GROUP:

Toddlers (age 1-4)


health & safety concerns:
chemicals found
on average indivi-
dual range
entire group
Reproduction and fertility 9 1-11 12
Brain and nervous system 9 1-11 12
Immune system (including sensitization and allergies) 4 4-4 5
Respiratory system 4 3-4 4
Chronic effects, general 2 2-2 2
Endocrine system 2 1-2 2
Cancer 2 2-2 2
Birth defects and developmental delays 2 2-2 2

Group members:

(22 People)

Nicholas
May
Anonymous Child #17
Teo
Olivia Brune
Nicolas
Anonymous Child #13
Naomi Carrigg
Anonymous Child #11
Mckenzie Green
Lauren
Hannelore Peters
Conner Adams
Brynn Dickman
Elijah Scheinz
Natalie Comerford
Tavin
Ruby Alcorn
Anonymous Child #42
Zade Little
Eva West
Evan


Locations:

NY, USA
Washington, DC
Oakland, CA
Lake Forest Park, WA
San Francisco, CA
Helena, MT
Colorado Springs, CO
Missoula, MT
Seattle, WA
Minneapolis, MN
Anchorage, AK
Boston, MA
Portland, OR
Alameda, CA
Riverside, CA
Taos, NM
Clinton, CT



picture of group

Group: Toddlers (age 1-4)
Found 22 of 42 tested chemicals (22 participants)

The blood and urine of the "Toddlers (age 1-4)" group contained 22 of 42 industrial compounds, pollutants and other chemicals tested, including chemicals linked to reproductive toxicity and fertility problems, brain and nervous system toxicity, and immune system toxicity.

Summary of chemicals found in Toddlers (age 1-4)

chemical family level found in group health effects exposure routes
Perfluorochemicals (PFCs)100% moderate
Birth defects and developmental delays, Cancer, Endocrine system Stain- and grease-proof coatings on food packaging, couches, carpets, pans
Phthalates100% moderate
Endocrine system Cosmetics, paint, soft plastic, food packaging, and other consumer products
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs)20% high
80% moderate
Reproduction and fertility, Brain and nervous system Foam furniture, carpet padding, computers, televisions, contaminated house dust, food

Detailed report by chemical (return to summary)

perfluorochemicals (pfcs)

4 of 13 found

Includes Teflon, Scotchgard, Stainmaster. Linked to cancer and birth defects.

  • geometric mean: 21.7 ng/mL in blood serum (vs. 22.7 in CDC biomonitoring [1])
  • found in 1 of 1 people in the group (vs. 3,684 of 3,959 in CDC biomonitoring)
  • found in: Nicholas
2.63ng/mL in blood serum77.7


Total Perfluorochemicals (PFCs)

Breakdown product of stain- and grease-proof coatings on food packaging, couches, carpets. A 9-carbon version of PFOA; persistent; bioaccumulative.

  • geometric mean: 1.36 ng/mL in blood serum (vs. 0.63 in CDC biomonitoring [1])
  • found in 1 of 1 people in the group (vs. 2,058 of 2,368 in CDC biomonitoring)
  • found in: Nicholas
0.283ng/mL in blood serum5.85


Used to make Teflon pan coatings; breakdown product of stain- and grease-proof coatings. Likely human carcinogen. Found in most people. Being phased out of some products.

  • geometric mean: 6.74 ng/mL in blood serum (vs. 2.19 in CDC biomonitoring [1])
  • found in 1 of 1 people in the group (vs. 2,085 of 2,368 in CDC biomonitoring)
  • found in: Nicholas
0.366ng/mL in blood serum10.1


In fire fighting foams and carpet treatments. Phased out of consumer products by 3M in 2000 over health concerns.

  • geometric mean: 2.11 ng/mL in blood serum (vs. 1.67 in CDC biomonitoring [1])
  • found in 1 of 1 people in the group (vs. 1,527 of 1,591 in CDC biomonitoring)
  • found in: Nicholas
0ng/mL in blood serum13.1


Active ingredient in Scotchgard prior to 2000. Phase out forced by EPA because concentrations in human blood close to levels that harm lab animals.

  • geometric mean: 11.5 ng/mL in blood serum (vs. 26.2 in CDC biomonitoring [1])
  • found in 1 of 1 people in the group (vs. 1,580 of 1,591 in CDC biomonitoring)
  • found in: Nicholas
1.07ng/mL in blood serum64.1


phthalates

7 of 7 found

In cosmetics, paint, and plastics. Linked to sperm damage and birth defects of male reproductive system.

  • geometric mean: 251 ug/g creatinine in urine (vs. 315 in CDC biomonitoring [1])
  • found in 2 of 2 people in the group (vs. 7,928 of 8,020 in CDC biomonitoring)
  • found in: Nicholas, May
102ug/g creatinine in urine10800


Total Phthalates

Breakdown product of bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), used in plastics; fetal and adult exposure to DEHP in animals is linked to male reproductive issues.

  • geometric mean: 21.8 ug/g creatinine in urine (vs. 18.4 in CDC biomonitoring [1])
  • found in 2 of 2 people in the group (vs. 5,379 of 5,479 in CDC biomonitoring)
  • found in: Nicholas, May
5.64ug/g creatinine in urine6960


Breakdown product of bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), used in plastics; fetal and adult exposure to DEHP in animals is linked to male reproductive issues.

  • geometric mean: 34.6 ug/g creatinine in urine (vs. 12.7 in CDC biomonitoring [1])
  • found in 2 of 2 people in the group (vs. 5,364 of 5,479 in CDC biomonitoring)
  • found in: Nicholas, May
5.98ug/g creatinine in urine2850


Breakdown product of bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), used in plastics. Linked to male reproductive issues in people and animals.

  • geometric mean: 2.59 ug/g creatinine in urine (vs. 2.96 in CDC biomonitoring [1])
  • found in 1 of 2 people in the group (vs. 7,143 of 8,020 in CDC biomonitoring)
  • found in: May
1.45ug/g creatinine in urine829


Formed from dibutyl phthalates, used in nail polish, cosmetics, and other consumer products; linked to birth defects and male reproductive issues.

  • geometric mean: 68.9 ug/g creatinine in urine (vs. 20.3 in CDC biomonitoring [1])
  • found in 2 of 2 people in the group (vs. 7,916 of 8,020 in CDC biomonitoring)
  • found in: Nicholas, May
7.53ug/g creatinine in urine250


Breakdown product of benzylbutyl phthalate, used in vinyl flooring, car-care products, some cosmetics. Fetal and adult exposures are linked to male reproductive problems.

  • geometric mean: 57.5 ug/g creatinine in urine (vs. 13.6 in CDC biomonitoring [1])
  • found in 2 of 2 people in the group (vs. 7,917 of 8,020 in CDC biomonitoring)
  • found in: Nicholas, May
2.73ug/g creatinine in urine436


Breakdown product of diethyl phthalate, used in consumer products, fragrances. Fetal and adult exposures are linked to male reproductive problems.

  • geometric mean: 31.2 ug/g creatinine in urine (vs. 166 in CDC biomonitoring [1])
  • found in 2 of 2 people in the group (vs. 7,922 of 8,015 in CDC biomonitoring)
  • found in: May, Nicholas
9.38ug/g creatinine in urine849


Breakdown product of dimethyl phthalate, used in insect repellant, plastic, rocket propellant. Fetal and adult exposures are linked to male reproductive problems in people.

  • geometric mean: 21.5 ug/g creatinine in urine (vs. 1.31 in CDC biomonitoring [1])
  • found in 2 of 2 people in the group (vs. 4,274 of 5,479 in CDC biomonitoring)
  • found in: Nicholas, May
3.25ug/g creatinine in urine323


polybrominated diphenyl ethers (pbdes)

11 of 20 found

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs)

Fire retardants in furniture foam, computers, and televisions. Accumulate in human tissues. May harm brain development.

1.11ng/g lipids in blood serum314


Total Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs)

0.11ng/g lipids in blood serum1.95


Brominated fire retardants currently used in plastics and fabric. The major use is in electronic devices; the minor use is as a backcoating on industrial fabrics. Are directly toxic to mammals and breakdown to more dangerous forms in the environment.

A fire retardant used in TVs, monitors and electronics. Growing evidence that chemical breaks down in the environment to more persistent and toxic forms.

0ng/g lipids in blood serum270


Brominated flame retardants used in plastics. Break down into more toxic and persistent forms in the environment. Withdrawn from the market in the U.S. in 2005.

0.0122ng/g lipids in blood serum4.31


Brominated fire retardants used in foam and plastics. Break down into more toxic and persistent forms in the environment. Withdrawn from the market in the U.S. in 2005.

0.0262ng/g lipids in blood serum0.59


0.238ng/g lipids in blood serum76.9


0.45ng/g lipids in blood serum15.4


Brominated fire retardants used in polyurethan foam and plastics. These PBDEs are neurotoxic and persist in people and the environment. They were withdrawn from the market in the U.S. in 2005.

0.00528ng/g lipids in blood serum32.6


0.000971ng/g lipids in blood serum2.27


In PBDE chemical family - fire retardant in furniture foam, computers, televisions; may harm brain development and hormone systems.

0.0786ng/g lipids in blood serum31.2


Brominated fire retardants used in polyurethan foam and plastics. These PBDEs are neurotoxic and persist in people and the environment. They were withdrawn from the market in the U.S. in 2005.

In PBDE chemical family - fire retardant in furniture foam, computers, televisions; may harm brain development and hormone systems.

0.33ng/g lipids in blood serum143


Brominated fire retardants used in polyurethan foam and plastics. These PBDEs are neurotoxic and persist in people and the environment. They were withdrawn from the market in the U.S. in 2005.

0.0385ng/g lipids in blood serum6.17


References/Notes

[1] CDC (2005). National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals, Centers for Disease Control. http://www.cdc.gov/exposurereport/. (Methylmercury results have been compared to total mercury in CDC biomonitoring.)