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METHYLISOTHIAZOLINONE


image source: PubChem
Health Concerns of the Ingredient:
Overall Hazard
 
 
Cancer
 
 
Developmental &
reproductive toxicity
 
 
 
Other HIGH concerns: Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs); Other LOW concerns: Data gaps, Ecotoxicology, Neurotoxicity

About METHYLISOTHIAZOLINONE: Methylisothiazolinone is a widely-used preservative; has been associated with allergic reactions. Lab studies on the brain cells of mammals also suggest that methylisothiazolinone may be neurotoxic.

Function(s): Preservative

Synonym(s): 2-METHYL- 3 (2H) -ISOTHIAZOLONE; 2-METHYL-2H-ISOTHIAZOL-3-ONE; 2-METHYL-3 (2H) -ISOTHIAZOLONE; 2-METHYL-4-ISOTHIAZOLIN-3-ONE; 3 (2H) -ISOTHIAZOLONE, 2-METHYL-; 3 (2H) ISOTHIAZOLONE, 2METHYL; METHYLCHLOROISOTHIAZOLINONE225METHYLISOTHIAZOLINONE SOLUTION; 2-METHYL-3 (2H) -ISOTHIAZOLONE; 2-METHYL-4-ISOTHIAZOLIN-3-ONE

Allergies/immunotoxicity

Concern Reference
Human skin toxicant or allergen - strong evidenceCosmetic Ingredient Review Assessments
Human skin toxicant or allergen - strong evidence
Human sensitizer toxicant or allergen - strong evidenceBurnett CL, Bergfeld WF, et al
Human toxicant or allergen - moderate evidenceM D Lundov, T Krongaard, T L Menné & J D Johansen
Limited evidence of immune system toxicity or allergiesNational Library of Medicine HazMap

Use restrictions

Concern Reference
Restricted in cosmetics (recommendations or requirements) - use, concentration, or manufacturing restrictions - Use is restricted in Canadian cosmeticsCanada - Prohibited and Restricted Cosmetics Ingredients
Restricted in cosmetics (recommendations or requirements) - use, concentration, or manufacturing restrictions - Japan - concentration limit in some types of cosmetics when combined with certain other ingredient(s)Japan's Standards for Cosmetics
Determined safe for use in cosmetics, subject to concentration or use limitations - Safe for use in cosmetics with some qualificationsCosmetic Ingredient Review Assessments
Determined safe for use in cosmetics, subject to concentration or use limitations - Burnett CL, Bergfeld WF, et al

Neurotoxicity

Concern Reference
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells demonstrate neurotoxicityDu S, McLaughlin BA, Pal S, AizenmanIn E

Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)

Concern Reference
Possible human skin sensitizer irritantNIOSH (Cook CK, Friedman D)

Ecotoxicology

Concern Reference
Wildlife and environmental toxicityU
Not suspected to be an environmental toxinEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

Concern Reference
Classified as not expected to be potentially toxic or harmfulEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Persistence and bioaccumulation

Concern Reference
Not suspected to be persistentEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List
Not suspected to be bioaccumulativeEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Data gaps

Concern Reference
Risk assessment method deficiencies and data gaps - Maximum reported "as used" concentration is basis of safety assessment by industry safety panel (Cosmetic Ingredient Review, CIR) - implicit safe concentration limit in productCosmetic Ingredient Review Assessments
222 studies in PubMed science library may include information on the toxicity of this chemical see search results ->NLM PubMed

Data Sources

Burnett CL, Bergfeld WF, et al. 2010. Final report of the safety assessment of methylisothiazolinone. Int J Toxicol. 29(4 Suppl):187S-213S.
Burnett CL, Bergfeld WF, et al. 2010. Final report of the safety assessment of methylisothiazolinone. Int J Toxicol. 29(4 Suppl):187S-213S.
CIR (Cosmetic Ingredient Review). 2006. CIR Compendium, containing abstracts, discussions, and conclusions of CIR cosmetic ingredient safety assessments. Washington DC.
Du S, McLaughlin BA, Pal S, AizenmanIn E. 2002. In Vitro Neurotoxicity of Methylisothiazolinone, a Commonly Used Industrial and Household Biocide, Proceeds via a Zinc and Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase-Dependent Pathway. The Journal of Neuroscience, September 1, 2002, 22(17):7408-7416.
EC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
European Commission. 2013. Cosing, the European Commission database with information on cosmetic substances and ingredients. Accessed on March 1, 2013 at http://ec.europa.eu/consumers/cosmetics/cosing/ .
Health Canada. 2007. List of Prohibited and Restricted Cosmetic Ingredients. Canada's Cosmetic Ingredient Hotlist. March 2007.
IFRA (International Fragrance Assocication). 2010. IFRA Fragrance Ingredient List based on 2008 Use Survey. Accessed online 01/04/2010: http://www.ifraorg.org/Home/News/Latest-News/page.aspx/66?xf_itemId=43&xf_selectionDatapartId=25
Japan Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. 2006. Standards for Cosmetics. Evaluation and Licensing Division. Pharmaceutical and Food Safety Bureau.
M D Lundov, T Krongaard, T L Menné & J D Johansen. 2011. Methylisothiazolinone contact allergy: a review. The British journal of dermatology 165(6), 1178-82.
NIOSH (Cook CK, Friedman D). 1996. Health Hazard Evaluation Report, HEA 94–0402–2573. National Institute for Occupational Health and Safety.
NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2012. PubMed online scientific bibliography data. http://www.pubmed.gov.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 1998. Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED) Methylisothiazolinone. EPA738-R-98-012.

About the ratings

EWG provides information on personal care product ingredients from the published scientific literature, to supplement incomplete data available from companies and the government. The ratings below indicate the relative level of concern posed by exposure to the ingredients in this product - not the product itself - compared to other product formulations. The ratings reflect potential health hazards but do not account for the level of exposure or individual susceptibility, factors which determine actual health risks, if any. Learn more | Legal Disclaimer