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LIMONENE


image source: PubChem
Health Concerns of the Ingredient:
Overall Hazard
 
 
Cancer
 
 
 
 
Other HIGH concerns: Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs); Other LOW concerns: Ecotoxicology, Occupational hazards

About LIMONENE: Limonene is a scent ingredient and solvent naturally ocurring in the rind of citrus fruit. Upon storage and exposure to sunlight and air, limonene degrades to various oxidation products which act as ... read more

Function(s): PERFUMING

Synoym(s): 1-METHYL-4- (1-METHYLETHENYL) CYCLOHEXENE; 1-METHYL-4-ISOPROPENPYLCYCLOHEXENE; D,L-LIMONENE (ISOMER UNSPECIFIED) ; DIPENTENE; DL-LIMONENE; DL-LIMONENE (RACEMIC) ; LIMONENE ESSENTIAL OIL; (+) -4-ISOPROPENYL-1-METHYLCYCLOHEXENE; (+) -R-LIMONENE; (-) -LIMONENE; (S) -LIMONENE

Use restrictions

Concern Reference
Restricted in cosmetics (recommendations or requirements) - use, concentration, or manufacturing restrictions - CosIng
Recommended restricted in cosmetics - use, concentration, or manufacturing restrictions - Fragrance subject to restrictions: safe only if satisfies manufacturing specifications or purity limits, according to industry safety panel (International Fragrance Association)International Fragrance Association Codes & Standards

Allergies/immunotoxicity

Concern Reference
Possible human immune system toxicant or allergenEU Banned and Restricted Fragrances
Limited evidence of immune system toxicity or allergies (only for products for use on skin)European Union - Classification & Labelling
Limited evidence of immune system toxicity or allergiesNational Library of Medicine HazMap

Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)

Concern Reference
Classified as irritantEuropean Union - Classification & Labelling

Developmental/reproductive toxicity

Concern Reference
One or more animal studies show developmental effects at high dosesKodama R, Okubo A,Araki E,Noda K,Ide H, Ikeda T

Ecotoxicology

Concern Reference
Wildlife and environmental toxicityEuropean Union - Classification & Labelling
Not suspected to be an environmental toxinEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Cancer

Concern Reference
Cancer - not classifiable/not likely to be human carcinogenInt'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - Carcinogens

Miscellaneous

Concern Reference
Occupational hazards related to handlingEuropean Union - Classification & Labelling

Multiple, additive exposure sources

Concern Reference
Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in foodFDA Everything Added to Food

Persistence and bioaccumulation

Concern Reference
Not suspected to be persistentEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List
Not suspected to be bioaccumulativeEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Data gaps

Concern Reference
2,170 studies in PubMed science library may include information on the toxicity of this chemical see search results ->NLM PubMed

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

Concern Reference
Classified as not expected to be potentially toxic or harmfulEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List
Classified as a low human health priorityEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Data Sources

AOEC (Association of Occupational and Environmental Clinics). 2009. AEOC exposures codes and asthmagen designation.
CPS&Q (Consumer Products Safety & Quality) formely known as ECB (European Chemicals Bureau). 2008. Classification and Labelling: Chemicals: Annex VI of Directive 67/548/EEC through the 31st ATP.
EC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
European Commission. 2013. Cosing, the European Commission database with information on cosmetic substances and ingredients. Accessed on March 1, 2013 at http://ec.europa.eu/consumers/cosmetics/cosing/ .
FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration). 2008. EAFUS [Everything Added to Food]: A Food Additive Database. FDA Office of Food Safety and Applied Nutrition.
IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer). 2008. Overall Evaluations of Carcinogenicity to Humans, as evaluated in IARC Monographs Volumes 1-99 (a total of 935 agents, mixtures and exposures).
IFRA (International Fragrance Association). 2006. Codes and Standards.
IFRA (International Fragrance Assocication). 2010. IFRA Fragrance Ingredient List based on 2008 Use Survey. Accessed online 01/04/2010: http://www.ifraorg.org/Home/News/Latest-News/page.aspx/66?xf_itemId=43&xf_selectionDatapartId=25
Kodama R, Okubo A,Araki E,Noda K,Ide H, Ikeda T. Studies on d-limonene as a gallstone solubilizer. (VII). Effects on development of mouse fetuses and offsprings 1977; Oyo Yakuri. 13(6): 863-873.
NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2012. PubMed online scientific bibliography data. http://www.pubmed.gov.
SCCPNFP (Scientific Committee On Cosmetic Products And Non-Food Products). 1999. Opinion Concerning Fragrance Allergy In Consumers. . SCCNFP/0017/98 Final, December 1999; and SCCPNFP (Scientific Committee On Cosmetic Products And Non-Food Products). 2000. An Initial List Of Perfumery Materials Which Must Not Form Part Of Fragrances Compounds Used In Cosmetic Products. SCCNFP/0320/00, final May 2000.

About the ratings

EWG provides information on personal care product ingredients from the published scientific literature, to supplement incomplete data available from companies and the government. The ratings below indicate the relative level of concern posed by exposure to the ingredients in this product - not the product itself - compared to other product formulations. The ratings reflect potential health hazards but do not account for the level of exposure or individual susceptibility, factors which determine actual health risks, if any. Learn more | Legal Disclaimer