Found in these people:
Anonymous Adult 2, Anonymous Adult 3, Anonymous Adult 5, Anonymous Adult 4, Anonymous Adult 6, Anonymous Adult 7, Anonymous Teen 1, Anonymous Adult 9, Anonymous Adult 12, Anonymous Adult 13, Anonymous Adult 11, Anonymous Adult 10, Anonymous Adult 14, Anonymous Adult 15, Anonymous Adult 16, Anonymous Adult 17, Anonymous Adult 18, Anonymous Adult 20, Anonymous Adult 21, Baby #1, Baby #2, Baby #3, Baby #4, Baby #5, Baby #6, Baby #7, Baby #8, Baby #9, Baby #10, Anonymous Adult 1, Kathy Fowler, U.S. Representative Louise Slaughter, Jenna Meyer, Katrina Alcorn, Tiffany Kimball, Teri Olle, Margaret Hardin, Susan Comfort, Angela Strother, Jill, Anonymous, Rani Corey-Sheaffer, Anonymous, Meredith Buhalis, Darcy White, Jennifer Scheinz, Laurie Yung, Lisa, Anonymous, Leila Feldman, Susanne Green, Erika Schreder, Participant #1, Participant #10, Fred Gellert, Adelaide Gomer, Ann Hunter-Welborn, Jesse Johnson, Anonymous Adult, Winsome McIntosh, Judi Shils, Participant #18, Lynde Uihlein, Participant #2, Participant #20, Jessica Welborn, Alicia Wittink, Irene Crowe, Martha Davis, Emily Sayrs, Participant #6, Annette Gellert, Heather Gellert, Landon Gellert, Sara Corbett, Anonymous Child #17, Anonymous Mom #17, Teo, Bronwyn, Olivia Brune, Mary Brune, Nicolas, Tess, Anonymous Mom #13, Anonymous Child #13, Naomi Carrigg, Laura Spark, Anonymous Child #11, Anonymous Mom #11, Mckenzie Green, Susanne Fleek, Lauren, Christi, Hannelore Peters, Erika Schreder, Conner Adams, Laurie Yung, Brynn Dickman, Hillary Dickman, Elijah Scheinz, Jennifer Scheinz, Natalie Comerford, Teri Olle, Tavin , Greta Hardin, Ruby Alcorn, Katrina Alcorn, Anonymous Child #42, Susan Comfort, Tracy Herndon, Zade Little, Maija West, Eva West, Liz, Evan, Dr. Beverly Wright, Adult #108, Adult B, Vivian Chang, Jennifer Hill-Kelley, Suzie Canales, Jean Salone, Cord Blood Sample 11, Cord Blood Sample 12, Cord Blood Sample 13, Cord Blood Sample 14, Cord Blood Sample 15, Cord Blood Sample 16, Cord Blood Sample 17, Cord Blood Sample 18, Cord Blood Sample 19, Cord Blood Sample 20
Found in these locations:
Chicago, IL; Newton, MA; Fredericksburg, VA; Washington, DC; New York, NY; Lamont, FL; Atlanta, GA; Mountain View, CA; Stanford, CA; Palo Alto, CA; San Francisco, CA; Berkeley, CA; Alamo, CA; Fallbrook, CA; Rockville, MD; Upstate New York, NY; Oakland, CA; La Habra Heights, CA; Evergreen, CO; Gainesville, FL; Canton, GA; Dorchester, MA; Jamiaca Plain, MA; Ann Arbor, MI; Raytown, MO; Helena, MT; Missoula, MT; Portland, OR; Nashville, TN; Austin, TX; Burke, VA; Seattle, WA; CA, USA; Belvedere, CA; Ithaca, NY; Encinitas, CA; Ross, CA; VA, USA; Milwaukee, WI; CO, USA; Littleton, CO; MD, USA; NY, USA; Riverside, CA; Alameda, CA; Boston, MA; Anchorage, AK; Minneapolis, MN; Colorado Springs, CO; Lake Forest Park, WA; Taos, NM; Clinton, CT; New Orleans, LA; Green Bay, WI; Corpus Christi, TX
Fire retardant in foam furniture, carpet padding, computers, televisions. Pollutant in house dust, food.
PBDEs are brominated fire retardants, intentionally added to flexible foam furniture--primarily mattresses, couches, padded chairs, pillows, carpet padding and vehicle upholstry.
These chemicals were withdrawn from the US market in 2005 due to their toxicity to laboratory animals, and their detection as contaminants in humans, wildlife, house and office buildings and common foods. (Sjodin 2003) People are primarily exposed to PBDEs in their homes, offices and vehicles. Secondary sources are foods, primarily meat, dairy, fish and eggs. (Schecter, Papke et al. 2005)
Studies of laboratory animals link PBDE exposure to an array of adverse health effects including thyroid hormone disruption, permanent learning and memory impairment, behavioral changes, hearing deficits, delayed puberty onset, decreased sperm count, and fetal malformations. (Darnerud 2003; Hale R.C. 2003) Research in animals shows that exposure to brominated fire retardants in-utero or during infancy leads to more significant harm than exposure during adulthood, and at much lower levels.(Viberg H 2006)
PBDEs are bioaccumulative and lipophilic ('fat-loving') therefore highly persistent in people and the environment. The chemicals build up in the body, are stored in fatty tissues and body fluids, such as blood and breast milk, and can be passed on to fetuses and infants during pregnancy and lactation. Despite their phase-out from commerce, human exposure will continue for decades to come.
Brominated fire retardants used in polyurethan foam and plastics. These PBDEs are neurotoxic and persist in people and the environment. They were withdrawn from the market in the U.S. in 2005.
PBDE-28 has been found in 138 of the 138 people tested in EWG/Commonweal studies. It has also been found in 100 of the 2,337 people tested in CDC biomonitoring studies.
Top health concerns for PBDE-28 (References)
|health concern or target organ||weight of evidence|
|Reproduction and fertility||unknown|
|Brain and nervous system||unknown|
Results for PBDE-28
This chemical was found to co-elute with PBDE-33.
in blood serum (lipid weight)
- geometric mean: 0.532 ng/g (lipid weight) in blood serum
- found in 118 of 118 people in the group
- geometric mean: 0.3 ng/g (lipid weight) in blood serum
- found in 100 of 2337 people in the group
|0.0385||ng/g (lipid weight) in blood serum||20.6|
in breast milk (lipid weight)
- geometric mean: 2.63 ppb (lipid weight) in breast milk
- found in 20 of 20 people in the group
|0.35||ppb (lipid weight) in breast milk||43.8|
Detailed toxicity classifications (References)
|Reproductive effects - weight of evidence unknown/unassessed||McDonald, T. A. (2002). A perspective on the potential health risks of PBDEs. Chemosphere 46: 11.|
|Nervous system toxicity - weight of evidence unknown/unassessed||Viberg, H., Fredriksson, A., Jakobsson, E., Orn, U., Eriksson, P. (2003). Neurobehavioral derangements in adult mice receiving decabrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE 209) during a defined period of neonatal brain development. Toxicol Sci 76(1): 112-20.|