Found in these people:
Participant #1, Participant #10, Fred Gellert, Adelaide Gomer, Jesse Johnson, Winsome McIntosh, Judi Shils, Participant #18, Participant #2, Participant #20, Jessica Welborn, Irene Crowe, Martha Davis, Emily Sayrs, Participant #6, Annette Gellert, Heather Gellert, Landon Gellert, Anonymous Adult, Anonymous Adult 2, Anonymous Adult 5, Anonymous Adult 7, Anonymous Adult 9, Anonymous Adult 12, Anonymous Adult 11, Anonymous Adult 15, Anonymous Adult 16, Anonymous Adult 17, Anonymous Adult 18, Anonymous Adult 21
Found in these locations:
CA, USA; Belvedere, CA; Ithaca, NY; New York, NY; Washington, DC; Ross, CA; VA, USA; CO, USA; San Francisco, CA; Littleton, CO; MD, USA; Chicago, IL; Fredericksburg, VA; Lamont, FL; Atlanta, GA; Mountain View, CA; Palo Alto, CA; Berkeley, CA; Alamo, CA
Food can linings, dental sealants.
Bisphenol A diglycidylether (BADGE) is a derivative of bisphenol A (BPA) used to make epoxy resins. Although BADGE is widely used in a variety of industrial, engineering and construction applications, the major pathway for human exposure is through chemical leaching from the linings of food and drink cans (EU 2002). BADGE is also found in some dental sealants (Olea 1996).
In the human body BADGE appears in a hydrolysis product known as BADGE 40-H (Inoue 2001). BADGE is quickly metabolized by the body (within a day or so), therefore body burden levels represent recent exposures.
Some basic toxicological testing has been done on BADGE, but the compound has not been extensively studied. Considering that its sister chemical bisphenol A has a non-monotonic dose response curve, showing non-intuitive patterns of toxicity, it would be difficult to make a final assessment on the toxicity of BADGE without more detailed study.
There is some evidence that BADGE is a rodent carcinogen, but data for humans is lacking (IARC 1999; Warbrick 2001). Workers using epoxy resin in the construction industry have shown BADGE to be a contact allergen (Uter 2004). Males exposed to BADGE through spraying epoxy resin have associated depressed gonadotrophic hormones (Hanaoka 2002). A study of BADGE given to pregnant rabbits found that at the lowest dose tested (30 mg/kg/day for days 6 to 18 of gestation) BADGE affected pregnancy ability and the sex ratio of their litters (EU 2002).
An in vitro study found that BADGE can induce time and dose-dependent morphological changes and cell detachment from the substratum and can inhibit cell proliferation. (Ramilo 2006) Another study found that a BADGE derivative (BADGE.2HCl) can act as an androgen antagonist in in vitro systems (Satoh 2004).
Whether BADGE breaks down into bisphenol A in the human body is an important toxicological consideration. Urinary levels of BPA in workers exposed to BADGE, compared to unexposed controls, led researchers to conclude that BADGE breaks down into BPA in the body (Hanaoka 2002). Other research, however, has suggested a lack of such biotransformations (EU 2002).
Metabolite of BADGE, used to make metal food can linings. Linked to hormone activity, skin and immune system toxicity and cancer.
BADGE-4OH has been found in 30 of the 41 people tested in EWG/Commonweal studies.
Top health concerns for BADGE-4OH (References)
|health concern or target organ||weight of evidence|
Results for BADGE-4OH
in blood serum (wet weight)
- geometric mean: 9.33 ng/mL (wet weight) in blood serum
- found in 30 of 41 people in the group
|0||ng/mL (wet weight) in blood serum||174|
Detailed toxicity classifications (References)
|Endocrine disruptor||Hanaoka, T., N. Kawamura, et al. (2002). Urinary bisphenol A and plasma hormone concentrations in male workers exposed to bisphenol A diglycidyl ether and mixed organic solvents. Occup Environ Med 59(9): 625-8.|