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KOJIC ACID


image source: PubChem
Health Concerns of the Ingredient:
Overall Hazard
 
 
 
 
Developmental &
reproductive toxicity
 
 
 
Other MODERATE concerns: Endocrine disruption; Other LOW concerns: Data gaps

About KOJIC ACID: Kojic Acid is a heterocyclic compound.

Function(s): Antioxidant

Synonym(s): 4H-PYRAN-4-ONE, 5-HYDROXY-2- (HYDROXYMETHYL) -; 5-HYDROXY-2- (HYDROXYMETHYL) - 4H-PYRAN-4-ONE; 5-HYDROXY-2- (HYDROXYMETHYL) -4H-PYRAN-4-ONE; 5-HYDROXY-2-HYDROXYMETHYL-4-PYRONE; 5-HYDROXY-2- (HYDROXYMETHYL) -4-PYRONE

Use restrictions

Concern Reference
Restricted in cosmetics (recommendations or requirements) - use, concentration, or manufacturing restrictions - unsafe for use on injured or damaged skin (only for products for use on damaged skin)Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety (SCCS)
Recommended restricted in cosmetics - use, concentration, or manufacturing restrictions - Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety (SCCS)
Determined safe for use in cosmetics, subject to concentration or use limitations - Safe for use in cosmetics with some qualificationsCosmetic Ingredient Review Assessments
Determined safe for use in cosmetics, subject to concentration or use limitations - Burnett CL, Bergfeld WF, Belsito DV, Hill RA, Klaassen CD, Liebler DC, Marks JG Jr, Shank RC, Slaga TJ, Snyder PW, Andersen FA

Allergies/immunotoxicity

Concern Reference
Possible human Sensitizer toxicant or allergenScientific Committee on Consumer Safety (SCCS)

Cancer

Concern Reference
Limited evidence of carcinogenicityScientific Committee on Consumer Products SCCP OPINION ON Kojic acid The SCCP adopted this opinion at its 17 th plenary of 30 September 2008
Limited or incomplete evidence of cancer according to safety/hazard data – government assessment cannot classify as human carcinogen due to data gapsInt'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - Carcinogens

Endocrine disruption

Concern Reference
Limited evidence of endocrine disruptionScientific Committee on Consumer Products SCCP OPINION ON Kojic acid The SCCP adopted this opinion at its 17 th plenary of 30 September 2008

Data gaps

Concern Reference
Risk assessment method deficiencies and data gaps - Maximum reported "as used" concentration is basis of safety assessment by industry safety panel (Cosmetic Ingredient Review, CIR) - implicit safe concentration limit in productCosmetic Ingredient Review Assessments
481 studies in PubMed science library may include information on the toxicity of this chemical see search results ->NLM PubMed

Data Sources

Burnett CL, Bergfeld WF, Belsito DV, Hill RA, Klaassen CD, Liebler DC, Marks JG Jr, Shank RC, Slaga TJ, Snyder PW, Andersen FA. Final report of the safety assessment of Kojic acid as used in cosmetics. Int J Toxicol. 2010 Nov-Dec;29(6 Suppl):244S-73. Review.
CIR (Cosmetic Ingredient Review). 2006. CIR Compendium, containing abstracts, discussions, and conclusions of CIR cosmetic ingredient safety assessments. Washington DC.
IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer). 2008. Overall Evaluations of Carcinogenicity to Humans, as evaluated in IARC Monographs Volumes 1-99 (a total of 935 agents, mixtures and exposures).
NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2012. PubMed online scientific bibliography data. http://www.pubmed.gov.
Scientific Committee on Consumer Products SCCP OPINION ON Kojic acid The SCCP adopted this opinion at its 17 th plenary of 30 September 2008.
Scientific Committee on Consumer Products SCCP OPINION ON Kojic acid The SCCP adopted this opinion at its 17 th plenary of 30 September 2008.
Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety (SCCS). 2012. DRAFT OPINION ON Kojic Acid, June 2012. http://ec.europa.eu/health/scientific_committees/consumer_safety/docs/sccs_o_098.pdf
Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety (SCCS). 2012. DRAFT OPINION ON Kojic Acid, June 2012. http://ec.europa.eu/health/scientific_committees/consumer_safety/docs/sccs_o_098.pdf
Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety (SCCS). 2012. DRAFT OPINION ON Kojic Acid, June 2012. http://ec.europa.eu/health/scientific_committees/consumer_safety/docs/sccs_o_098.pdf

About the Skin Deep® ratings

EWG provides information on personal care product ingredients from the published scientific literature, to supplement incomplete data available from companies and the government. The ratings below indicate the relative level of concern posed by exposure to the ingredients in this product - not the product itself - compared to other product formulations. The ratings reflect potential health hazards but do not account for the level of exposure or individual susceptibility, factors which determine actual health risks, if any. Learn more | Legal Disclaimer

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