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Thyroid Threat

Under Proposed Rocket Fuel Standards, Many Women Would Need Treatment To Protect Baby


October 30, 2006

Thyroid Threat: References

[1] Blount BC, Pirkle JL, Osterloh JD, Valentin-Blasini L, Caldwell KL. 2006. Urinary perchlorate and thyroid hormone levels in adolescent and adult men and women living in the United States. Environ Health Perspect. Online 5 October, 2006.

[2] Cooper, D., Sub-clinical thyroid disease: consensus or conundrum. Clinical Endocrinology, 2004: 60 (410-412).

[3] California Department of Food and Agriculture. 2004. Data cited in: Sharp, R. 2004. Rocket fuel contamination in California milk. Environmental Working Group. Available at

[4] Danelski D., Beeman D. 2003. Special Report: Growing concerns: While scientists debate the risks, a study finds the rocket-fuel chemical in inland lettuce. The Press-Enterprise. April 27, 2003

[5] Environmental Protection Agency. 2005. Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule data. Updated January 2005. Available at

[6] Environmental Working Group. 2003. Suspect Salads: Toxic rocket fuel found in samples of winter lettuce. Available at

[7] Environmental Working Group. 2004. Rocket fuel contamination in California milk. Available at

[8] Food and Drug Administration. 2004. Exploratory Data on Perchlorate in Food. Available at

[9] Kirk AB, Smith EE, Tian K, Anderson TA, Dasgupta PK. 2003. Perchlorate in milk. Environ Sci Technol. 37(21):4979-81.

[10] Kirk AB, Martinelango PK, Tian K, Dutta A, Smith EE, Dasgupta PK. 2005. Perchlorate and Iodide in Dairy and Breast Milk. Environ Sci Technol. 39(7):2011.

[11] Sanchez CA, Crump KS, Krieger RI, Khandaker NR, Gibbs JP. 2005. Perchlorate and nitrate in leafy vegetables of North America. Environ Sci Technol. 39(24):9391-7.

[12] Blount BC, Valentin-Blasini L, Osterlow JD, Mauldin JP, Pirkle JL. 2006. Perchlorate exposure of the U.S. population, 2001-2002. J Exp Sci Environ Epidem, Online 18 October 2006.

[13] Haddow JE, Palomake GE, Allan, WC, Williams JR, Knight GJ, and Gagnon J, et al. Maternal thyroid deficiency during pregnancy and subsequent neuropsychological development of the child. New England Journal of Medicine 1999: 341: 549-555

[14] Pop VJ, Kuijpens J., van Baar, AL, Verkert, G. et al, Low maternal free thyroxine concentrations during early pregnancy are associated with impaired psychomotor development in infancy. Clinical Endocrinology, 1999: 50 (149)

[15] Children's Health Protection Advisory Committee. 2006. Letter to EPA Administrator Stephen Johnson. March 8, 2006. Available at:

[16] Ginsberg G, Rice D. The NAS perchlorate review: questions remain about the perchlorate RfD. Environ Health Perspect. 2005 Sep;113(9):1117-9. Erratum in: Environ Health Perspect. 2005 Nov;113(11):A732.

[17] Surks M., Ortiz E., Daniels G., Sawin C., Col N., Cobin R., Franklyn J., Hershman J., Burman K., Denke M., Gorman C., Cooper R., Weissman N. 2004. Subclinical Thyroid Disease. Subclinical Thyroid Disease. Journal of the American Medical Association, 2004: 228-238.

[18] Cooper, D., Sub-clinical thyroid disease: consensus or conundrum. Clinical Endocrinology, 2004: 60 (410-412).

[19] Hollowell JG, Staehling NW, Flanders WD, Hannon WH, Gunter EW, Spencer CA, Braverman LE. 2002. Serum TSH, T(4), and thyroid antibodies in the United States population (1988 to 1994): National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III).J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 87(2):489-99.

[20] World Health Organization and Food and Agriculture Organization. 1998. Vitamin and mineral requirements in human nutrition. Second Edition. September 1998. Available at:

[21] Zoeller, T. 2006. Collision of Basic and Applied Approaches to Risk Assessment of Thyroid Toxicants in forthcoming volume. Living in a chemical world: framing the future in light of the past. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 2006: 168-190.

[22] National Academies Press titled Health implication of Perchlorate Ingestion (2005)

[23] Greer MA, Goodman G, Pleus RC, Greer SE. 2002. Health effects assessment for environmental perchlorate contamination: the dose-response for inhibition of thyroidal radioiodine uptake in humans. Environ Health Perspect 110:927&em;937.

[24] Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 2002a. Perchlorate Environmental Contamination: Toxicological Review and Risk Characterization (External Review Draft). U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development. Washington, D.C. NCEA-1-0503.

[25] Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 2002b. Report on the Peer Review of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 's Draft External Review Document "Perchlorate Environmental Contamination: Toxicological Review and Risk Characterization." March 5-6. Sacramento, California. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Washington D.C. EPA/635/R-02/003.

[26] Dunn, J.T. 1998. What's Happening to Our Iodine? The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 83(10)3398-3400.

[27] Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA). 2004. Public Health Goal for Perchlorate in Drinking Water. Pesticide and Environmental Toxicology Section. Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment California Environmental Protection Agency. March 2004.

[28] Hollowell, J.G. Et al. 1998. Iodine Nutrition in the United States. Trends and Public Health Implication: Iodine Excretion Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey I and III (1971-1974 and 1988-1994). J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 83(10):3401-8.