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EWG's Guide to Infant Formula and Baby Bottles: References

December 5, 2007

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Aguayo VM, Ross JS, Kanon S, Ouedraogo AN. 2003. Monitoring compliance with International Code of Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes in west Africa: multisite cross sectional survey in Togo and Burkina Faso. BMJ 326(127): 6.

Akingbemi BT, Sottas CM, Koulova AI, Klinefelter GR, Hardy MP. 2004. Inhibition of testicular steroidogenesis by the xenoestrogen bisphenol A is associated with reduced pituitary luteinizing hormone secretion and decreased steroidogenic enzyme gene expression in rat Leydig cells. Endocrinology 145(2): 592-603.

Biles JE, McNeal TP, Begley TH. 1997. FDA-Determination of bisphenol A migrating from epoxy can coatings to infant formula liquid concentrates. J Agric Food Chem 45: 4697-700.

Brede C, Fjeldal P, Skjevrak I, Herikstad H. 2003. Increased migration levels of bisphenol A from polycarbonate baby bottles after dishwashing, boiling and brushing. Food Addit Contam 20(7): 684-9.

Bucher J. 2007. Meeting Presentation: CERHR Second Expert Panel Meeting on Bisphenol A. August 6-8, 2007: NIEHS-National Toxicology Program. Alexandria, VA.

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CERHR. 2007a. 2nd DRAFT NTP-CERHR report on the Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity of Bisphenol A. Interim Draft. Research Triangle Park, NC: National Toxicology Program-Center for Evaluation for Risks to Human Reproduction. April 2007. Public comments:

CERHR. 2007b. NTP-CERHR Expert Panel Report on the Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity of Bisphenol A. Research Triangle Park, NC: National Toxicology Program-Center for Evaluation for Risks to Human Reproduction. November 26, 2007.

CSL. 2004. A study of the migration of bisphenol A from polycarbonate feeding bottles into food simulants. Central Science Laboratory Test Report, L6BB-1008.

D'Antuono A, Dall'Orto VC, Lo Balbo A, Sobral S, Rezzano I. 2001. Determination of bisphenol A in food-simulating liquids using LCED with a chemically modified electrode. J Agric Food Chem 4: 1098-2101.

Earls AO, Clay CA, Braybrook JH. 2000. Preliminary investigation into the migration of bisphenol A from commercially-available polycarbonate baby feeding bottles. Final Report prepared by LGC Consumer Safety Team for the Consumer Affairs Directorate, Department of Trade and Industry. Technical Report LGC/DTI/2000/005.

EFSA. 2006. Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in Contact with Food on a request from the Commission related to 2,2-Bis(4-Hydroxyphenyl)Propane (Bisphenol A). European Food Safety Authority. Question number EFSA-Q-2005-100. November 29, 2006.

Environment California, Gibson R. 2007. Toxic Baby Bottles--Scientific study finds leaching chemicals in clear plastic baby bottles. Available: [accessed Access 2007].

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EWG. 2007a. Toxic Plastics Chemical in Infant Formula. Environmental Working Group, Washington DC. Available: [accessed 2007].

EWG. 2007b. Bisphenol A: Toxic Plastics Chemical in Canned Food. Environmental Working Group, Washington DC. Available: [accessed 2007].

FCPSA. 2005. Migration of bisphenol A and plasticizers from plastic feeding utensils for babies. Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority, Report no. ND05o410.

FDA. 1984. Sec. 500.450 Volatile N-Nitrosamines in Rubber Baby Bottle Nipples (CPG 7117.11). Food and Drug Administration.

FDA. 1996. Cumulative Exposure Estimated for Bisphenol A (BPA), Individually for Adults and Infants from Its Use in Epoxy-Based Can Coatings and Polycarbonate (PC) Articles Branch, HFS-245. (letter to G. Diachenki, Ph.D, Division of Product Manufacture and Use, HGS-245.)

FDA. 2006. Indirect food additives: Adhesives and components of coatings, 175.380 Xylene-formaldehyde resins condensed with 4,4?-isopropylidenediphenol-epichlorohydrin epoxy resins. 21CFR175.380, Revised April 1, 2006. Food and Drug Administration, 194-95.

Freishtat RJ, Goepp JG. 2002. Episodic stridor with latex nipple use in a 2-month-old infant. Ann Emerg Med 39(4): 441-3.

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Honma S, Suzuki, A., Buchanan, D.L., Katsu, Y., Watanabe, H., Iguchi, T. 2002. Low dose effect of in utero exposure to bisphenol A and diethylstilbestrol on female mouse reproduction. Reprod Toxicol 16(2): 117-22.

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Kawai K, Nozaki T, Nishikata H, Aou S, Takii M, Kubo C. 2003. Aggressive behavior and serum testosterone concentration during the maturation process of male mice: the effects of fetal exposure to bisphenol A. Environ Health Perspect 111(2): 175-8.

Kuo HW, Ding WH. 2004. Trace determination of bisphenol A and phytoestrogens in infant formula powders by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A 1027(1-2): 67-74.

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Murray TJ, Maffini MV, Ucci AA, Sonnenschein C, Soto AM. 2007. Induction of mammary gland ductal hyperplasias and carcinoma in situ following fetal bisphenol A exposure. Reprod Toxicol 23(3): 383-90.

Nagel SC, vom Saal FS, Welshons WV. 1999. Developmental effects of estrogenic chemicals are predicted by an in vitro assay incorporating modification of cell uptake by serum. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 69(1-6): 343-57.

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vom Saal FS, Akingbemi BT, Belcher SM, Birnbaum, LS, Crain, DA, Eriksen, M, Farabollini, F, Guillette, L.J., Hauser, R., Heindel JJ, Ho SM, Hunt PA, Iguchi T, Jobling S, Kanno J, Keri RA, Knudsen KE, Laufer H, LeBlanc GA, Marcus M, McLachlan JA, Myers JP, Nadal A, Newbold RR, Olea N, Prins GS, Richter CA, Rubin BS, Sonnenschein C, Soto AM, Talsness CE, Vandenbergh JG, Vandenberg LN, Walser-Kuntz DR, Watson CS, Welshons WV, Wetherill Y, Zoeller RT. 2007. Chapel Hill bisphenol A expert panel consensus statement: integration of mechanisms, effects in animals and potential to impact human health at current levels of exposure. Reprod Toxicol 24(2): 131-8.

Westin JB. 1990. Ingestion of carcinogenic N-nitrosamines by infants and children. Arch Environ Health 45(6): 359-63.