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METHYLPARABEN


image source: PubChem
Health Concerns of the Ingredient:
Overall Hazard
 
 
Cancer
 
 
Developmental &
reproductive toxicity
 
 
 
Other HIGH concerns: Endocrine disruption; Other MODERATE concerns: Biochemical or cellular level changes; Other LOW concerns: Data gaps

About METHYLPARABEN: Methylparaben is in the paraben family of preservatives used by the food, pharmaceutical, and personal care product industries. Parabens mimic estrogen and can act as potential hormone (endocrine) sys ... read more

Possible impurity in: CITRUS GRANDIS (GRAPEFRUIT) SEED EXTRACT (998 products), CITRUS PARADISI (GRAPEFRUIT) SEED EXTRACT (40 products), see all ingredients | products

Function(s): Fragrance Ingredient; Preservative

Synoym(s): 4-HYDROXY- METHYL ESTER BENZOIC ACID; 4-HYDROXYBENZOIC ACID, METHYL ESTER; 4-HYDROXYBENZOIC ACID, METHYL ESTER, POTASSIUM SALT; BENZOIC ACID, 4-HYDROXY-, METHYL ESTER; BENZOIC ACID, 4-HYDROXY-, METHYL ESTER, POTASSIUM SALT; BENZOIC ACID, 4-HYDROXY-, METHYL ESTER, SODIUM SALT; BENZOIC ACID, 4HYDROXY, METHYL ESTER; BENZOIC ACID, 4HYDROXY, METHYL ESTER, SODIUM SALT; METHYL 4-HYDROXYBENZOATE; METHYL ESTER 4-HYDROXYBENZOIC ACID; METHYL ESTER BENZOIC ACID, 4-HYDROXY-

Endocrine disruption

Concern Reference
Human endocrine disruptor - strong evidenceEuropean Commission on Endocrine Disruption
Limited evidence of endocrine disruptionBoberg J, Taxvig C, Christiansen S, Hass U
One or more studies show weak endocrine disruptionByford JR, Shaw LE, Drew MG, Pope GS, Sauer MJ, Darbre PD

Allergies/immunotoxicity

Concern Reference
Human immune toxicant or allergen - moderate evidenceHarvell, J
One or more human case studies show possible immune or allergenic effectsHarvell, J

Biochemical or cellular level changes

Concern Reference
Interferes with gene expresionPugazhendhi D, Sadler AJ, Darbre PD, 2007

Use restrictions

Concern Reference
Determined safe for use in cosmetics, subject to concentration or use limitations - Cosmetic Ingredient Review Assessments
Determined safe for use in cosmetics, subject to concentration or use limitations - Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety SCCS)
Determined safe for use in cosmetics, subject to concentration or use limitations - Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety (SCCS) OPINION ON Parabens, COLIPA n P82

Ecotoxicology

Concern Reference
Not suspected to be an environmental toxinEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Data gaps

Concern Reference
Risk assessment method deficiencies and data gaps - Maximum reported "as used" concentration is basis of safety assessment by industry safety panel (Cosmetic Ingredient Review, CIR) - implicit safe concentration limit in productCosmetic Ingredient Review Assessments
537 studies in PubMed science library may include information on the toxicity of this chemical see search results ->NLM PubMed

Persistence and bioaccumulation

Concern Reference
Not suspected to be persistentEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List
Not suspected to be bioaccumulativeEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

Concern Reference
Classified as not expected to be potentially toxic or harmfulEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Multiple, additive exposure sources

Concern Reference
Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in foodFDA Food Additive Status
Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in foodFDA Everything Added to Food

Data Sources

Boberg J, Taxvig C, Christiansen S, Hass U. Possible endocrine disrupting effects of parabens and their metabolites. Reprod Toxicol. 2010 Sep;30(2):301-12. Epub 2010 Apr 8.
Byford JR, Shaw LE, Drew MG, Pope GS, Sauer MJ, Darbre PD. Oestrogenic activity of parabens in MCF7 human breast cancer cells. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2002 Jan;80(1):49-60.
CIR (Cosmetic Ingredient Review). 2006. CIR Compendium, containing abstracts, discussions, and conclusions of CIR cosmetic ingredient safety assessments. Washington DC.
EC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
EU (European Union)- Strategy for Endocrine Disrupters 2007. Commision on endocrin disruption requested by the European Parliament in 1998.
European Commission. 2013. Cosing, the European Commission database with information on cosmetic substances and ingredients. Accessed on March 1, 2013 at http://ec.europa.eu/consumers/cosmetics/cosing/ .
FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration) 2006. Food Additive Status List. Downloaded from http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/%7Edms/opa-appa.html, Oct 16, 2006.
FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration). 2008. EAFUS [Everything Added to Food]: A Food Additive Database. FDA Office of Food Safety and Applied Nutrition.
Harvell, J., M. Bason and H. Maibach. Contact Urticaria and its Mechanisms. Food Chemistry and Toxicology 32(2): 103-112. 1994. (Table 2: Substances identified as capable of causing contact urticaria).
Harvell, J., M. Bason and H. Maibach. Contact Urticaria and its Mechanisms. Food Chemistry and Toxicology 32(2): 103-112. 1994. (Table 2: Substances identified as capable of causing contact urticaria).
IFRA (International Fragrance Assocication). 2010. IFRA Fragrance Ingredient List based on 2008 Use Survey. Accessed online 01/04/2010: http://www.ifraorg.org/Home/News/Latest-News/page.aspx/66?xf_itemId=43&xf_selectionDatapartId=25
NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2012. PubMed online scientific bibliography data. http://www.pubmed.gov.
Pugazhendhi D, Sadler AJ, Darbre PD, 2007. "Comparison of the global gene expression profiles produced by methylparaben, n-butylparaben and 17beta-oestradiol in MCF7 human breast cancer cells," J Appl Toxicol. 2007 Jan-Feb;27(1):67-77.
Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety (SCCS) OPINION ON Parabens, COLIPA n P82. December 2010. http://ec.europa.eu/health/scientific_committees/consumer_safety/docs/sccs_o_041.pdf
Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety SCCS). 2011. Clarification on Opinion SCCS/1348/10 in the light of the Danish clause of safeguard banning the use of parabens in cosmetic products intended for children under three years of age. October 2011. http://ec.europa.eu/health/scientific_committees/consumer_safety/docs/sccs_o_069.pdf

About the ratings

EWG provides information on personal care product ingredients from the published scientific literature, to supplement incomplete data available from companies and the government. The ratings below indicate the relative level of concern posed by exposure to the ingredients in this product - not the product itself - compared to other product formulations. The ratings reflect potential health hazards but do not account for the level of exposure or individual susceptibility, factors which determine actual health risks, if any. Learn more | Legal Disclaimer