ewg.org | About SkinDeep®/Methodology | Legal Disclaimer | Build Your Own Report | FAQ
Data available:

Get The Guide!

Want a free Cosmetics Guide? Donate $10 to EWG today!

Sign Up!


image source: PubChem
Health Concerns of the Ingredient:
Overall Hazard
Developmental &
reproductive toxicity
Allergies & immunotoxicity
Use restrictions
Other MODERATE concerns: Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive); Other LOW concerns: Ecotoxicology, Endocrine disruption

Function(s): Fragrance Ingredient; Ultraviolet Light Absorber; MASKING; UV ABSORBER



Concern Reference
Possible human carcinogenCalifornia EPA (California Environmental Protection Agency)
Limited evidence of carcinogenicityWorld Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer

Endocrine disruption

Concern Reference
Limited evidence of endocrine disruptionJapanese National Institute of Health Sciences
endocrine - weight of evidence unknown/unassessed/unreview: published lit review or major tox studyOur Stolen Future Endocrine Disruptors

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

Concern Reference
Classified as expected to be toxic or harmfulEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List
Limited evidence of sense organ toxicityHarvell, J


Concern Reference
Suspected to be an environmental toxin and be persistent or bioaccumulativeEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List
Suspected to be an environmental toxinEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Data gaps

Concern Reference
1,827 studies in PubMed science library may include information on the toxicity of this chemical see search results ->NLM PubMed

Multiple, additive exposure sources

Concern Reference
Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in foodFDA Everything Added to Food

Persistence and bioaccumulation

Concern Reference
Not suspected to be bioaccumulativeEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Data Sources

California EPA (California Environmental Protection Agency). 2012. Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act of 1986. Chemicals known to the State to cause cancer or reproductive toxicity. Updated July 2012.
Colborn T, D Dumanoski, JP Myers. 2006. Widespread Pollutants with Endocrine-disrupting Effects. Updated from original listing in "Our Stolen Future" (1996).
EC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
EU (European Union)- Strategy for Endocrine Disrupters 2007. Commision on endocrin disruption requested by the European Parliament in 1998.
FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration) 2006. Food Additive Status List. Downloaded from http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/%7Edms/opa-appa.html, Oct 16, 2006.
FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration). 2008. EAFUS [Everything Added to Food]: A Food Additive Database. FDA Office of Food Safety and Applied Nutrition.
Harvell, J., M. Bason and H. Maibach. Contact Urticaria and its Mechanisms. Food Chemistry and Toxicology 32(2): 103-112. 1994. (Table 2: Substances identified as capable of causing contact urticaria).
IFRA (International Fragrance Assocication). 2010. IFRA Fragrance Ingredient List based on 2008 Use Survey. Accessed online 01/04/2010: http://www.ifraorg.org/Home/News/Latest-News/page.aspx/66?xf_itemId=43&xf_selectionDatapartId=25
Japanese National Institute of Health Sciences. Lists of Paradigmatic Chemicals. http://www.nihs.go.jp/hse/endocrine-e/paradigm/paradigm.html, World Wildlife Fund. Our Stolen Future. Widespread Pollutants with Endocrine-disrupting Effects. http://www.ourstolenfuture.org/Basics/chemlist.htm. The WWF list is derived from references detailed at http://www.ourstolenfuture.org/Sources/chemsources.htm and was originally published in: Colborn, T., F.S. vom Saal, and A.M. Soto. Developmental Effects of Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals In Wildlife and Humans. Environmental Health Perspectives 101(5): 378-384. 1993.
NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2012. PubMed online scientific bibliography data. http://www.pubmed.gov.
World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer. IARC Monographs Programme on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Lists of Group 1, 2a, and 2b substances can be obtained. http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Classification/index.php

About the Skin Deep® ratings

EWG provides information on personal care product ingredients from the published scientific literature, to supplement incomplete data available from companies and the government. The ratings below indicate the relative level of concern posed by exposure to the ingredients in this product - not the product itself - compared to other product formulations. The ratings reflect potential health hazards but do not account for the level of exposure or individual susceptibility, factors which determine actual health risks, if any. Learn more | Legal Disclaimer


Beyond providing Skin Deep® as an educational tool for consumers, EWG offers its EWG VERIFIED™ mark as a quick and easily identifiable way of conveying personal care products that meet EWG's strict health criteria. Before a company can use EWG VERIFIEDTM on such products, the company must show that it fully discloses the products' ingredients on their labels or packaging, they do not contain EWG ingredients of concern, and are made with good manufacturing practices, among other criteria. Note that EWG receives licensing fees from all EWG VERIFIED member companies that help to support the important work we do. Learn more | Legal Disclaimer