Sign up to receive email updates, action alerts & health tips from EWG. [Privacy]


Overloaded?: References

December 13, 2004

American Academy of Pediatrics, Center for Disease Control's National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities. 2004. Autism A.L.A.R.M.

Autism Society of America. 2003. Autism Cost to Economy in Billions. Available at:

Baieli S, Pavone L, Meli C, Fiumara A, Coleman M. 2003. Autism and phenylketonuria. J Autism Dev Disord. 33(2):201-4.

Ballatori N, Lieberman MW, Wang W. 1998. N-acetylcysteine as an antidote in methylmercury poisoning. Environ Health Perspect. 106(5):267-71.

Banner W Jr, Koch M, Capin DM, Hopf SB, Chang S, Tong TG. 1986. Experimental chelation therapy in chromium, lead, and boron intoxication with N-acetylcysteine and other compounds. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 83(1):142-7.

Barclay L. 2004. Mercury Linked to Autism-Like Damage in Mice: Institute of Medicine Says Study Does Not Support Link Between Mercury, Autism in Humans. WebMD Medical News. June 9, 2004. Available at:

Barlow BK 2004. A fetal risk factor for Parkinson's disease. Dev Neurosci. 26(1):11-23.

Barlow BK, Lee DW, Cory-Slechta DA, Opanashuk LA. 2005. Modulation of antioxidant defense systems by the environmental pesticide maneb in dopaminergic cells. Neurotoxicology. 26(1):63-75.

Baskin DS, Ngo H, Didenko VV. 2003. Thimerosal induces DNA breaks, caspase-3 activation, membrane damage, and cell death in cultured human neurons and fibroblasts. Tox Sci 74(2):361-8.

Bernard S. 2001. Autism: a novel form of mercury poisoning. Medical Hypotheses 56(4):462-471.

Blaxill M. 2001. Presentation to Immunization Safety Review Committee. Rising Incidence of Autism: Association with Thimerosal. Cambridge, Massachusetts. July 16, 2001. Available at:

Blaxill M. 2004a. What's Going On? The Question of Time Trends in Autism. Public Health Reports. (119)536-551.

Blaxill M, Redwood L, Bernard S. 2004b. Thimerosal and autism? A plausible hypothesis that should not be dismissed. Medical Hypotheses. (62)788-94.

Borras C, Sastre J, Garcia Sala D, Lloret A, Pallardo FV, Vina J. 2003. Mitochondria from females exhibit higher antioxidant gene expression and lower oxidative damage than males. Free Radical Biology & Medicine. 34(5):546-52.

Cemerski S. 2002. Reactive Oxygen Species Differentially Affect T Cell Receptor-signaling Pathways. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 227(22):19585-92.

Centers for Disease Control. 1995. Recommended Childhood Immunization Schedule -- United States, 1995. Last reviewed May 2001.

Centers for Disease Control. 2004. Questions & Answers: Thimerosal-Containing Influenza Vaccine. Updated October 26, 2004.

Chrysochoou C. 2003. An 11-month-old boy with psychomotor regression and auto-aggressive behaviour. Eur J Pediatr. (162):559-561.

Clarkson TW. 2002. Three modern faces of mercury. Environmental Health Perspectives. 110(Suppl 1):11-23.

Croen LA, Grether JK. 2003. A Response to Blaxill, Baskin, and Spitzer on Croen et al. (2002), 'The Changing Prevalence of Autism in California.' Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 33(2):227-9.

Desole MS, Esposito G, Migheli R, Sircana S, Delogu MR, Fresu L, Miele M, de Natale G, Miele E. 1997. Glutathione deficiency potentiates manganese toxicity in rat striatum and brainstem and in PC12 cells. Pharmacol Res. 36(4):285-92.

Du L, Bayir H, Lai Y, Zhang X, Kochanek PM, Watkins SC, Graham SH, Clark RS. 2004. Innate gender-based proclivity in response to cytotoxicity and programmed cell death pathway. J Biol Chem. 279(37):38563-70.

Engel LS. 2002. Pooled analysis and meta-analysis of Glutathione S-Transferase M1 and Bladder Cancer: a HuGE review. Am J Epidemiol (156):95-109.

Erden-Inal M, Sunal E, Kanbak G. 2002. Age-related changes in the glutathione redox system. Cell Biochem Funct. 20(1):61-6.

Fan P, Yamauchi T, Noble LJ, Ferriero DM. 2003. Age-Dependent Differences in Glutathione Peroxidase Activity After Traumatic Brain Injury. Journal of Neurotrauma. 20(5):437-445.

Flora SJ. 1999. Arsenic-induced oxidative stress and its reversibility following combined administration of N-acetylcysteine and meso 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid in rats. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 26(11):865-9.

Fonnum F, Lock EA. 2000. Cerebellum as a target for toxic substances. Toxicol Lett. (112-113):9-16.

Food and Drug Administration, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research. 2004a. Mercury in Plasma-Derived Products. Updated September 9, 2004

FDA Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research. 2004b. Mercury in Vaccines Updated September 28, 2004.

Gimenez-Llort L, Ahlbom E, Dare E, Vahter M, Ogren S, Ceccatelli S. 2001. Prenatal exposure to methylmercury changes dopamine-modulated motor activity during early ontogeny: age and gender-dependent effects. Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 9(3):61-70.

Granot E, Kohen R. 2004. Oxidative stress in childhood health and disease states. Clinical Nutrition 23(1):3-11.

Hallier E, Schroder KR, Asmuth K, Dommermuth A, Aust B, Goergens HW. 1994. Metabolism of dichloromethane (methylene chloride) to formaldehyde in human erythrocytes: influence of polymorphism of glutathione transferase theta (GST T1-1). Arch Toxicol. 68(7):423-7.

Hehner SP. 2000. Enhancement of T cell receptor signaling by a mild oxidative shift in the intracellular thiol pool. J. Immunol. 165(8):4319-4328.

Henderson P, Hale TW, Shum S, Habersang RW. 1985. N-Acetylcysteine therapy of acute heavy metal poisoning in mice.Vet Hum Toxicol. 27(6):522-5.

Holmes AS, Blaxill MF, Haley BE. 2003. Reduced Levels of Mercury in First Baby Haircuts of Autistic Children. International Journal of Toxicology, (22):277-285.

Hornig M, Chian D, Lipkin WI. 2004. Neurotoxic effects of postnatal thimerosal are mouse strain dependent. Mol Psychiatry. 9(9):833-45.

Institute of Medicine. 2004a. Press Release: MMR Vaccine and Thimerosal-Containing Vaccines Are Not Associated With Autism, IOM Report Says. May 18, 2004.

Institute of Medicine. 2004b. Immunization Safety Review: Vaccines and Autism. National Academies Press. Available at:

Jalili MA, Abbasi AH. 1961. Poisoning by ethyl mercury toluene sulphonanilide. Br J Ind Med. (18):303-8.

James SJ, Cutler P, Melnyk S, Hernigan S, Janak L, Gaylor DW, Neubrander JA. 2004a. Metabolic biomarkers of increased oxidative stress and methylation capacity in children with autism. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 80(6):1611-1617. [Advanced copy available at]

James SJ, et al. 2004b. Unpublished results follow-up testing of 75 autistic children and 42 controls. Personal communication with EWG.

James SJ, Slikker W 3rd, Melnyk S, New E, Pogribna M, Jernigan S. 2005. Thimerosal Neurotoxicity is Associated with Glutathione Depletion: Protection with Glutathione Precursors. Neurotoxicology. 26(1):1-8.

Jefferies H. 2003. The role of glutathione in intestinal dysfunction. J Invest Surg. 16(6):315-23.

Kates WR, Burnette CP, Eliez S, Strunge LA, Kaplan D, Landa R, Reiss AL, Pearlson GD. 2004. Neuroanatomic variation in monozygotic twin pairs discordant for the narrow phenotype for autism. Am J Psychiatry. 161(3):539-46.

Klein JA, Ackerman SL. 2003. Oxidative stress, cell cycle, and neurodegeneration. In Redox Signaling in Biology and Disease, Roy J. Soberman, Series Editor J. Clin. Invest. (111):785-793.

Kondo K. 2000. Congenital Minamata disease: warning from Japan's experience. J Child Neurol. 15(7):458-64.

Lavoie JC, Chessex P. 1997. Gender and maturation affect glutathione statues in human neonatal tissues. Free Radical Biology & Medicine. 23(4)648-57.

Lee DW, Opanashuk LA. 2004. Polychlorinated biphenyl mixture aroclor 1254-induced oxidative stress plays a role in dopaminergic cell injury. Neurotoxicology. 25(6):925-39.

Levin. 2004. 'Taking It to Vaccine Court; Parents say mercury in shots caused their children's autism, and they want drug firms to pay. The industry calls its defense rock-solid.' Los Angeles Times, August 7, 2004. Foreign Desk; Part A; Pg. 1.

Li N, Kim S, Wang M, Froines J, Sioutas C, Nel A. 2002. Use of a stratified oxidative stress model to study the biological effects of ambient concentrated and diesel exhaust particulate matter. Inhal Toxicol. 14(5):459-86.

Limke TL, Heidemann SF, Atchison WD. 2004. Disruption of intraneuronal divalent cation regulation by methylmercury: are specific targets involved in altered neuronoal development and cytotoxicity in methylmercury poisoning? NeruroToxicology. (25):741-60.

London E, Etzel RA. 2000. The environment as an etiologic factor in autism: A new direction for research. Environmental Health Perspectives. (108)S3.

Mahaffey KR. 1999. Methylmercury: A new look at the risks. Public Health Reports. 114(5):402-13.

Mahaffey KR. 2004. Methylmercury: Epidemiology Update. Slide presentation given at the National Forum on Contaminants in Fish. San Diego, CA. January 26, 2004.
presentations/monday/mahaffey.pdf Accessed November 29, 2004.

Makani S. 2002. Biochemical and molecular basis of thimerosal-induced apoptosis in T cells: a major role of mitochondrial pathway. Genes and Immunity 3(5)270-278.

Martensson J. 1990. Glutathione is required for intestinal function. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (87):1715-19.

Martinez-Cruz F, Pozo D, Osuna C, Espinar A, Marchante C, Guerrero JM. 2002. Oxidative stress induced by phenylketonuria in the rat: Prevention by melatonin, vitamin E, and vitamin C. J Neurosci Res. 69(4):550-8.

McAlonan GM, Cheung V, Cheung C, Suckling J, Lam GY, Tai KS, Yip L, Murphy DG, Chua SE. 2004. Mapping the brain in autism. A voxel-based MRI study of volumetric differences and intercorrelations in autism. Brain. (0):3321.

McCormick MC. 2001. Opening Statement, Institute of Medicine News Conference on the Institute of Medicine Report on Thimerosal and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes, October 2001. Available at:

McDowell MA, Dillon CF, Osterloh J, Bolger PM, Pellizzari E, Fernando R, Montes de Oca R, Schober SE, Sinks T, Jones RL, Mahaffey KR. 2004. Hair mercury levels in U.S. children and women of childbearing age: reference range data from NHANES 1999-2000. Environ Health Perspect. 112(11):1165-7.

Ono H. 2001. Plasma total glutathione concentrations in healthy pediatric and adult subjects. Clin Chim Acta. 312(1-2):227-9.

Perry SW, Norman JP, Litzburg A, Gelbard HA. 2004. Antioxidants are required during the early critical period, but not later, for neuronal survival. J Neurosci Res. 78(4):485-92.

Pichichero ME, Cernichiari E, Lopreiato J, Treanor J.Mercury concentrations and metabolism in infants receiving vaccines containing thiomersal: a descriptive study. Lancet. 360(9347):1737-41.

Ristoff E, Larsson A. 2002. Oxidative stress in inborn errors of metabolism: Lessons from glutathione deficiency. J Inherit Metab Dis. (25):223-226.

Rush JW, Sandiford SD. 2003. Plasma glutathione peroxidase in healthy young adults: influence of gender and physical activity. Clin Biochem. 36(5):345-51.

Sakamoto M, Nakano A, Akagi H. 2001. Declining Minamata male birth ratio associated with increased male fetal death due to heavy methylmercury pollution. Environ. Res. (87):92-98.

Samiec PS. 2000. Glutathione S-Transferase in Mucus of Rat Small Intestine. Tox Sci (54):52-59.

Schulz JB, Lindenau J, Seyfried J, Dichgans J. 2000. Glutathione, oxidative stress and neurodegeneration. Eur. J. Biochem. (267)4904-11.

Shanker G, Aschner M. 2003. Methylmercury-induced reactive oxygen species formation in neonatal cerebral astrocytic cultures is attenuated by antioxidants. Molecular Brain Research. (110):85-91.

Shulman RG, Rothman DL, Behar KL, Hyder F. 2004. Energetic basis of brain activity: implications for neuroimaging. Trends Neurosci. 27(8):489-95.

Skullerud K, Marstein S,Schrader H,Brunde let PJ, Jellum E. 1980. The cerebral lesions in a patient with generalized glutathione deficiency and pyroglutamic aciduria (5-oxoprolinuria). Acta Neuropathol (52):235-238.

Sorensen N, Murata K, Butz-Jorgensen E, Weihe P, Grandjean P. 1999. Prenatal methylmercury exposure as a cardiovascular risk factor at seven years of age. Epidemiology. 10(4):370-5.

Stajich GV, Lopez GP, Harry SW, Sexson WR. 2000. Iatrogenic exposure to mercury after hepatitis B vaccination in preterm infants. J Pediatr. 136(5):679-81.

Stohs SJ, Bagchi D. 1995. Oxidative mechanisms in the toxicity of metal ions. Free Radical Biology & Medicine. 18(2)321-336.

Tandon SK, Singh S, Prasad S, Khandekar K, Dwivedi VK, Chatterjee M, Mathur N. 2003. Reversal of cadmium induced oxidative stress by chelating agent, antioxidant or their combination in rat. Toxicol Lett. 10(145)3:211-7.

Ueha-Ishibashi T, Oyama Y, Nakao H, Umebayashi C, Nishizaki Y, Tatsuishi T, Iwase K, Murao K, Seo H. 2004. Effect of thimerosal, a preservative in vaccines, on intracellular Ca(2+) concentration of rat cerebellar neurons. Toxicology. 195(1):77-84.

Vahter M, Berglund M, Akesson A, Liden C. 2002. Metals and Women's Health. Environmental Research Section A. (88):145-55.

Vargas D. 2004. Neuroglial activation and neuroinflammation in the brain of patients with autism. Annals of Neurology. DOI: 10.1002/ana.20315

Verstraeten T. 2004. Thimerosal, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and GlaxoSmithKline. Pediatrics. 113(4):932.

Waly M, Olteanu H, Banerjee R, Choi SW, Mason JB, Parker BS, Sukumar S, Shim S, Sharma A, Benzecry JM, Power-Charnitsky VA, Deth RC. 2004. Activation of methionine synthase by insulin-like growth factor-1 and dopamine: a target for neurodevelopmental toxins and thimerosal. Mol Psychiatry 9(4):358-70.

Warkany J. 1966. Acrodynia - postmortem of a disease. Am J Dis Child (112):147-156.

Weiss B, Clarkson TW, Simon W. 2002. Silent latency periods in methylmercury poisoning and in neurodegenerative disease. Environ Health Perspect. 110(Suppl 5):851-4.

Westphal GA, Schnuch A, Schulz TG, Reich K, Aberer W, Brasch J, Koch P, Wessbecher R, Szliska C, Bauer A, Hallier E. 2000. Homozygous gene deletions of the glutathione S-transferases M1 and T1 are associated with thimerosal sensitization. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 73(6):384-8.

White JF. 2003. Intestinal Pathophysiology in Autism. Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine. 228(6):639-49.

Wu MM, Chiou HY, Wang TW, Hsueh YM, Wang IH, Chen CJ, Lee TC. 2001. Association of blood arsenic levels with increased reactive oxidants and decreased antioxidant capacity in a human population of northeastern Taiwan. Environ Health Perspect. 109(10):1011-7.