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References Cited

Forbidden Fruit | Illegal Pesticides in the US Food Supply: References Cited

February 1, 1995

Code of Federal Regulations 1992. Title 40, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, Parts 180, 185, and 186.

Code of Federal Regulations 1992. Title 40, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, Parts 180, 185, and 186.

Colborn, Theo, Frederick vom Saal, Ana Soto 1993. Developmental Effects of Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals in Wildlife and Humans. Environmental Health Perspectives. 101(5):379.

EPA 1990. Suspended, Canceled, and Restricted Pesticides. February 1990.

EPA 1994a. List of Chemicals Evaluated for Carcinogenic Potential. Memo to EPA Health Effects Division by Rito Engler, Ph.D.. April 1, 1994.

EPA 1994b. Pesticide Reregistration Program Report. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. April 1994.

Farm Chemicals Handbook 1994. Meister Publishing Company. Willoughby, Ohio. 1994.

FDA 1986. FDA Action Levels for Unavoidable Pesticide Residues in Food and Feed Commodities. Food and Drug Administration Compliance Policy Guides, Chapter 41 (7141.01) - Pesticides, December 1986. Updated as of January 1995. Received through personal communication with John R. Wessel, Director FDA Contaminants Policy Staff.

FDA 1992. Food and Drug Administration Pesticide Monitoring Data Base, FY 1992. Surveillance data only.

FDA 1993. Food and Drug Administration Pesticide Monitoring Data Base, FY 1993. Surveillance data only.

FDA 1993a. New Zealand Certified Fruit Shipment Guidance. Memorandum from Acting Chief, Import Programs Branch, Division of Field Program Planning and Evaluation to All RFDDs, Directors, and Import Managers. October 29, 1993.

FDA 1993b. Food and Drug Administration Pesticide Program - Residue Monitoring 1992. Journal of AOAC International. 1993.

FDA 1994a. Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition/Division of Pesticides and Industrial Chemicals. Summary of Pesticides Recovered Through Six Multiresidue Methods Used in FDA Pesticide Program, January 24, 1994.

FDA 1994b. FDA Comments on GAO Draft Report Entitled: Food Safety: Changes Needed to Minimize Unsafe Chemical Residues. Memo from Diane Thompson, HHS, to John Harmon, GAO. Aug. 5, 1994.

FDA 1994c. Food and Drug Administration Pesticide Program - Residue Monitoring 1993. Journal of AOAC International. 1993.

Fisher 1992a. Memo from Linda Fisher, Assistant Administrator EPA to Senator Edward Kennedy comparing the Theoretical Maximum Residue Contribution to the Reference Dose. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. March 30, 1992.

Fisher 1992b. List of Food Use Carcinogens and Their Risk Numbers Based on the Theoretical Maximum Residue Contribution. Memo from Linda Fisher, Assistant Administrator EPA to Keith Pitts. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

Fried 1995. Personal communication with Larry Fried for Section 18 emergency pesticide exemptions, Emergency Response Section, Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Prevention, Pesticides, and Toxic Substances. January 20, 1995.

Foreign Agricultural Trade of the U.S. 1993. Department of Commerce. November/December 1993.

GAO 1980a. Need for Comprehensive Pesticide Use Data. GAO/CED-80-145. September 30, 1980.

GAO 1980b. Further Federal Action Needed to Detect and Control Environmental Contamination of Food. GAO/CED-81-19. December 31, 1980.

GAO 1981. Stronger Enforcement Needed Against Misuse of Pesticides. GAO/CED-82-5. October 15, 1981.

GAO 1984. Legislative Changes and Administrative Improvements Should Be Considered for FDA to Better Protect the Public From Adulterated Food Products. GAO/HRD-84-61. September 26, 1984.

GAO 1986a. Pesticides: Better Sampling and Enforcement Needed on Imported Food. GAO/RCED-86-219. September 26, 1986.

GAO 1986b. Food And Drug Administration: Laboratory Analysis of Product Samples Needs to Be More Timely. GAO/HRD-86-102. September 1986.

GAO 1986c. Pesticides: Need to Enhance FDA's Ability to Protect the Public From Illegal Residues. GAO/RCED-87-7. April 18, 1986.

GAO 1987. Federal Regulation of Pesticide Residues in Food. GAO/T-RCED-87-21. April, 30, 1987. Testimony.

GAO 1988. Agricultural Trade. Causes and Impacts of Increased Fruit and Vegetable Imports. GAO/RCED-88-149-BR. May 1988.

GAO 1989a. Imported Foods: Opportunities to Improve FDA's Inspection Program. GAO/HRD-89-88. April 28, 1989.

GAO 1989b. Guidelines Needed for EPA's Tolerance Assessments of Pesticide Residues in Food. GAO/T-RCED-89-35. May 17, 1989. Testimony. GAO 1989c. Domestic Food Safety: FDA Could Improve Inspection Program to Make Better Use of Resources. GAO/HRD-89-125. September 27, 1989.

GAO 1990a. Food Safety and Quality: Five Countries' Efforts to Meet U.S. Requirements on Imported Produce. GAO/RCED-90-55. March 22, 1990.

GAO 1990b. Five Latin American Countries' Controls Over the Registration and Use of Pesticides. GAO/T-RCED-90-57, March 28, 1990. Testimony.

GAO 1990c. U.S. Food Exports: Five Countries Standards and Procedures for Testing Pesticide Residues. GAO/NSIAD-91-90. December 20, 1990.

GAO 1990d. Food Safety and Quality: Who Does What in the Federal Government. GAO/RCED-91-19B. December 21, 1990.

GAO 1992a. Pesticides: Comparison of U.S. and Mexican Pesticide Standards and Enforcement. GAO/RCED-92-140. June 17, 1992.

GAO 1992b. Food Safety and Quality: Uniform, Risk-Based Inspection System is Needed to Ensure Safe Food Supply. GAO/RCED-92-209. June 26, 1992.

GAO 1992c. Pesticides: Differences in U.S. and Mexican Pesticide Standards and Enforcement. GAO/T-RCED-92-62. July 9, 1992. Testimony.

GAO 1992d. Pesticides: Adulterated Imported Foods Are Reaching U.S. Grocery Shelves. GAO/RCED-92-205. September 24, 1992.

GAO 1993a. Pesticides: U.S. and Mexican Fruit and Vegetable Pesticide Programs Differ. GAO/T-RCED-93-9. February 18, 1993.

GAO 1993b. Pesticides: Status of FDA's Efforts to Improve Monitoring and Enforcement. GAO/T-RCED-93-55. June 16, 1993. Testimony.

GAO 1993c. Pesticides: Limited Testing Finds Few Exported Unregistered Pesticide Violations on Imported Foods. GAO/RCED-94-1. October 6, 1993.

GAO 1993d. Food Safety: A Unified, Risk-Based System Needed to Enhance Food Safety. GAO/RCED-94-71. November 4, 1993.

GAO 1994a. Food Safety: A Unified, Risk-Based Food Safety System Needed. GAO/T-RCED-94-233. May 25, 1994. Testimony.

GAO 1994b. Food Safety: Changes Needed to Minimize Unsafe Chemicals in Food. GAO/RCED-94-192. September 26, 1994.

GAO 1994c. Pesticides: Reducing Exposure to Residues of Canceled Pesticides. GAO/RCED-95-23. December 28, 1994.

Jones 1994. Personal communication with John Jones, Office of Policy, Planning, and Strategic Initiatives, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Food and Drug Administration. November 1994.

NRC 1993. Pesticides in the Diets of Infants and Children. National Research Council. National Academy Press. Washington, DC. June 1993.

Shank 1991. Testimony of Fred R. Shank, Director of Center of Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Food and Drug Administration before the Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources. July 10, 1991.

USDA 1993a. U.S. Imports of Fruits and Vegetables Under Plant Quarantine Regulations, Fiscal Year 1991. Economic Research Service. Statistical Bulletin Number 859. August 1993.

USDA 1993b. Food Consumption, Prices, and Expenditures, 1970-1992. Economic Research Service. Statistical Bulletin Number 867. September 1993.

USDA 1995a. Vegetables 1994 Summary (Vg 1-2(95)). National Agricultural Statistics Service. January 1995.

USDA 1995b. Noncitrus Fruits and Nuts 1994 Preliminary (FR NT 1-3(95)). National Agricultural Statistics Service. January 1995.

Wessel 1995. Personal communication with John R. Wessel, Director, Contaminants Policy Staff, Food and Drug Administration Regulatory Affairs. February 2 and 7, 1995.

Wiles and Campbell 1993. Pesticides in Children's Foods. Environmental Working Group. June 1993.

Wiles, Elderkin, and Campbell 1994. Environmental Working Group Testimony before the Subcommittee on Economic Policy, Trade and the Environment, House Committee on Foreign Affairs. January 26, 1994.

Wiles and Campbell 1994. Washed, Peeled--Contaminated. Environmental Working Group. May 1994.

Wiles, Cohen, Campbell, and Elderkin 1994. Tap Water Blues. Environmental Working Group and Physicians for Social Responsibility. October 1994.

Young 1987. Testimony of Frank Young, Commissioner of the Food and Drug Administration before the House Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations of the Committee on Energy and Commerce. April 30, 1987.