Sources

CIR (Cosmetic Ingredient Review). 2006. CIR Compendium, containing abstracts, discussions, and conclusions of CIR cosmetic ingredient safety assessments. Washington DC.
CPS&Q (Consumer Products Safety & Quality) formely known as ECB (European Chemicals Bureau). 2008. Classification and Labelling: Chemicals: Annex VI of Directive 67/548/EEC through the 31st ATP.
CTFA (Cosmetic, Toiletry and Fragrance Association). 2006. International Cosmetic Ingredient Dictionary and Handbook, 11th Edition. Color Additive Information. Washington, DC.
EC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1999. Toxics Release Inventory Program. PBT Chemical Rule.
EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2005. Office of Air. The 112(b)1 Hazardous Air Pollutants List (as modified). Last modified: 12 Dec 2005.
European Commission. 2013. Cosing, the European Commission database with information on cosmetic substances and ingredients. Accessed on March 1, 2013 at http://ec.europa.eu/consumers/cosmetics/cosing/ .
Health Canada. 2007. List of Prohibited and Restricted Cosmetic Ingredients. Canada's Cosmetic Ingredient Hotlist. March 2007.
Health Canada. 2011. List of Prohibited and Restricted Cosmetic Ingredients. Canada's Cosmetic Ingredient Hotlist. March 2011.
IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer). 2008. Overall Evaluations of Carcinogenicity to Humans, as evaluated in IARC Monographs Volumes 1-99 (a total of 935 agents, mixtures and exposures).
NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2012. PubMed online scientific bibliography data. http://www.pubmed.gov.
Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety (SCCS) OPINION ON p-Phenylenediamine, COLIPA n° A7. June 2012.

About the ratings

EWG provides information on personal care product ingredients from the published scientific literature, to supplement incomplete data available from companies and the government. The ratings below indicate the relative level of concern posed by exposure to the ingredients in this product - not the product itself - compared to other product formulations. The ratings reflect potential health hazards but do not account for the level of exposure or individual susceptibility, factors which determine actual health risks, if any. Learn more | Legal Disclaimer