ewg.org | About SkinDeep®/Methodology | Terms & Conditions | Build Your Own Report | FAQ
 
Score:
Data available:
 
Fair

Get The Guide!

Want a free Cosmetics Guide? Donate $5 to EWG today!

Sign Up!

ZINC OXIDE (sunscreen grade > 100nm)


image source: PubChem
Health Concerns of the Ingredient:
Overall Hazard
 
 
 
 
Developmental &
reproductive toxicity
 
 
Allergies & immunotoxicity
 
 
Use restrictions
 
 
Other HIGH concerns: Biochemical or cellular level changes, Occupational hazards; Other MODERATE concerns: Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive); Other LOW concerns: Enhanced skin absorption, Ecotoxicology, Persistence and bioaccumulation

About ZINC OXIDE (sunscreen grade > 100nm): Sunscreens with titanium dioxide usually contain nanoparticles. Titanium dioxide in sunscreen offers moderate UVA protection. Nanoparticle titanium dioxide in sunscreen does not penetrate healthy skin ... read more

Function(s): COSMETIC COLORANT

Synoym(s): ZINC OXIDE, A&D MEDICATED OINTMENT; ACTOX 14; ACTOX 16; ACTOX 216; AI3-00277; AKRO-ZINC BAR 85; AKRO-ZINC BAR 90; AMALOX; AZO 22; AZO-33; AZO-55

Biochemical or cellular level changes

Concern Reference
Produces excess reactive oxygen species that can interfere with cellular signaling, cause mutations, lead to cell death and may be implicated in cardiovascular disease.Hidaka H, Kobayashi, H
Produces excess reactive oxygen species that can interfere with cellular signaling, cause mutations, lead to cell death and may be implicated in cardiovascular disease.Sharma V, Shukla RK, Saxena N, Parmar D, Das M, Dhawan A

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

Concern Reference
Possible human respiratory toxicantAssociation of Occupational and Environmental Clinics
One or more animal studies show classified as toxic effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient)EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs
Associated with cardiovascular toxicity (only for products that may be aerosolized (airborne))Gojova A, Guo B, Kota RS, Rutledge JC, Kennedy IM, Barakat AI

Cancer

Concern Reference
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation resultsSCCNFP
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation resultsSharma V, Shukla RK, Saxena N, Parmar D, Das M, Dhawan A
One or more in vitro tests on microorganisms show positive mutation resultsDufour E, et al

Occupational hazards

Concern Reference
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to moderate dosesNational Library of Medicine HazMap
Moderate evidence of occupational hazards (only for products that may be aerosolized (airborne))Gordon T, Fine JM

Persistence and bioaccumulation

Concern Reference
Found to be persistent and bioaccumulative in wildlife

Ecotoxicology

Concern Reference
Wildlife and environmental toxicityEuropean Union - Classification & Labelling
Wildlife and environmental toxicity (only for products that may be aerosolized (airborne))Adams, L

Enhanced skin absorption

Concern Reference
Nano-scale ingredients with potential to absorb into the skinNanomaterial Database
Nano-scale ingredients with potential to absorb into the skinFDA (U

Data gaps

Concern Reference
10,633 studies in PubMed science library may include information on the toxicity of this chemical see search results ->NLM PubMed

Decreased skin absorption

Concern Reference
Limited potential to absorb into the skin.
Limited potential to absorb into the skin.Gulson B, McCall MJ, Gomez L, Korsch M, Casey P, Kinsley L

Developmental/reproductive toxicity

Concern Reference
Not likely to be a reproductive toxicant in humansEuropean Chemicals Bureau

Multiple, additive exposure sources

Concern Reference
Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in foodFDA Food Additive Status
Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in foodFDA Everything Added to Food

Data Sources

AOEC (Association of Occupational and Environmental Clinics). 2009. AEOC exposures codes and asthmagen designation.
Adams, L. K., D. Y. Lyon, et al. (2006). "Comparative eco-toxicity of nanoscale TiO2, SiO2, and ZnO water suspensions." Water Research Article in Press.
Borgå K, Campbell L, Gabrielsen GW, Norstrom RJ, Muir DC, Fisk AT, 2006
CPS&Q (Consumer Products Safety & Quality) formely known as ECB (European Chemicals Bureau). 2008. Classification and Labelling: Chemicals: Annex VI of Directive 67/548/EEC through the 31st ATP.
CTFA (Cosmetic, Toiletry and Fragrance Association). 2006. International Cosmetic Ingredient Dictionary and Handbook, 11th Edition. Color Additive Information. Washington, DC.
Cross SE, Innes B, Roberts MS, Tsuzuki T, Robertson TA, McCormick P. 2007. Human Skin Penetration of Sunscreen Nanoparticles: In-vitro Assessment of a Novel Micronized Zinc Oxide Formulation. Skin Pharmacol Physiol 20(3): 148-154.
Dufour E, et al. 2006. Clastogenicity, photo-clastogenicity or pseudo-photo-clastogenicity: Genotoxic effects of zinc oxide in the dark, in pre-irradiated or simultaneously irradiated Chinese hamster ovary cells. Mutation Research 607(2 ): 215-24.
Dufour E, et al. 2006. Clastogenicity, photo-clastogenicity or pseudo-photo-clastogenicity: Genotoxic effects of zinc oxide in the dark, in pre-irradiated or simultaneously irradiated Chinese hamster ovary cells. Mutation Research 607(2 ): 215-24.
EC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1999. Toxics Release Inventory Program. PBT Chemical Rule.
European Chemicals Bureau. 2004. ZINC OXIDE Part II – Human Health, CAS No: 1314-13-2, EINECS No: 215-222-5; Summary Risk Assessment Report Addendum to the Part II (Human Health) I-21020 Ispra (VA) Italy.
European Chemicals Bureau. 2004. ZINC OXIDE Part II – Human Health, CAS No: 1314-13-2, EINECS No: 215-222-5; Summary Risk Assessment Report Addendum to the Part II (Human Health) I-21020 Ispra (VA) Italy.
European Commission. 2013. Cosing, the European Commission database with information on cosmetic substances and ingredients. Accessed on March 1, 2013 at http://ec.europa.eu/consumers/cosmetics/cosing/ .
FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration) 2006. Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. Color Additive Status List. September 2006.
FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration) 2006. Food Additive Status List. Downloaded from http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/%7Edms/opa-appa.html, Oct 16, 2006.
FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration). 2006. FDA Considerations for Regulation of Nanomaterial Containing Products. Presentation by Nakissa Sadrieh, Ph.D., Office of Pharmaceutical Science, CDER, FDA. Available online at http://www.fda.gov/nanotechnology/.
FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration). 2008. EAFUS [Everything Added to Food]: A Food Additive Database. FDA Office of Food Safety and Applied Nutrition.
Gojova A, Guo B, Kota RS, Rutledge JC, Kennedy IM, Barakat AI. 2007. Induction of inflammation in vascular endothelial cells by metal oxide nanoparticles: effect of particle composition. Environ Health Perspect 115(3): 403-409.
Gordon T, Fine JM. 1993. Metal fume fever. Occup Med. Jul-Sep;8(3):504-17. Review.
Gordon T, Fine JM. 1993. Metal fume fever. Occup Med. Jul-Sep;8(3):504-17. Review.
Gulson B, McCall MJ, Gomez L, Korsch M, Casey P, Kinsley L. 2010. Dermal absorption of ZnO particles from sunscreens applied to humans at the beach. realizebeauty.files.wordpress.com/2010/02/iconn2010-abstract-gulson1.pdf
Hidaka H, Kobayashi, H., Koike, T. Sato, T., Serpone, N. 2006. DNA Damage Photoinduced by Cosmetic Pigments and Sunscreen Agents under Solar Exposure and Artifical UV Illumination. J Oleo Sci 55(5): 249-61.
Hidaka H, Kobayashi, H., Koike, T. Sato, T., Serpone, N. 2006. DNA Damage Photoinduced by Cosmetic Pigments and Sunscreen Agents under Solar Exposure and Artifical UV Illumination. J Oleo Sci 55(5): 249-61.
IFRA (International Fragrance Assocication). 2010. IFRA Fragrance Ingredient List based on 2008 Use Survey. Accessed online 01/04/2010: http://www.ifraorg.org/Home/News/Latest-News/page.aspx/66?xf_itemId=43&xf_selectionDatapartId=25
NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2012. PubMed online scientific bibliography data. http://www.pubmed.gov.
NanoWerk. 2007. Nanomaterial Database. Available online: http://www.nanowerk.com/phpscripts/n_dbsearch.php
SCCNFP. 2003. Opinion concerning Zinc Oxide: European Commission - The Scientfic Committee on Cosmetic Products and Non-Food Products Intended for Consumers.
Sharma V, Shukla RK, Saxena N, Parmar D, Das M, Dhawan A. 2009. DNA damaging potential of zinc oxide nanoparticles in human epidermal cells. Toxicol Lett 185(3): 211-8.
Sharma V, Shukla RK, Saxena N, Parmar D, Das M, Dhawan A. 2009. DNA damaging potential of zinc oxide nanoparticles in human epidermal cells. Toxicol Lett 185(3): 211-8.
{Brunner, 2006}
{Gasparro, 1998; Derry, 1983; Labor, 1999; Pirot, 1996; Morgan, 1983; Landsdown, 1997}

About the ratings

EWG provides information on personal care product ingredients from the published scientific literature, to supplement incomplete data available from companies and the government. The ratings below indicate the relative level of concern posed by exposure to the ingredients in this product - not the product itself - compared to other product formulations. The ratings reflect potential health hazards but do not account for the level of exposure or individual susceptibility, factors which determine actual health risks, if any. Learn more | Legal Disclaimer