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References

Ethanol's Broken Promise: References

May 29, 2014
  1. Environmental Working Group (EWG) 2012 Plowed Under: How Crop Subsidies Contribute to Massive Habitat Losses. http://static.ewg.org/pdf/plowed_under.pdf
  2. EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) 2012 Sources of Greenhouse Gas Emissions: http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/ghgemissions/sources/transportation.html
  3. EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) EPA Proposes 2014 Renewable Fuel Standards. http://www.epa.gov/OTAQ/fuels/renewablefuels/documents/420f13048.pdf
  4. National Research Council 2011 Renewable Fuel Standard: Potential Economic and Environmental Effects of U.S. Biofuel Policy. http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=13105
  5. Plevin et al. 2010 Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Biofuels’ Indirect Land Use Change Are Uncertain but May Be Much Greater than Previously Estimated. http://pubs.acs.org/doi/full/10.1021/es101946t
  6. Ibid
  7. EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) 2010a Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Changes to Renewable Fuel Standard Program; Final Rule. http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-03-26/pdf/2010-3851.pdf
  8. Jacobson, MZ 2005 Correction to “Control of fossil-fuel particulate black carbon and organic matter, possibly the most effective method of slowing global warming.” J. Geophys. Res. 110. pp. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/2005JD005888/abstract
  9. EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) 2010b Fuel-Specific Lifecycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions Results: http://www.regulations.gov/#!documentDetail;D=EPA-HQOAR- 2005-0161-3173
  10. Ibid
  11. EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) 2010c Renewable Fuel Standard Program (RFS2) Regulatory Impact Analysis. http://www.epa.gov/otaq/renewablefuels/420r10006.pdf
  12. CATF 2013 Corn Ethanol GHG Emissions Under Various RFS Implementation Scenarios. http://www.catf.us/resources/whitepapers/files/20130405-CATF%20White%20P... RFS%20Scenarios.pdf
  13. Ibid
  14. Wang et al. 2012 Well-to-wheels energy use and greenhouse gas emissions of ethanol from corn, sugarcane and cellulosic biomass for US use. Environmental Research Letters http://iopscience.iop.org/1748-9326/7/4/045905
  15. EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) 2010c Renewable Fuel Standard Program (RFS2) Regulatory Impact Analysis. http://www.epa.gov/otaq/renewablefuels/420r10006.pdf
  16. Calculated assuming the typical passenger vehicle emits 5.1 metric tons CO2e per year. From EPA: http://www.epa.gov/otaq/climate/documents/420f11041.pdf
  17. Biotechnology Industry Organization (BIO) 2014 Estimating GHG Emissions from Proposed Changes to the Renewable Fuel Standard through 2022. http://www.bio.org/articles/estimating-ghgemissions-proposed-changes-ren... through-2022
  18. Wang et al. 2012
  19. Plevin et al. 2010 Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Biofuels’ Indirect Land Use Change Are Uncertain but May Be Much Greater than Previously Estimated. http://pubs.acs.org/doi/full/10.1021/es101946t
  20. Keeney and Hertel 2009 The indirect land use impacts of United States biofuel policies: the importance of acreage, yield, and bilateral trade responses. http://ajae.oxfordjournals.org/content/91/4/895.short
  21. Lobell et al. 2009 Crop Yield Gaps: Their Importance, Magnitudes, and Causes. Annual Review of Environment and Resources http://www.annualreviews.org/eprint/RUHIqTZ2TjdVwfVGSktf/full/10.1146/an...
  22. Mueller et al. 2012 Closing yield gaps through nutrient and water management. Nature http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v490/n7419/abs/nature11420.html
  23. Earth Policy Institute, “Many Countries Reaching Diminishing Marginal Returns in Fertilizer Use” Lester Brown. January, 2014 http://www.earthpolicy.org/data_highlights/2014/highlights43
  24. Tilman et al. 2002 Agricultural sustainability and intensive production practices. Nature http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v418/n6898/abs/nature01014.html
  25. Lobell et al. 2009
  26. Taheripour et al. 2013 The role of irrigation in determining the global land use impacts of biofuels. Energy, Sustainability and Society 2013, 3:4 http://www.energsustainsoc.com/content/3/1/4
  27. IPCC, 2007: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment. Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. https://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/ar4/wg1/en/contents.html
  28. Crutzen, P. J. et al. 2008. N2O release from agrobiofuel production negates global warming reduction by replacing fossil fuels, Atmos. Chem. Phys doi:10.5194/acp-8-389-2008