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OXYBENZONE


image source: PubChem
Health Concerns of the Ingredient:
Overall Hazard
 
 
Cancer
 
 
 
 
Other HIGH concerns: Biochemical or cellular level changes; Other MODERATE concerns: Endocrine disruption, Persistence and bioaccumulation; Other LOW concerns: Enhanced skin absorption, Data gaps, Ecotoxicology, Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

About OXYBENZONE: Oxybenzone is a sunscreen ingredient associated with photoallergic reactions. This chemical absorbs through the skin in significant amounts. It contaminates the bodies of 97% of Americans according to ... read more

Function(s): Sunscreen Agent; Ultraviolet Light Absorber; UV ABSORBER; UV FILTER

Synonym(s): BENZOPHENONE-3, (2-HYDROXY-4-METHOXYPHENYL) PHENYL- METHANONE; (2-HYDROXY-4-METHOXYPHENYL) PHENYLMETHANONE; 2-BENZOYL-5-METHOXYPHENOL; 2-HYDROXY-4-METHOXYBENZOPHENONE; 4-08-00-02442 (BEILSTEIN HANDBOOK REFERENCE) ; 4-METHOXY-2-HYDROXYBENZOPHENONE; ADVASTAB 45; AI3-23644; ANUVEX; B3; BENZOPHENONE, 2-HYDROXY-4-METHOXY-

Allergies/immunotoxicity

Concern Reference
Possible human photoallergenic toxicant or allergenSCCP (2006)
One or more human case studies show significant photoallergenic or allergenic effectsBryden AM, Moseley H, Ibbotson SH, Chowdhury MM, Beck MH, Bourke J, et al
One or more human case studies show significant photoallergenic or allergenic effectsRodriguez E, Valbuena MC, Rey M, Porras de Quintana L
One or more human case studies show possible immune system or allergenic effects
One or more human case studies show possible Photoallergic or allergenic effectsVeysey EC, Orton DI
Limited evidence of immune system (sensitization) toxicity or allergiesCIR (Cosmetic Ingredient Review)
Not likely to be a immune system toxicant or allergenic in humans

Use restrictions

Concern Reference
Restricted in cosmetics (recommendations or requirements) - use, concentration, or manufacturing restrictions - Japan - restricted for use in some types of cosmetics (concentration limit)Japan's Standards for Cosmetics

Biochemical or cellular level changes

Concern Reference
Produces excess reactive oxygen species that can interfere with cellular signaling, cause mutations, lead to cell death and may be implicated in cardiovascular disease.Hanson KM, Gratton E, Bardeen CJ
Does not produces excess reactive oxygen species or other harmful biochemical changes.

Endocrine disruption

Concern Reference
Human endocrine disruptor - moderate evidenceEuropean Commission on Endocrine Disruption
Limited evidence of wildlife and the environment disruptionEuropean Commission on Endocrine Disruption
One or more studies show weak endocrine disruption
One or more studies show weak endocrine disruptionZiolkowska A, Belloni AS, Nussdorfer GG, Nowak M, Malendowicz LK
Associated with endocrine disruptionKunz PY, Galicia HF, Fent K

Developmental/reproductive toxicity

Concern Reference
Limited evidence of developmental toxicity
One or more animal studies show developmental effects at high dosesSchlumpf M, Schmid P, Durrer S, Conscience M, Maerkel K, Henseler M, et al

Persistence and bioaccumulation

Concern Reference
Ingredient is suspected or measured to accumulate in peopleWolff MS, Teitelbaum SL, Windham G, Pinney SM, Britton JA, Chelimo C, et al
Ingredient is suspected or measured to accumulate in peopleSchlumpf M, Kypke K, Vökt C, Birchler M, Durrer S, Faass O, et al
Not suspected to be bioaccumulativeEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

Concern Reference
One or more animal studies show cardiovascular effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient)
One or more animal studies show no adverse broad systemic effects at high doses
Classified as not expected to be potentially toxic or harmfulEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Ecotoxicology

Concern Reference
Wildlife and environmental toxicityDanovaro R, Bongiorni L, Corinaldesi C, Giovannelli D, Damiani E, Astolfi P, Greci L, Pusceddu A
Not suspected to be an environmental toxinEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)

Concern Reference
Not likely to be a skin irritant in humans
Not likely to be a irritant in humans

Enhanced skin absorption

Concern Reference
Penetration enhancerPont AR, Charron AR, Brand RM
Absorbs into the skin
Absorbs into the skinBenson HA

Cancer

Concern Reference
Not likely to be mutagenic in humans

Data gaps

Concern Reference
Risk assessment method deficiencies and data gaps - Maximum reported "as used" concentration is basis of safety assessment by industry safety panel (Cosmetic Ingredient Review, CIR) - implicit safe concentration limit in productCosmetic Ingredient Review Assessments
9,543 studies in PubMed science library may include information on the toxicity of this chemical see search results ->NLM PubMed

Data Sources

Benson HA. 2000. Assessment and clinical implications of absorption of sunscreens across skin. Am J Clin Dermatol 1(4): 217-224.
Bryden AM, Moseley H, Ibbotson SH, Chowdhury MM, Beck MH, Bourke J, et al. 2006. Photopatch testing of 1155 patients: results of the U.K. multicentre photopatch study group. Br J Dermatol 155(4): 737-747.
CIR (Cosmetic Ingredient Review). 2006. CIR Compendium, containing abstracts, discussions, and conclusions of CIR cosmetic ingredient safety assessments. Washington DC.
CIR (Cosmetic Ingredient Review). 2006. CIR Compendium, containing abstracts, discussions, and conclusions of CIR cosmetic ingredient safety assessments. Washington DC.
Danovaro R, Bongiorni L, Corinaldesi C, Giovannelli D, Damiani E, Astolfi P, Greci L, Pusceddu A. "Sunscreens cause coral bleaching by promoting viral infections." Environ Health Perspect. 2008 Apr;116(4):441-7.
EC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
EU (European Union)- Strategy for Endocrine Disrupters 2007. Commision on endocrin disruption requested by the European Parliament in 1998.
European Commission. 2013. Cosing, the European Commission database with information on cosmetic substances and ingredients. Accessed on March 1, 2013 at http://ec.europa.eu/consumers/cosmetics/cosing/ .
Hanson KM, Gratton E, Bardeen CJ. 2006. Sunscreen enhancement of UV-induced reactive oxygen species in the skin. Free Radic Biol Med 41(8): 1205-1212.
Hazelton Labs, 1953; Lewerenz, 1972
IFRA (International Fragrance Assocication). 2010. IFRA Fragrance Ingredient List based on 2008 Use Survey. Accessed online 01/04/2010: http://www.ifraorg.org/Home/News/Latest-News/page.aspx/66?xf_itemId=43&xf_selectionDatapartId=25
Japan Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. 2006. Standards for Cosmetics. Evaluation and Licensing Division. Pharmaceutical and Food Safety Bureau.
Kunz PY, Galicia HF, Fent K. 2006. Comparison of in vitro and in vivo estrogenic activity of UV filters in fish. Toxicol Sci 90(2): 349-361.
NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2012. PubMed online scientific bibliography data. http://www.pubmed.gov.
Pont AR, Charron AR, Brand RM. 2004. Active ingredients in sunscreens act as topical penetration enhancers for the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 195(3): 348-354.
Rodriguez E, Valbuena MC, Rey M, Porras de Quintana L. 2006. Causal agents of photoallergic contact dermatitis diagnosed in the national institute of dermatology of Colombia. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed 22(4): 189-192.
SCCP (2006). "Opinion on Benzophenone-3." European Commission - The Scientific Committee on Cosmetic Products and Non-Food Products Intended for Consumers. SCCP/1069/06 Retrieved from http://ec.europa.eu/health/ph_risk/committees/04_sccp/sccp_opinions_en.htm.
Schlumpf M, Kypke K, Vökt C, Birchler M, Durrer S, Faass O, et al. 2008. Endocrine Active UV Filters: Developmental Toxicity and Exposure Through Breast Milk. Chimia 62: 1-7.
Schlumpf M, Schmid P, Durrer S, Conscience M, Maerkel K, Henseler M, et al. 2004. Endocrine activity and developmental toxicity of cosmetic UV filters--an update. Toxicology 205(1-2): 113-122.
Veysey EC, Orton DI. 2006. Photoallergic contact cheilitis due to oxybenzone found in a lip cosmetic. Contact Dermatitis 55(1): 54.
Wolff MS, Teitelbaum SL, Windham G, Pinney SM, Britton JA, Chelimo C, et al. 2007. Pilot study of urinary biomarkers of phytoestrogens, phthalates, and phenols in girls. Environ Health Perspect 115(1): 116-121.
Ziolkowska A, Belloni AS, Nussdorfer GG, Nowak M, Malendowicz LK. 2006. Endocrine disruptors and rat adrenocortical function: studies on freshly dispersed and cultured cells. Int J Mol Med 18(6): 1165-1168.
{Allen, 1996}
{CTFA, 1979; FDA,1978; Leberco Labs, 1979; FDRL, 1978}
{CTFA, 1980; DHEW, 1978; Hill Top Research Labs, 1979; Litton Bioneics, 1979}
{FDRL, 1978; Leberco Labs, 1979; Testkit Labs, 1980; FDA, 1978; CTFA,1979}
{Gupta, 1999; Potard, 2000}
{Hayden, 1997; Hayden, 2005}
{Homrowski, 1968; Lewerenz, 1972; IBL, 1964; Hazelton Labs, 1953}
{IBL, 1965; AAC, 1976}
{IBL, 1967; Kligman, 1976; FDA, 1978; CFTA, 1980; FDRL, 1978}
{IBL,1967; IBL, 1967; IBL, 1965; ACC, 1976; Hazelton Labs, 1953}
{Journe, 1999}
{Ma, 2003}
{NTP, 1990}

About the ratings

EWG provides information on personal care product ingredients from the published scientific literature, to supplement incomplete data available from companies and the government. The ratings below indicate the relative level of concern posed by exposure to the ingredients in this product - not the product itself - compared to other product formulations. The ratings reflect potential health hazards but do not account for the level of exposure or individual susceptibility, factors which determine actual health risks, if any. Learn more | Legal Disclaimer