ewg.org | About SkinDeep®/Methodology | Terms & Conditions | Build Your Own Report | FAQ
 
Score:
Data available:
 
Fair

Get your 2014 Holiday Gift Bag!

Donate to get your 2014 Holiday Gift Bag and your gift will be matched - doubling your impact

Sign Up!

BHT


image source: PubChem
Health Concerns of the Ingredient:
Overall Hazard
 
 
 
 
 
 
Use restrictions
 
 
Other MODERATE concerns: Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs), Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive); Other LOW concerns: Data gaps

About BHT: Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) is a toluene-based ingredient used as a preservative in food and personal care products.

Function(s): Antioxidant; Fragrance Ingredient; MASKING

Synonym(s): DBPC; ADVASTAB 401; AGIDOL; AGIDOL 1; ALKOFEN BP; ANTIOXIDANT 29; ANTIOXIDANT 30; ANTIOXIDANT 4; ANTIOXIDANT 4K; ANTIOXIDANT KB; ANTRANCINE 8

Allergies/immunotoxicity

Concern Reference
Known human immune toxicant or allergenEuropean Food Safety Authority
Human skin toxicant or allergen - strong evidence
One or more human case studies show significant or allergenic effectsNational Library of Medicine HazMap

Cancer

Concern Reference
Limited evidence of carcinogenicityEuropean Food Safety Authority
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation resultsHaris G
One or more animal studies show tumor formation at high dosesColin T

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

Concern Reference
Classified as expected to be toxic or harmfulEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Developmental/reproductive toxicity

Concern Reference
One or more animal studies show developemental effects at high dosesC

Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)

Concern Reference
Human respiratory irritant - moderate evidenceAmerican Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)

Data gaps

Concern Reference
Risk assessment method deficiencies and data gaps - Maximum reported "as used" concentration is basis of safety assessment by industry safety panel (Cosmetic Ingredient Review, CIR) - implicit safe concentration limit in productCosmetic Ingredient Review Assessments
4,997 studies in PubMed science library may include information on the toxicity of this chemical see search results ->NLM PubMed

Multiple, additive exposure sources

Concern Reference
Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in foodFDA Food Additive Status
Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in foodFDA Everything Added to Food

Data Sources

American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH). 2010. Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances.
C. V. Vorhees, R. E. Butcher, R. L. Brunner & T. J. Sobotka. 1981. Developmental neurobehavioural toxicity of butylated hydroxytoluene in rats. Food and cosmetics toxicology 19(2), 153-62.
CIR (Cosmetic Ingredient Review). 2006. CIR Compendium, containing abstracts, discussions, and conclusions of CIR cosmetic ingredient safety assessments. Washington DC.
Colin T. Shearn, Kristofer S. Fritz & John A. Thompson. 2011. Protein damage from electrophiles and oxidants in lungs of mice chronically exposed to the tumor promoter butylated hydroxytoluene. Chemico-biological interactions 192(3), 278-86.
EC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
European Food Safety Authority. 2012. EFSA. 2012. Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS); Scientific Opinion on the re-evaluation of Butylated hydroxytoluene BHT (E 321) as a food additive. EFSA Journal 10(3), 2588.
European Food Safety Authority. 2012. EFSA. 2012. Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS); Scientific Opinion on the re-evaluation of Butylated hydroxytoluene BHT (E 321) as a food additive. EFSA Journal 10(3), 2588.
FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration) 2006. Food Additive Status List. Downloaded from http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/%7Edms/opa-appa.html, Oct 16, 2006.
FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration). 2008. EAFUS [Everything Added to Food]: A Food Additive Database. FDA Office of Food Safety and Applied Nutrition.
Haris G. Vikis, Alexander S. Krupnick, Jay W. Tichelaar, Pengyuan Liu, Jihong Zhu, Amy Rymaszewski, Lauren Stein, Andrew Franklin, Andrew E. Gelman & Ming You. 2011. Neutrophils are required for 3-methylcholanthrene-initiated, butylated hydroxytoluene-promoted lung carcinogenesis. Molecular carcinogenesis.
IFRA (International Fragrance Assocication). 2010. IFRA Fragrance Ingredient List based on 2008 Use Survey. Accessed online 01/04/2010: http://www.ifraorg.org/Home/News/Latest-News/page.aspx/66?xf_itemId=43&xf_selectionDatapartId=25
NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2012. PubMed online scientific bibliography data. http://www.pubmed.gov.

About the ratings

EWG provides information on personal care product ingredients from the published scientific literature, to supplement incomplete data available from companies and the government. The ratings below indicate the relative level of concern posed by exposure to the ingredients in this product - not the product itself - compared to other product formulations. The ratings reflect potential health hazards but do not account for the level of exposure or individual susceptibility, factors which determine actual health risks, if any. Learn more | Legal Disclaimer