Ahmad S, Greene DL. 2005. Effect of fuel economy on automobile safety: A reexamination. Transportation Research Record No. 1941, Energy and Environmental Concerns 2005. Transportation Research Board of the National Academy of Sciences. Washington, DC.

American Lung Association. 2004. State of the Air: 2004. http://lungaction.org/reports/
stateoftheair2004.html

American Lung Association. 2005. State of the Air: 2005. http://lungaction.org/reports/
stateoftheair2005.html

American Lung Association. 2005. Racial Disparity and Air Quality. http://www.lungusa.org/site/
pp.asp?c=dvLUK9O0E&b=315633

American Lung Association. 2006. State of the Air: 2006. http://lungaction.org/reports/stateoftheair2006.html

Apelberg BJ. 2005. Socioeconomic and racial disparities in cancer risk from air toxics in Maryland. Environmental Health Perspectives 113:693-699. http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/members/2005/7609/7609.html

Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America. Website: For Life Without Limits. http://www.aafa.org. Referenced May 2006.

Barr BC, Hyde DM, Plopper CG, Dungworth DL. 1990. A comparison of terminal airway remodeling in chronic daily versus episodic ozone exposure. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 106:384-407.

California Air Resources Board. EMFAC 2001 V2.08. As cited in: Kear T, Niemeier D. 2003. Composite exhaust emissions rates: Sensitivity to vehicle population and mileage accrual assumptions. Transportation Research Record No. 1842, Energy, Air Quality, and Fuels 2003. Transportation Research Board of the National Academy of Sciences. Washington, DC. Available at: aqp.engr.ucdavis.edu/Documents/sensitivity.pdf

California Air Resources Board. 2002. EMFAC 2002 V2.2. http://www.arb.ca.gov/msei/on-road/latest_version.htm

California Air Resources Board. 2005. Review of the California Ambient Air Quality Standard for Ozone. Volumes I-IV. Staff Report. March 11, 2005. http://www.arb.ca.gov/research/aaqs/ozone-rs/ ozone-rs.htm#new

English P, Neutra R, Scalf R, Sullivan M, Waller L, Zhu L. 1999. Examining associations between childhood asthma and traffic flow using a geographic information system. Environmental Health Perspectives 107:761-767.

Environmental Protection Agency. 1991. Cost of Illness Handbook. Prepared for the Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics by Abt Associates, Cambridge, Massachusetts. http://www.epa.gov/oppt/coi/index.html

Environmental Protection Agency. 1999. Determination of NOx and HC Basic Emission Rates, OBD and I/M Effects for Tier 1 and Later LDVs and LDTs. Draft. EPA document 420-P-99-009

Environmental Protection Agency. 2004. Conversion Factors for Hydrocarbon Emission Components, NR-002b. Assessment and Standards Division, Office of Transportation and Air Quality, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, EPA420-P-04-001. http://www.epa.gov/otaq/models/nonrdmdl/ nonrdmdl2004/420p04001.pdf

Environmental Protection Agency. 2005. Light-duty Automotive Technology and Fuel Economy Trends: 1975 Through 2005. Office of Transportation and Air Quality, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, EPA420-R-05-001. http://www.epa.gov/otaq/cert/mpg/fetrends/ 420r05001.pdf

Environmental Protection Agency. 2005. U.S. announces $94 million Clean Air Act settlement with Chrysler over emission control defects on 1.5 million Jeep and Dodge vehicles. Press Release, December 21, 2005. http://yosemite.epa.gov/opa/admpress.nsf/ 68b5f2d54f3eefd28525701500517fbf/ 1751045d2387854f852570de006ea56a!OpenDocument

Environmental Protection Agency. 2006. Green Vehicle Guide. http://www.epa.gov/greenvehicles/ (Cutpoints are available at: http://www.epa.gov/autoemissions/rating.htm, accessed 5/15/06)

Environmental Protection Agency. 2006. Annual Certification Test Results & Data. http://www.epa.gov/otaq/crttst.htm accessed June, 2006.

Environmental Protection Agency. 2006. www.fueleconomy.gov. Data available for download at http://www.fueleconomy.gov/feg/download.shtml

Environmental Working Group. 2005. Smoggy Schools: Poor air quality costs Californians more than $521 million a year. Available at: http://ewg.org/reports/caschoolsozone/

Friedman D, MacKenzie D. 2004. Automaker Rankings 2004: The Environmental Performance of Car Companies. Union of Concerned Scientists, Cambridge, MA. http://www.ucsusa.org/clean_vehicles/ vehicles_health/automaker-rankings-2004.html

Friedman MS, Powell KE, Hutwagner L, Graham LM, Teague WG. 2001. Impact of changes in transportation and commuting behaviors during the 1996 Summer Olympic Games in Atlanta on air quality and childhood asthma. Journal of the American Medical Association. 285:897-905.

Galizia A, Kinney PL. 1999. Long-term residence in areas of high ozone: Associations with respiratory health in a nationwide sample of nonsmoking young adults. Environmental Health Perspectives 107:675-679. http://Ehp.niehs.nih.gov/members/1999/ 107p675-679galizia/galizia-full.html

Gauderman WJ, Avol E, Lurmann F, Kuenzli N, Gilliland F, Peters J, McConnell R. 2005. Childhood asthma and exposure to traffic and nitrogen dioxide. Epidemiology 16:737-743.

Gilliland FD, Berhane K, Rappaport EB, Thomas DC, Avol E, Gauderman WJ, London SJ, Margolis HG, McConnell R, Islam KT, Peters JM. 2001. The effects of ambient air pollution on school absenteeism due to respiratory illnesses. Epidemiology 12:43-54.

Green RS, Smorodinsky S, Kim JJ, McLaughlin R, Ostro B. 2003. Proximity of California public schools to busy roads. Environmental Health Perspectives. 112:61-66. http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/members/2003/6566/6566.html

Hall JV, Brajer V, Lurmann FW. 2003. Economic valuation of ozone-related school absences in the South Coast Air Basin of California. Contemporary Economic Policy 21:407-417. http://econpapers.repec.org/article/oupcoecpo/ v_3A21_3Ay_3A2003_3Ai_3A4_3Ap_3A407-417.htm

Healey JR. 2003. Cleaner cars take toll on automakers' costs. USA Today. September 16, 2003. http://www.usatoday.com/money/autos/
2003-09-16-cleancar_x.htm

Heuss JM, Kahlbaum DF, Wolff GT. 2003. Weekday/Weekend ozone differences: What can we learn from them? Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association 53:772-788.

Hidy GM. 2000. Ozone process insights from field experiments Part I: Overview. Atmospheric Environment 34:2001-2022.

Kear T, Niemeier D. 2003. Composite exhaust emissions rates: Sensitivity to vehicle population and mileage accrual assumptions. Transportation Research Record No. 1842, Energy, Air Quality, and Fuels 2003. Transportation Research Board of the National Academy of Sciences. Washington, DC.

Kim JJ, Smorodinsky S, Lipsett M, Singer BC, Hodgson AT, Ostro B. 2004. Traffic-related air pollution near busy roads: The East Bay Children's Respiratory Health Study. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 170:520-526.

Kinney PL, Aggarwal M, Nikiforov SV, Nadas A. 1998. Methods development for epidemiologic investigations of the health effects of prolonged ozone exposure. Part III. An approach to retrospective estimation of lifetime ozone exposure using a questionnaire and ambient monitoring data (U.S. sites). Research Report Health Effects Institute 81:79-108; discussion 109-21.

Kunzli N, Lurmann F, Segal M, Ngo L, Balmes J, Tager IB. 1997. Association between lifetime ambient ozone exposure and pulmonary function in college freshmen—results of a pilot study. Environmental Research 72:8-23.

Lundegaard K. 2005. Crash Course: How U.S. shifted gears to find small cars can be safe, too. Wall Street Journal. September 26, 2005.

McConnell R, Berhane K, Gilliland F, London SJ, Islam T, Gauderman WJ, Avol E, Margolis HG, Peters JM. 2002. Asthma in exercising children exposed to ozone: A cohort study. Lancet 359:386-391.

McConnell R, Berhane K, Yao L, Jerrett M, Lurmann F, Gilliland F, Kunzli N, Gauderman J, Avol E, Thomas D, Peters J. 2006. Traffic, susceptibility, and childhood asthma. Environmental Health Perspectives 114:766-772.

Morello-Frosch RA, Pastor M, Sadd J. 2001. "Environmental justice and Southern California's 'Riskscape': The distribution of air toxics exposures and health risks among diverse dommunities." Urban Affairs Review 36:551-578.

National Research Council. 2006. State and Federal Standards for Mobile-Source Emissions. Committee on State Practices in Setting Mobile Source Emissions Standards, Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology, Division on Earth and Life Studies, National Research Council of the National Academy of Sciences. National Academies Press. Washington, DC. Available at: http://darwin.nap.edu/books/0309101514/html (Accessed May, 2006)

O'Neill MS, Jerrett M, Kawachi I, Levy J, Cohen AJ, Gouveia N, Wilkinson P, Fletcher T, Cifuentes L, Schwartz J. 2003. Health, wealth, and air pollution: Advancing theory and methods. Environmental Health Perspectives 111:1861-1872.

Peters JM, et al. 2004. Epidemiologic investigation to identify chronic effects of ambient air pollutants in Southern California. Prepared for the California Air Resources Board and the California Environmental Protection Agency.

Schelegle ES, Walby WF, Alfaro MF, Wong VJ, Putney L, Stovall MY, Sterner-Kock A, Hyde DM, Plopper CG. 2003. Repeated episodes of ozone inhalation attenuates airway injury/repair and release of substance P, but not adaptation. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 186:127-142.

Shafizadeh K, Niemeier D, Eisinger DS. 2004. Gross Emitting Vehicles: A Review of the Literature. Prepared for the California Department of Transportation, Task Order No. 27. Available at: http://aqp.engr.ucdavis.edu/Documents/Gross%20 Emitter%20Lit%20Review%20v11%5B1%5D.doc (Accessed May, 2006)

Solomon P, Cowling E, Hidy G, Furiness C. 2000. Comparison of scientific findings from major ozone field studies in North America and Europe. Atmospheric Environment 34:1885-1920.

Tager IB, Kunzli N, Lurmann F, Ngo L, Segal M, Balmes J. 1998. Methods development for epidemiologic investigations of the health effects of prolonged ozone exposure. Part II. An approach to retrospective estimation of lifetime ozone exposure using a questionnaire and ambient monitoring data (California sites). Research Report Health Effects Institute 81:27-78; discussion 109-21.

Union of Concerned Scientists. 2005. Backgrounder: Light trucks and air pollution. http://www.ucsusa.org/clean_vehicles/vehicles_health/ light-trucks-and-air-pollution.html Updated 2005

Wenzel T, Ross M, Sawyer R. 1997. Analysis of emissions deterioration of in-use vehicles, using Arizona IM240 data. Presented at the Society of Automotive Engineering Government/Industry Meeting, May 5-7, 1997, Washington, DC. Available at: http://enduse.lbl.gov/projects/vehicles/appendix_N.pdf (Accessed May, 2006)

Wenzel T, Singer B, Gumerman E, Sawyer R, Slott R. 2000. Evaluation of the Enhanced Smog Check Program: A Report to the California Inspection and Maintenance Review Committee. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, LBNL-46117. http://www.imreview.ca.gov/styles/smogcheck/ smog_full.htm

Wenzel TP, Ross M. 2005. The effects of vehicle model and drive behavior on risk. Accident Analysis and Prevention 37:479-494.

World Health Organization. 2003. Health Aspects of Air Pollution with Particulate Matter, Ozone and Nitrogen Dioxide. Report on a WHO Working Group. Bonn, Germany. http://www.euro.who.int/air/activities/20030612_1


Read the report and learn about how cars contribute to America's asthma epidemic. Smog causes lifelong damage to our children's lungs.

Read the report and learn about how cars contribute to America's asthma epidemic. Smog causes lifelong damage to our children's lungs.