Sign up to receive email updates, action alerts & health tips from EWG. [Privacy]


Down the Drain: References

July 12, 2007

Adolfsson-Erici M, Peterson M, Parkkonen J, Sturve J. 2002. Triclosan, a commonly used bactericide found in human milk and in the aquatic environment in Sweden. Chemosphere 46(9-10): 1485-1489.

AHA. 2007. Insulin Resistance: American Heart Association.

Alatriste-Mondragon F, Iranpour R, Ahring BK. 2003. Toxicity of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate on the anaerobic digestion of wastewater sludge. Water research 37(6): 1260-1269.

Alonso-Magdalena P, Morimoto, S, Ripoll, C, Fuentes, E, Nadal, A. 2006. The estrogenic effect of bisphenol A disrupts pancreatic beta-cell function in vivo and induces insulin resistance. Environmental health perspectives 114(1): 106-112.

Balmer ME, Poiger T, Droz C, Romanin K, Bergqvist PA, Muller MD, et al. 2004. Occurrence of methyl triclosan, a transformation product of the bactericide triclosan, in fish from various lakes in Switzerland. Environmental science & technology 38(2): 390-395.

Belfroid A, van Velzen M, van der Horst B, Vethaak D. 2002. Occurrence of bisphenol A in surface water and uptake in fish: evaluation of field measurements. Chemosphere 49(1): 97-103.

Bhargava H, Leonard P. 1996. Triclosan: Applications and safety. American journal of infection control 24: 209-218.

Blount BC, Silva MJ, Caudill SP, Needham LL, Pirkle JL, Sampson EJ, et al. 2000. Levels of seven urinary phthalate metabolites in a human reference population. Environmental health perspectives 108(10): 979-982.

Calafat AM, Kuklenyik Z, Reidy JA, Caudill SP, Ekong J, Needham LL. 2005. Urinary concentrations of bisphenol A and 4-nonylphenol in a human reference population. Environmental health perspectives 113(4): 391-395.

Calafat AM, Needham LL, Silva MJ, Lambert G. 2004. Exposure to di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate among premature neonates in a neonatal intensive care unit. Pediatrics 113(5): e429-434.

CDC. 2003. National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

CDC. 2005. National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

CERHR. 2000. NTP-CERHR expert panel report on di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) NTP-CERHR-DEHP-00: Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction.

CERHR. 2006. DRAFT NTP-CERHR report on the Reproductive and Developmental toxicity of Bisphenol A. draft report: NTP-CERHR.

Chuanchuen R, Beinlich K, Hoang TT, Becher A, Karkhoff-Schweizer RR, Schweizer HP. 2001. Cross-resistance between triclosan and antibiotics in Pseudomonas aeruginosa is mediated by multidrug efflux pumps: Exposure of a susceptible mutant strain to triclosan selects nfxB mutants overexpressing MexCD-OprJ. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy 45(2): 428-432.

Daughton CG. 2005. "Emerging" chemicals as pollutants in the environment: A 21st century perspective. Renewable resources journal 23(4): 6-23.

Duty SM, Calafat AM, Silva MJ, Brock JW, Ryan L, Chen Z, et al. 2004. The relationship between environmental exposure to phthalates and computer-aided sperm analysis motion parameters. Journal of andrology 25(2): 293-302.

Duty SM, Calafat AM, Silva MJ, Ryan L, Hauser R. 2005. Phthalate exposure and reproductive hormones in adult men. Human reproduction 20(3): 604-610.

Duty SM, Silva MJ, Barr DB, Brock JW, Ryan L, Chen Z, et al. 2003. Phthalate exposure and human semen parameters. Epidemiology 14(3): 269-277.

Ema M, Miyawaki E, Kawashima K. 1998. Further evaluation of developmental toxicity of di-n-butyl phthalate following administration during late pregnancy in rats. Toxicology letters 98(1-2): 87-93.

EPA. 1987. Oral RfD Assessment: Bisphenol A. Environmental Protection Agency, Integrated Risk Information System.

EPA. 2006. Inventory Update Reporting. Environmental Protection Agency.

EWG. 2007a. Human Toxome Project.

EWG. 2007b. Chemical Industry Consultant Runs Federal Reproductive Health Agency - Firm Tied to Dow, R. J. Reynolds Leads Review of Plastics Compound.

Fauser P, Vikelsoe J, Sorensen PB, Carlsen L. 2003. Phthalates, nonylphenols and LAS in an alternately operated wastewater treatment plant -- fate modelling based on measured concentrations in wastewater and sludge. Water research 37(6): 1288-1295.

FDA. 1996. Cumulative Exposure Estimated for Bisphenol A (BPA), Individually for Adults and Infants from Its Use in Epoxy-Based Can Coatings and Polycarbonate (PC) Articles Branch, HFS-245. (G. Diachenki PD, Division of Product Manufacture and Use, HGS-245, ed).

FDA. 2005. Non-Prescription Drugs Advisory Committee Meeting, October 20, 2005. Department of Health and Human Services, Food and Drug Administration, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, pp. 386.

FDA. 2005. Letter from George Pauli, Associate Director for Science and Policy, FDA's Office of Food Additive Safety, to California Assemblymember Greg Aghazarian. April 6 2005.

FDA. 2007. Cumulative Estimated Daily Intake/Acceptable Daily Intake Database.

Fiss EM, Rule KL, Vikesland PJ. 2007. Formation of chloroform and other chlorinated byproducts by chlorination of triclosan-containing antibacterial products. Environmental science & technology: in press.

Foran CM, Bennett ER, Benson WH. 2000. Developmental evaluation of a potential non-steroidal estrogen: Triclosan. Marine environmental research 50(1-5): 153-156.

Fromme H, Kuchler T, Otto T, Pilz K, Muller J, Wenzel A. 2002. Occurrence of phthalates and bisphenol A and F in the environment. Water research 36(6): 1429-1438.

Goodbred SL, Smith SB, Greene PS, Rauschenberger RH, Bartish TM. 2007. Reproductive and Endocrine Biomarkers in Largemouth Bass (Micropterus salmoides) and Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) from United States Waters U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 2006. Reston, Virginia: United States Geological Survey.

Gray LE, Jr., Ostby J, Furr J, Price M, Veeramachaneni DN, Parks L. 2000. Perinatal exposure to the phthalates DEHP, BBP, and DINP, but not DEP, DMP, or DOTP, alters sexual differentiation of the male rat. Toxicological sciences 58(2): 350-365.

Hanaoka T, Kawamura, N., Hara, K., Tsugane, S. 2002. Urinary bisphenol A and plasma hormone concentrations in male workers exposed to bisphenol A diglycidyl ether and mixed organic solvents. Occupational and environmental medicine 59(9): 625-628.

Hauser R, Meeker JD, Singh NP, Silva MJ, Ryan L, Duty S, et al. 2007. DNA damage in human sperm is related to urinary levels of phthalate monoester and oxidative metabolites. Human reproduction 22(3): 688-695.

Heath RJ, Li J, Roland GE, Rock CO. 2000. Inhibition of the Staphylococcus aureus NADPH-dependent enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase by triclosan and hexachlorophene. The Journal of biological chemistry 275(7): 4654-4659.

Houghton FD, Jr., Liu Y, Price C, Elm MS, Donovan M, Davis DL, et al. 2007. Estrogenicity of tissue extracts from white bass and channel catfish caught in the three rivers of Pittsburgh [abstract]. In: American Association for Cancer Research Annual Meeting: Proceedings. Los Angeles, CA: AACR, abstract 3458.

Hu JY, Aizawa T, Ookubo S. 2002. Products of aqueous chlorination of bisphenol A and their estrogenic activity. Environmental science & technology 36(9): 1980-1987.

Hunt PA, Koehler, KE, Susiarjo, M, Hodges, CA, Ilagan, A, Voigt, RC, Thomas, S, Thomas, BF, Hassold, TJ. 2003. Bisphenol A exposure causes meiotic aneuploidy in the female mouse. Current biology 13(7): 546-553.

Ishibashi H, Matsumura N, Hirano M, Matsuoka M, Shiratsuchi H, Ishibashi Y, Takao Y, Arizono K. 2004. Effects of triclosan on the early life stages and reproduction of medaka Oryzias latipes and induction of hepatic vitellogenin. Aquatic toxicology, 67(2): 167-79.

Jobling S, Reynolds T, White R, Parker MG, Sumpter JP. 1995. A variety of environmentally persistent chemicals, including some phthalate plasticizers, are weakly estrogenic. Environmental health perspectives 103(6): 582-587.

Kay J. 2006. San Francisco prepares to ban certain chemicals in products for tots, but enforcement will be tough -- and toymakers question necessity. San Francisco Chronicle November 19, 2006.

Knochenhauer ES, Key TJ, Kahsar-Miller M, Waggoner W, Boots LR, Azziz R. 1998. Prevalence of the polycystic ovary syndrome in unselected black and white women of the southeastern United States: a prospective study. The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism 83(9): 3078-3082.

Kohn MC, Parham F, Masten SA, Portier CJ, Shelby MD, Brock JW, et al. 2000. Human exposure estimates for phthalates. Environmental health perspectives 108(10): A440-442.

Kolpin DW, Furlong ET, Meyer MT, Thurman EM, Zaugg SD, Barber LB, et al. 2002. Pharmaceuticals, hormones, and other organic wastewater contaminants in U.S. streams, 1999-2000: A national reconnaissance. Environmental science & technology 36(6): 1202-1211.

Larson E, Aiello A, Lee LV, Della-Latta P, Gomez-Duarte C, Lin S. 2003. Short- and long-term effects of handwashing with antimicrobial or plain soap in the community. Journal of community health 28(2): 139-150.

Lindstrom A, Buerge IJ, Poiger T, Bergqvist PA, Muller MD, Buser HR. 2002. Occurrence and environmental behavior of the bactericide triclosan and its methyl derivative in surface waters and in wastewater. Environmental science & technology 36(11): 2322-2329.

Lores M, Llompart M, Sanchez-Prado L, Garcia-Jares C, Cela R. 2005. Confirmation of the formation of dichlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in the photodegradation of triclosan by photo-SPME. Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry 381(6): 1294-1298.

Main KM, Mortensen GK, Kaleva MM, Boisen KA, Damgaard IN, Chellakooty M, et al. 2006. Human breast milk contamination with phthalates and alterations of endogenous reproductive hormones in infants three months of age. Environmental health perspectives 114(2): 270-276.

Markey CM, Luque EH, Munoz De Toro M, Sonnenschein C, Soto AM. 2001. In utero exposure to bisphenol A alters the development and tissue organization of the mouse mammary gland. Biology of reproduction 65(4): 1215-1223.

Marsee K, Woodruff TJ, Axelrad DA, Calafat AM, Swan SH. 2006. Estimated daily phthalate exposures in a population of mothers of male infants exhibiting reduced anogenital distance. Environmental health perspectives 114(6): 805-809.

Marsman D. 1995. NTP technical report on the toxicity studies of Dibutyl Phthalate (CAS No. 84-74-2) Administered in Feed to F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice. Toxicity report series 30: 1-G5.

Marttinen SK, Kettunen RH, Sormunen KM, Rintala JA. 2003. Removal of bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate at a sewage treatment plant. Water research 37(6): 1385-1393.

McAvoy DC, Schatowitz B, Jacob M, Hauk A, Eckhoff WS. 2002. Measurement of triclosan in wastewater treatment systems. Environmental toxicology and chemistry 21(7): 1323-1329.

McMurry LM, Oethinger M, Levy SB. 1998. Overexpression of marA, soxS, or acrAB produces resistance to triclosan in laboratory and clinical strains of Escherichia coli. FEMS microbiology letters 166(2): 305-309.

Meeker JD, Calafat AM, Hauser R. 2007. Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate metabolites may alter thyroid hormone levels in men. Environmental health perspectives: in press.

Myers JP. 2006. Good genes gone bad. American Prospect, April 8, 2006.

Mylchreest E, Cattley RC, Foster PM. 1998. Male reproductive tract malformations in rats following gestational and lactational exposure to Di(n-butyl) phthalate: an antiandrogenic mechanism? Toxicological sciences 43(1): 47-60.

Mylchreest E, Sar M, Cattley RC, Foster PM. 1999. Disruption of androgen-regulated male reproductive development by di(n-butyl) phthalate during late gestation in rats is different from flutamide. Toxicology and applied pharmacology 156(2): 81-95.

Mylchreest E, Wallace DG, Cattley RC, Foster PM. 2000. Dose-dependent alterations in androgen-regulated male reproductive development in rats exposed to Di(n-butyl) phthalate during late gestation. Toxicological sciences 55(1): 143-151.

Nagel SC, vom Saal FS, Thayer KA, Dhar MG, Boechler M, Welshons WV. 1997. Relative binding affinity-serum modified access (RBA-SMA) assay predicts the relative in vivo bioactivity of the xenoestrogens bisphenol A and octylphenol. Environmental health perspectives 105(1): 70-76.

NTP. 2001. Endocrine Disruptors Low Dose Peer Review: National Toxicology Program, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health.

Oros DR. 2002. Identification and Evaluation of Previously Unknown Organic Contaminants in the San Francisco Estuary (1999-2001). RMP Technical Report: SFEI Contribution 75. Oakland, CA: San Francisco Estuary Institute.

Orvos DR, Versteeg DJ, Inauen J, Capdevielle M, Rothenstein A, Cunningham V. 2002. Aquatic toxicity of triclosan. Environmental toxicology and chemistry 21(7): 1338-1349.

Pait AS, Nelson JO. 2002. Endocrine Disruption in Fish: An Assessment of Recent Research and Results. NOAA Technical Memorandum NOS NCCOS CCMA 149. Silver Spring, MD: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.

Perencevich EN, Wong MT, Harris AD. 2001. National and regional assessment of the antibacterial soap market: a step toward determining the impact of prevalent antibacterial soaps. American journal of infection control 29(5): 281-283.

Purvis M, Gibson R. 2005. The Right Start: The Need to Eliminate Toxic Chemicals from Baby Products. Los Angeles: Environment California Research & Policy Center.

Rudel RA, Camann DE, Spengler JD, Korn LR, Brody JG. 2003. Phthalates, alkylphenols, pesticides, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and other endocrine-disrupting compounds in indoor air and dust. Environmental science & technology 37(20): 4543-4553.

Samsoe-Petersen L, Winther-Nielsen M, Madsen T. 2003. Fate and Effects of Triclosan. Danish Environmental Protection Agency.

Stahlhut RW, van Wijngaarden E, Dye TD, Cook S, Swan SH. 2007. Concentrations of urinary phthalate metabolites are associated with increased waist circumference and insulin resistance in adult U.S. males. Environmental health perspectives: in press.

Sugiura-Ogasawara M, Ozaki Y, Sonta S, Makino T, Suzumori K. 2005. Exposure to bisphenol A is associated with recurrent miscarriage. Human reproduction 20(8): 2325-2329.

Swan SH, Main KM, Liu F, Stewart SL, Kruse RL, Calafat AM, et al. 2005. Decrease in anogenital distance among male infants with prenatal phthalate exposure. Environmental health perspectives 113(8): 1056-1061.

Takeuchi T, Tsutsumi, O., Ikezuki, Y., Kamei, Y., Osuga, Y., Fujiwara, T., Takai, Y., Momoeda, M., Yano, T., Taketani, Y. 2006. Elevated serum bisphenol A levels under hyperandrogenic conditions may be caused by decreased UDP-glucuronosyltransferase activity. Endocrology journal 53(4): 485-491.

Tan L, Nielsen NH, Young DC, Trizna Z. 2002. Use of antimicrobial agents in consumer products. Archives of dermatology 138(8): 1082-1086.

TNO. 2005. Man-made chemicals in maternal and cord blood TNO-B&O-A R 2005/129. Apeldoorn, The Netherlands: TNO Built Environment and Geosciences.

Veldhoen N, Skirrow RC, Osachoff H, Wigmore H, Clapson DJ, Gunderson MP, et al. 2006. The bactericidal agent triclosan modulates thyroid hormone-associated gene expression and disrupts postembryonic anuran development. Aquatic toxicology 80(3): 217-227.

Vom Saal F, Hughes C. 2005. An extensive new literature concerning low-dose effects of bisphenol A shows the need for a new risk assessment. Environmental health perspectives 113(8): 926Ð933.

Wetherill YB, Petre, C. E., Monk, K. R., Puga, A., Knudsen, K. E. 2002. The xenoestrogen bisphenol A induces inappropriate androgen receptor activation and mitogenesis in prostatic adenocarcinoma cells. Molecular cancer therapeutics 1(7): 515-524.

Wine RN, Li LH, Barnes LH, Gulati DK, Chapin RE. 1997. Reproductive toxicity of di-n-butylphthalate in a continuous breeding protocol in Sprague-Dawley rats. Environmental health perspectives 105(1): 102-107.

Wolff MS, Teitelbaum SL, Windham G, Pinney SM, Britton JA, Chelimo C, et al. 2007. Pilot study of urinary biomarkers of phytoestrogens, phthalates, and phenols in girls. Environmental health perspectives 115(1): 116-121.

Wozniak AL, Bulayeva NN, Watson CS. 2005. Xenoestrogens at picomolar to nanomolar concentrations trigger membrane estrogen receptor-alpha-mediated Ca2+ fluxes and prolactin release in GH3/B6 pituitary tumor cells. Environmental health perspectives 113(4): 431-439.